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PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



JANUARY 



DECEMBER, 1895. 



VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

18 95. 



MaSRIson ano sons, 
pkinters in ordinary to her majesty. 

ST. martin's lane, LONDON. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President. 
P. LE Page Renouf. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, ALP. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbuiy. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball. 

Arthur Gates. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 

Charles Harrison, F. S.A. 

Gray Hiil. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 

Rev. James Marshall, 

Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 

Walter L. Nash, F.S.A. 

Prof. E. Naville. 

Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 

J. Pollard. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S., 

&c. 
E. Towry Whyte, ALA. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 
Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 
Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F. R.G.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Donations to Library 

Purchases for Library ] 

Nomination of CancUdates ... 

Election of Members 

Errata 

Notices of decease of Members 



I, 49, 96, 121, 122, 161, 162, 214 

2, 50, 96, 122, 163, 214 

2, 50, 96, 122, 163 

94 

95> 161, 213, 269 



No. cxxvi. January. 



Secretary's Report, 1894 ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year ending 

the 31st December, 1894 ... ... ... ... 4 

Council and Officers for the year 1895 ... ... ... 5 

P. LE Page Renouf {Presiiknt). The Book of the Dead. 
Additional Note to Chapter CIX ; also Chapters CXI- 

CXVI 6-15 

Robert Brown, Jr., F.S.A. Euphratean Stellar Re- 
searches, Part IV ... ... ... ... ... 16-36 

P. LE Page Renouf {Presidoit). The Bow in the 

Egyptian Sky (2) 37,38 

Prof. A. H. Sayce. The Karian and Lydian Liscriptions 39-43 
S. Arthur Strong. Additional Note on a Fragment of 



the Adapa-Legend 



44 



CONTENTS. ^ 

No. cxxvii. February. 

TACK 

V. LK Page Rexouf {President). The Book of the Dead. 

Chapter CX 51-56 

Rev. G. Margoliouth. The Divine Name XTvr\*^ ••• 57-63 
Theo. G. Pinches. The Lament of the " Daughter of 

Sin" ... ... ... ... ... 64-74 

Dr. M. Gaster. The Unknown Aramaic Original of 

Theodotion's Additions to the Book of Daniel (III. 

Commentary) ... ... ... ... ... ... 75-94 

No. cxxviii. March. 

P. LE Page Renouf {President). The Book of the Dead. 

Notes, Chapter CX ... ... ... ... ... 97-102 

Prof. E. Lefebure. Etude sur Abydos, un dialogue 
des Morts : le chapitre d'amener la Barque ; Traduction 
et Commentaire ... ... ... ... ... ... 103-119 

No. cxxix. April. 

P. le Page Renouf {President). The Book of the Dead. 

Chapters CXVII-CXXIII 123-129 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A. The Name Shinar, Genesis xi, 2 ; 

and the meaning of Jll^T in Genesis xliii, 11... ... 130 

S. Arthur Strong. Some Assyrian Alliterative Texts... 131-151 
Dr. A. Wiedemann. Inscription of the Time of Ameno- 

phis IV 152-158 

No. cxxx. May. 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A. The Testament of Jacob (Gen. 

xlix) 164-191 

P. LE Page Renouf {President), Note on Length and 

Breadth in Egyptian ... ... ... ... ... 191 

P. LE Page Renouf {President). The Book of the Dead. 

Cliapter CXXIV 192-194 



Yl CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Dr. a. Wiedemann. Two Monuments with a Votive 

Formula for a Living Person ... ... ... ... 195-198 

Walter L. Nash. Bronze Figure of Isis, with Silver 

Head-covering ... ... ... ... .•• ... 198 

Prof. Dr. Fritz Hommel. Assyriological Notes ... 199-207 
Prof. A. H. Sayce. Note to the Paper on Karian and 

Lydian Inscriptions (j.-f6' p. 39) ... ... •.• ..- 207 

P. Paul Pierret, La Coudee Royale du Musee Egyptien 

du Louvre ... ... ... ... ••• ••• 20S, 209 

NOS. CXXXI AND CXXXII. JUNE AND NOVEMBER. 

P. LE Page Renouf {Pftsident). The Book of the Dead. 

Chapter CXXV. Parts I and II 216-219 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. Sennacherib's Letters to his 

Father Sargon ... ... ... ... ... ... 220-239 

Miss M. A. Murray. The Descent of Property in the 

Early Periods of Egyptian History ... ... ... 240-245 

Alfred C. Bryant, B.A., and F. W. Read. Akhuen- 

aten and Queen Tii ... ... ... ... ... 246-250 

John E. Gilmore and P. le Page Renouf {President). 

Coptic Fragments (Gen. xiii and xiv, and Psalm cv) ... 251-253 
PkOF. Dr. Karl Piehl. Notes de Philologie Egyptienne 

{continued) ... ... ... ... ... ... 254-267 

No. cxxxiii. December. 

P. LE Page Renouf {President), The Book of the Dead, 

Chapter CXXV. Part III 273-277 

Theo. G. Pinches. Water Rate in Ancient Babylonia... 278, 279 
Prof. Dr. Aug. Eisenlohr. Egyptian Chronology ... 280-283 
Robert Brown, Jr., F.S.A. Euphratean Stellar Re- 
searches, Part V 284-303 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Karian and Lydian Inscriptions , . . 

The Lament of the "Daughter of Sin" (Tablet K. 41, 
British Museum). {Tivo plates) 

The Book of the Dead. Plates XXV, XXVI, XXVII, 
XXVIII, XXIX. {Five plates)... 

The Book of the Dead. Plate XXX 

Bronze Figure of Isis, the Head covered with Silver 

The Book of the Dead. Plate XXXI 

The Book of the Dead. Phte XXXII 



PACE 

40 

64 

128 
198 

2x6 

2 19 



VOL . XVII. Part i. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

6c^ 

VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 

First Meeting, January Ztli, 1895. 
[anniversary.] 



CONTENTS. 

I'AGE 

Secretary's Report, 1894 3 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year ending 31st 

December, 1S94 4 

Council and Officers for the Year 189^ 5 

P. Le Page Renouf {President).— 'YXx^ Book of the Dead, 

Additional Note to Chap.cr 109; also Chapters CXI-CXVI ... 6-15 
Robert Brown, Junr., F.S.A. — Euphratean Stellar Researches, 

Part IV 16-36 

P. Le Page Renouf {President). — The Bow in the Egyptian 

Sky (2) 37, 38 

Prof. A. H. Sayce. — The Karian and Lydian Inscriptions (//«/«) 39-43 
S. Arthur Strong. — Additional Note on a Fragment of the 

Adapa Legend 44 

*^ 

PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

189 5. 



[No. cxxvi.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Vol. 



I, Part 
I, 



11, 

II, 

III, 

III, 

IV, 

IV, 

V, 

V, 



Vol, 



I, 

II, 

III, 

IV, 

V, 

VI, 

VII, 

VIII; 

IX, 

IX, 

X, 

X, 

XI, 

XI, 

XII, 

XII, 

XIII, 

XIII, 

XIV, 

XIV, 

XV, 

XV, 

XVI, 

XVII, 



To 
Members. 

10 6 

lo 6 

8 o 

8 o 



10 
lO 
12 
lO 



Session 



To Non- 


Members. 


S. 


^. 


.. 12 


6 


12 


6 


.. lO 


6 


.. 10 


6 


.. lO 


6 


.. lO 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


• 15 


o 


12 


6 



To 
Members. 



Vol. 



VI, Part I 
VI, 



„ VII, 

„ VII, 

„ VII, 

,, VIII, 

,, VIII, 

,, VIII, 

„ IX, 

„ IX, 



PROCEEDINGS. 



Part 7, 
Parts I to 7, 
Part 8, 
Parts I to 7, 
Part 8, 
Parts I to 7, 
Part 8, 
Parts I CO 7, 
Part 8, 
Parts I to 7, 
Part 8, 
Parts I to 7, 
Part 8, 

Parts I to lo, 
In progress 



1878-79 

1879-80 

1 880-8 1 

1881-82 

1882-83 

1883-84 

1884-85 

1885-86 

1886-87 

1886-87 

1887-88 

1887-88 

1SS8-89 

1888-89 

1889-90 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1S90-91 

1891-92 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1895 



To Members. 

2 O 

2 O 

4 c 

4 o 

4 o 

5 o 
5 o 
5 o 
2 



o per Part 

o 

o 

6 

o 

6 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

o 



To Non- 
M embers. 

s. d 

12 

12 

10 

12 

12 

12 

12 



12 
12 
12 



To 

Non-Members. 
..26 



5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
2 

10 
2 

10 
2 

10 
2 
6 
2 
6 
2 
6 
2 
6 
2 
2 



A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may he 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held 
at 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C, on 
Tuesday, the 5th of March, 1895, ^^ ^ P-^""-> when the 
following Paper will be read : — 

P. le P. Renouf, President, " Human Sacrifice and 
the Theory of Substitution in Egyptian and 
other Aicient Religions." 

W. H. RY LANDS, Secretary. 



o/^^'/°u°''"'^ ^''''"'' ^^'"'" announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors:- 

From the Author, G. Maspero :-Histoire Ancienne des Peuples 
de I'Orient Classiquc Paris, 1895. 

From the Author, John D. Davis :-Genesis nnrl q. t 
Tradition. London, 1894. ' '"^ ^'"^'^'^ 

[No. cxxvi.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



, XIV, Parts I to 7, loyi-y^s 

, XIV, Parts, 1891-92 

, XV, Parts I to 7, 1892-93 

, XV, Part 8, 1892-93 

, XVI, Parts I to 10, 1893-94 

, XVII, In progress 1895 



6 o 

2 6 

6 o 

2 6 

2 6 



A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may 1k" 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Great 
Ruisell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



First Aleeting, Zth January^ 1895. 
[anniversary.] 

P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



-^e^^- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author, G. Alaspero : — Histoire Ancienne des Peoples 
de rOrient Classique Paris, 1895. 

From the Author, John D. Davis : — Genesis and Semitic 
Tradition. London, 1894. 

[No. cxxvi.] I A 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILTlOLOGV. [1S95. 

The following Candidate was submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting, 4th December, 
1894, and elected a Member of the Society : — 

Mrs. (larnet Botfield, c/o INIajor Garnett Botfield, Hong-Kong. 

The following Candidate was nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, 5th February, 1895 : — 

Rev. Henry Jones, St. John's Parsonage, Ashbourne, Derby. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 
The University Library, Giessen, Germany. 

Professor G. Bickell, of Vienna, was elected an Honorary 
Member of the Societ}-. 

The Secretary's Report, having been read by the Rev. 
R. Gwynne, was received and adopted. 

The Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year 
ending the 31st December, 1894, having been read and ex- 
plained by Mr. Thos. Christy, was received and adopted. 



A Paper was read by the Rev. G. Margoliouth, " On the 
meaning of the Divine Name Yahveh." 

Remarks were added by the Rev. Dr. Low\-, Rev. C. J. 
Ball, Theo. G. Pinches, Thos. T}'ler, M.A., and the President. 



Jan. 8] rROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

SECRETARY'S REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1894. 



In submitting to the Anniversary Meeting the statement of Receipts 
and Expenditure for the year just passed, I very much regret that con- 
tinued indisposition has prevented my furnishing at the same time the 
usual Report of the work done by the Society during the same period. 
This I shall hope to be able to supply at a future meeting, and will ask 
the kind forbearance of the Members. 

It will be seen from the Statement of Accounts of the Society, that 
the ordinary current expenses of Rent, Printing, etc., having been dis- 
charged, a very satisfactory balance is carried forward to the present 
year. 

To one or two other matters of considerable importance as regards 
the welfare of our Society I will briefly refer. In my last Report, as in 
those of former years, I asked the kind assistance of each individual 
Member in increasing- the roll of Members. I cannot too strongly urge 
the advantage to the present Members and those of the future, alike, 
which would result from a determined effort on their part. Many 
Members have very kindly replied, some very generously, to the request 
referring to the cost of printing Vol. IX of the Transactio7is. From the 
amount subscribed, however, it will be easily seen that no reply whatever 
has been received from a large number of our Members. I can only 
hope that this seeming indifference will be removed during the current 
year, by a marked increase in the donations. 

To matters connected with the Library and Offices I also referred in 
the last Report, to which I would again call the attention of the 
Members. 

Several applications have been made to me with regard to the 5th 
and completing Part of the " Bronze Ornaments of the Gates of 
Ealawat." I can only regret the continued delay in its issue. It was 
my intention to have completed the work by the issue of the final part 
during the vaccation of last year. Unfortunately I was taken ill in June, 
which has completely disturbed the whole of my plans. Immediately 
I am able I shall give my attention to the publication of the final part. 

W. Harry Rylands, 
Scax'tary. 



A 2 



Jan. 8] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCII.LOLOGV. 



[1S95. 



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TROCEEDINGS. 



[1895- 



The following Officers and Council for the current }'ear 
were elected : — 

COUNCIL, 1895. 



President. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF. 

Vice-Presidents. 
The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archuishop of York. 
The Most;Noble THE^^L\RQUESS OF Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 
The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hacknev. 
The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 
The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 
F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 
Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., 1\LD., &c. 
Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 
Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, Bart., G.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 
Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Councih 



Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Arthur Gates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L. S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S..^. 
Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D. , 
Rev. James Marshall. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



&c. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Walter L. Nash, F.S..\., &c. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 
J. Pollard. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 
E. Towry Wiiyte, M.A. 



Honorary Treasurer. 
Bernard T. Bosanquf.t. 

Secretary. 
W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Hon. Secretary for Foreign Correspondence. 
Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian. 
William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



AN. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S95. 

BOOK OF THE DEAD. 
By p. le Page Renouf. 



Additional Note to Chapter 109. 

The later copies of the Book of the Dead add a few lines to the 
chapter, of which they certainly formed no part when first written. 
The most interesting portion of them is as follows : — 

"There are writings in thy possession for the grant of fields of 
corn-land in which there sprouteth corn from the efifluxe s of the god 
Ut'eb. The height of the corn is seven cubits, the ears of two 
cubits ; and thou shall reap it with the Glorified ones, in presence 
of the Powers of the East. Thou shalt enter boldly at the mysterious 
portals and be purified by those who are there. " 

The name of the god hieroglyphically written Ah ^^ was shown 

by me (Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, p. 187) to be Uteb or Ut'eb. 
Brugsch, apparently without having seen my note, came to the same 
result, though he identified the god with Seb. The god is really 
Osiris, and the text just quoted is illustrated by a picture of which 
various copies are found. That here given is taken from the 
temple of Philae. 

These pictures were known from the Ramesside period, but the 

conception of Osiris which they convey rj"^! nill D 1 J| {Todt., 

142, 7) is of primitive antiquity. There is a chapter among the 
texts preserved by the Cofiin of Amamu (pi. xxvii, 6) about 

"assuming the form of corn,'' v5 v^ ' ' ' ^v\ ".Ci i, Jmtl 

which speaks of "the vegetation of life proceeding from Osiris, 
growing out of the ribs of Osiris, and giving life to this generation of 

/wwv\ \\ C ^ 

The same idea gave rise to the name n li "? r^ which is given 

to Osiris in the Book of the Dead, in the sacred texts of the Royal 

6 



menr V-^ t^ - ^ ^ f O ^^S^J^^° 




Jan. SJ PROCEEDIXGS. [1895. 

Tombs, and in the Hymn to the Nile. But the god is also twice 
called a '^ '^^ T 00 <>/[ ^" Amamii, pi. xxvii, S. This latter form 

proves that in ] I we have a compound term. 
D -A- I °° 
The deity (in very late times) appears in the feminine gender 

[The Chapter which in the printed copy of the Turin Todien- 
buch is numbered no interrupts the series of chapters on the 
Powers of certain localities. The translation of it is reserved till 
that of these chapters is completed.] 

CHAPTER CXI 

is only a repetition of Chapter loS. 

CHAPTER CXn. 

Chapter luhereby one kiwwcth the Poivers of Fu. (i) 

Oh thou of corpselike form who art in Chait and An pit : (2) 
thou goddess of the Net, (3) who art in Pu ; ye who preside over 
the untilled lands, ye stars and constellations (4) . . . Know ye 
wherefore Pu hath been given to Horus ? 

I know it if ye know it not. 

It was Ra who gave it to him in amends of the blindness in his 
eye, in consequence of what Rii said to Horus : " Let me look at 
what is happening in thine eye to-day," and he looked at it. 

Ra said to Horus, " Look, pray, at that black swine."' 

He looked, and a grievous mishap afflicted his eye. 

Horus said to Ra, " Lo, my eye is as though the eye of Suiu 
had made a wound in my own eye." And he grieved in his heart. 

And Ra said to the gods, " Let him be laid upon his bed, that 
he may recover." 

It was Sutu who had taken the form of a black swine, and he 
wrought the wound which was in the eye of Horus. 

And Ra said to the gods, "The swine is an abomination to 
Florus; may he get well." And the swine became an abomination 
to Horus. 

7 



Jan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1S95. 

And the circle of gods said, who were with him when Horus 
came to Hght in his own children: (6) "Let the sacrificiaH-ictims (7) 
for him be of his oxen, of his goats, and of his swine." 

As for Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautef, Kebhsenuf, Horus is their 
father and Isis their mother. 

And Horus said to Ra, "Give me then two (8) brothers in Pu 
and two brothers in Nechen, of this my own body ; and that tliey 
may be with me as an everlasting renewal, through which the earth 
flourisheth and storms are quenched." 

And his name became that of Horus upon his Column, 

I know the Powers of Pu : they are Horus, Emsta and Hapi. 

Notes. 

1. On the situation of/'//, see chapter iS, note 6. The Pyramid 
Texts (Pepi I, 684) speak of the i^ %, ^ 4]- % ° " tl'^ose of 
the Red Crown who are in Pu." 

2. Thou of corpselikc form in CJiait and AiipU. The sign of the 
plural, here as elsewhere, is quite consistent wiih its application to a 

single person. ]1 ^ CZ/rt-// is the name* of the i6th, or Men- 

desian, Nome of Northern P^gypt, and Anpit was its metropolis. The 
nome is mentioned in the inscription of Amten in the third dynasty. 
The god is Osiris. He is invoked in the "Lamentations of Isis and 
Nephthys," and asked to come to Tattu, Anpit and Chait, which are 
but different names of one Sanctuary, Cf. Brugsch, Zeitsclir., 187 1, 
p. 81, and his translation of the Mendesian Tablet, Zeitsc/ir., 1875. 

3. Thou goddess of the Net oA4|- ® (|[) ^ J| I . This name corres- 
ponds to the Greek Diktynna. The reason why a goddess repre- 
senting Heaven should be so called may be understood by the 
Homeric epithet Tro\vwTrdi> applied to a net. 

If, however, the deity was ?nale, according to the other reading, 
the reference is to to// T/yv ''lo-ffov rpo^i/nov A/ktlh', who was drowned 
in the river. Plut., de Isidc and Os., 8. 

4. Ye 7C'ho preside, etc. Brugsch {Zeilschr., 1876, p. 3) identifies 

with the ylriXoTOTTos- of the Demotic 



the Egyptian p^,p^^ 



* Not Hdniehit, which is the name both of the Uti of the nome and of the 
goddess worshipped in it, whose emblem is the fish "^^j) , 

8 ^ 



Jan. 8] , PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

and Greek contracts. The remainder of this invocation is so corrupt 
that the sense cannot be safely guessed at. 

5. See Herodotus, II, 47, without attaching too much importance 
to details. The pig was certainly not considered impure (fitapos) in 
the days of the third or fourth dynasty, when Amten, who had risen 
to the highest dignities, enumerates swine among the domestic 
animals it is natural to possess. And impure animals were not 
offered in sacrifice. But long before the days of Herodotus a change 
had taken place in the Egyptian religion as to the nature of Sutu. 

Plutarch and Aelian are to be read with the like caution. Some 
of their information is correct, but it is mixed up with much error. 

6. The variants ^5 ^ ^ 1 and '^ %:> ^ ^ J) I are note- 
worthy. 

7. Sacrifical victims [JM ''^'^P^ I. The substitution in Egypt 

of animal for human sacrifice is (I believe) entirely without foundation. 
And the supposed evidence of human sacrifices drawn from certain 
pictures has (I believe) been misinterpreted. 

8. The four children of Horus were also his brothers. He asks 
for /?£'(? of them to be with him in each of his two cities, Pu and 
Nechen. The true sense of the passage is entirely lost in the later 
recensions and in translations made from them. 



CHAPTER CXIII. 

Cliaptcr whereby one knoiueth tJie Foivcrs of Neclien. (i) 

I know the Mystery of Nechen : Horus, and that which his 
mother did (2) for him, when she herself uttered the cry : " Let 
Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, be brought to us." 

He cast the net for them and he found them, and his mother 
made them fast in their places. 

Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, said : " I sought and I found 
the traces of them under my fingers on the strand. I netted them in 
a powerful net, as the net proved to be." 

And Ra said : " Verily, those are fishes in the hands of Sebak. 
and he hath found the two arms of Horus for him, which had 
become fishes." (3) 

And Ra said : " A mystery, a mystery, in the Net." 

9 



Jan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCII.KOLOGV. [1895. 

And the hands of Horus were brought to him, and displayed 
before his face, on the feast of the fifteenth day of the month : 
when the fishes were produced. 

Then Ra said : " I grant Nechen to Horus, in the place of his 
two arms ; that his two hands be displayed before his face in 
Nechen ; and I grant to him whatsoever is therein comprised on the 
feast of the fifteenth day of the month." 

And Horus said : " Be it granted to me that Tuamautef and 
Kebhsenuf be taken with me, and that they be guards of my body 
in dutiful service. (4) Let them be this under the god of Nechen." 
And Ra said : Be that granted to thee, there and in Sati, and let 
that be done for them which is done for those who are in Nechen ; 
yea, they are asking to be with thee. 

And Horus said : Be they with thee, so that they l)e with me to 
listen to Sutu invoking the Powers of Nechen : " Be it granted to 
me that I may make my entry among the Powers of Nechen." 

I know the Powers of Nechen: they are Horus, Tuamautef, 
and Kebhsenuf. 



Notes. 



1. Nechen, the chief hieroglyphic variants ot which are 

/vw/v. and ® , was situated in the third nome ( /Q\ Ten) of 

Upper Egypt, and was called by the Greeks Hieraconpolis, 'city of 
the Hawks,' from the hawk-headed divinities mentioned in this 
chapter as Powers of Nechen, and of which numberless pictures are 
found on the monuments. 

2. Between these words and those wliich the three old papyri* 
Aa, Ac, and Il>, which unfortunately do not agree together on all 
points, have a few passages here which do not appear in the later 
papyri. They read, " Horus and what his mother did, tossing in 

distressful agitation (^ "^v 1\ \j^ , KIJUL, aaX^viaOui) over the 

water." The mother then addresses persons who are not named, 
in words of which the sense is not clear; and Ra speaks words of 

*" There is a copy of the chapter in the tomb of Cha-em-hait, which is our 
oldest authority. But it is unfortunately mutilated, and all that can be said is, 
tliat if the additional words were once there, they have been destroyed. 

10 



Jan. S] proceedings. [1S95. 

which the only certain ones are "the son of Isis." Then foUowb 
the usual text. 

3. This legend of Nechen is connected with that of the dis- 
memberment of Horus (to Trefu Thi>"Qf)ov cia^c\i(T^iuv), of which \ve 
have but very scanty information.* It must have been like a repe- 
tition of what had happened to his father Osiris. The limbs of 
Horus had been thrown into the water, and when Sebak threw his 
net, at the prayer of Isis, he brouglit up two fishes, into which the 
arms of Horus had been turned. 

Reminiscences of this story are preserved in the names of several 

localities, •^^^^i^', "Two Fish," is the name of the J/<?r of the second 



Northern Nome, and of \.h.Q pe/m of the seventeenth Southern Nome ; 



just as -<2>-, "Two Eyes," is the name of \\\G:pehji of the eleventh 

Northern Nome. The latter name may perhaps have reference to 
Osiris, but the same stories were probably told of both divinities. 

4. On dutiful service [I , a word omitted in the Turin 

and other texts. Brugsch {Rev. Egypt., I, 22) has discussed the sense 
of this word, and quoted numerous passages in illustration of it. 

It is of course ridiculous to identify the word with the Hebrew 
7^t^,the meaning of which is radically different. 

CHAPTER CXIV. 

Chapter ivhereby one knoweth the Powers of Hcrinopolis. 

Maat is borne (i) over the Arm, (2) and Neith dawneth at 
Ment'ait, (3) and the Eye is illumined {4) by the one who adjustclh 
its level. 

I am led in by her, and I know what she bringeth from Kasu. (5) 
I tell it not to men ; I repeat it not to gods. 

I am come as a messenger of Ra, to make fast Maat upon the 
Ani), for the dawning of Ncith at Ment'ait, and for restoring the 
Eye to him who taketh the reckoning thereof. 

I am come as omnipotent through the knowledge of the Powers 
of Hermopolis, who love the Powers which you love. 

* The Apis tablets {Zeitschr., 1S82, p. 22) give tlie name of a place Fa-litrk- 
cn Hor, which seems to refer to this catastrophe ; the Coptic KOpX, KCUpX 
corresponding to the Greek kKKOiTTUv, tKK\ai>, KaTaaTrdaOai. 

II 



Jan. S] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL AUCII.LOLOGV. [iSq;. 

I am one acquainted with Maat made firm and permanent and 
reckoned out, and I take delight in reckoning out that which is 
reckoned. 

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis, small at the beginning of the 
month and great upon the Fifteenth Day ; Ra teacheth the mysteries 
of Night, and be it known to you that he who teacheth me is Thoth. 

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis as I know you. 

Notes. 

There are two chapters (i 14 and 1 16) of " the Powers of Hermo- 
polis," and they have been preserved separately both in the older 
and in the more recent papyri. They are very similar in thought 
but differently worded, and each throws a certain light upon the 
other, without however dispelling the obscurity of this very ancient 
religious compositioPi, Some farther help, however insufficient, is 
afforded by the pictures of the Book which records the passage of 
the Sun-god through the twelve hours of the night. 

,_ _ . , n o^m • , , n ' '''■ ' rW- , 

I. Alaat IS borne. I 1 w 1 is the same word as I /^ , the 

1 i, a 1 r— rr-i ] 



reduplicated form of \\ ^ to gusJi, spr'nit; forth. But in certain 



cases it acquires the sense of being borne., or conveyed.^ and is written 

I v^ in Ptolemaic inscriptions. The corresponding word in 

chapter 116 is It v\ , which has the same meanintis. One 

of the pictures above alluded to (Lefebure, Hypogces, Tombeau de 
Seti, part IV, pi. 31) represents a boat carrying the Moon-disk, 
raised upon a stand. 

A personage kneeling behind is supporting the feather of Maat. 

The words l11^ \ci , which are written by way of ex])lanation, 

might give rise to some misunderstanding were it not for considera- 
tions mentioned in the following note. 

2. T/ie Arm i^^:^^ in chaiJter 114 has for corresponding word 
9 v\ in chapter 116, implying that Arm is to be taken 



in a geographical sense, as when we speak of an 'arm of the sea.' 
Now the pictures which have been sj^oken of have the words 

12 



Jav. S] proceedings. [1S95. 

^T--~Si ^^ —"— , 'arm of the Urnes,' inscribed ever the stream down 



which the Sun-god takes his nightly journey. 

These pictures have only the value of a commentary on a very 
ancient text, but they are at least as old as the earliest papyrus 
which contains the text. 

3. Ment'ait (K^ o^ ' ^^ ^^^ ancient reading in chapter 114, 



but the later texts have !^ 1 I", Tar. Chapter 116 has y 
<rz=» O ^ 

^^ o ,, , . 
Ok^ ^ 5 J^lat an. 

4. Illuiiiiiicd. The texts are discordant as to the reading. I 
follow that of the two old papyri which have ? 1 — ^ ; though this 

A o y 

orthography, however defensible, is somewhat suspicious. 

K. Kasu. KSJ 1 , the 'Burial Place,' was the metropolis of 

yrwA <«> 

the 14th Nome of Southern Egypt. Dendera is called iTJ D 



"^^Tfl^ 1<^ and in more ordinary characters (I v\ 

X n ° I 6^ • ^^^^ very many other geographical names, it has 
the feminine form in o, as well as the masculine in 



CHAPTER CXV. 

Chapter ivherehy one cometh forth into Heaven, and openeth the 
Avunehit: and whereby the Powers of Heliopolis are knoivn. 

I have grown from yesterday, a Great one among the Great. I 
have raised myself above all things that come into being. 

The Face is revealed to the Eye of the Only One, and the round 
of darkness is broken through. I am one of you. 

I know the Powers of Heliopolis. Dolh not the All-ijowerful 
One (i) issue from it like one who extendeth a hand to us? 

It is with reference to me that the gods say : Lo, the afflicted 
one is heir of Heliopolis ! 

I know on what occasion the I>ock of the Male child (::) was 
made. 

13 



Jax. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHyEOLOaV. [1895. 

Ra was speaking with Amhauf, (3) and a blindness came upon 
him. 

Ra said to Amhauf : Take the spear, oh offspring of Men. (4) 
And Amhauf said : The spear is taken. 

Two brethren came into being : they were Heb-ril and Sotem- 
anes, whose arm resteth not ; and he assumed the form of a female 
with a lock, which became the Lock in Heliopolis. 

Active and powerful is the heir of the temple ; the Active one 
of Heliopolis. The flesh of his flesh (5) is the All-seer, for he hath 
the might divine as the Son whom the Father hath begotten. And 
his will is that of the Mighty one of Heliopolis. 

I know^ the Powers of Heliopolis ; they are Rii, Shu and Tefnut. 

Notes. 

The ancient text of this chapter has most unfortunately been 
lost. A few words only remain in the fragments of Papyrus Pm. 
M. Naville has also published what is found on an ostracon of the 
time of the XVHIth dynasty. There is no doubt that the form 
of the text which has been handed down in the later papyri has 
suffered great alterations. And a comparison between the Turin 
and Cadet papyri shows in how untrustworthy a way this later form 
of the text has been transmitted. 

Special attention has been given to this chapter by Mr. Goodwin 
{Zeifschr., 1873, p. 104), and by M. Lefebure {Melanges d'Arch., 
1874, p. 155), whose work is very much more valuable than that of 
his English colleague. But the most important study bearing on 
the relations between the older and the more recent recension is 
that of M. Naville, 'Un ostrakon e'gyptien,' in the first volume of 
the Annales dii Musee Guimet. 

I. All powerful One, -^^ c^ ^. M. Naville observes that this 
is substituted for -^^ _->^ , which is found on the ostrakon. 



Both terms are divine names ; the latter corresponding to the Greek 
7ro\vfif>K)'i>f or 77rn'r<y)A.)yv, was the title of the high priest of Heliopolis 
who, like his priestly colleagues all over Egypt, bore the titles of the 
god whom they represented. 

2. TAe Lock of the Male child, Q vj v ^i Yh '^^^^ _^^ , is not 

a ' curly wigged woman,' as generally interpreted, but the side lock 

14 



JAN. 8] rROCEEDIXGS. [1895. 

borne by Horus, and princes and princesses, as well as by other 
l)riests and priestesses, in honour of Horus. 

3. Avihaiif^ of whom nothing else is known, is called 'king' 
only by a fault of transcription in MSS. 

4. O offspriiv:;. I follow the Papyrus Luyne in omitting the 
I)reposition <rr>. 

5. The flesh of his flesh, or the heir of his heir. This may 
Ijerhaps be an assertion as to the hereditary succession of the high 
priest of Heliopolis. 

CHAPTER CXVI. 

Cliapter 7oherel>y one hnoiveth the Power of Herniofolis. 

Neith dawneth forth in Mat'at, and Maat is conveyed upon the 
Arm of the Eater of the Eye by him who reckoncth it out. 

I know it, and I am therefore led in through the Sem priest. 

I tell it not to men, T repeat it not to the gods (and conversely). 

I enter as one who knoweth not, and seeth not. 

Hail, ye gods who are in Hermopolis. Know ye me as I know 
Neith, that the Eye may be made firm and permanent. I take 
delight in reckoning out that which is reckoned. 

I know the Powers of Hermopolis who are great at the beginning 
of the month, and diminished at the fifteenth day. 

They are Thoth the Unseen, Sau and Tmu. 

If this chapter be knoivii, filth is avoided, and lye is not drunken. 

Note. 

This is the last of the chapters concerning the Powers of certain 
places. Of their positive antiquity there can be no doubt, whatever 
alterations they may have undergone. But they are relatively 
modern with respect to other chapters, e.^., the 17th. Mr. Goodwin 
used to compare them with Christian legends of the medireval 
])eriod. These are ancient enough as far as we ourselves are 
concerned, but no one would think of judging by them of i)rimitivc 
Christianitv. 




15 



Jan. SJ SOCIErV OF BIBLICAL ARCII.^OLOG V. [1895. 



EUPHRATEAN STELLAR RESEARCHES. 

By Robert BroWxV, Junr., F.S.A. 

Tart IV. The Tahld JF.A.I., Ill, Ivii, No. 5. 
Another much mutilated fragment of this Inscri])tion refers to 
portents and circumstances connected with the rising of Dilbat 
{Venus), the constellation Mastabba (apparently " the 7V{:7//.r," near 
Sibzianna, which were probably c and e Virginis. Vide Proceedings 
May, 1893, p. 322), the star Zibajiituv (vide i>if., p. 23), the star 
Tsir ("the SerpeJit," y Serpenfar/i), the star I)ir ('Vermilion,' 
probably Anta?-es), the constellation Ak. Sutiib, As. Aim ("the 
Yoke" = " the Goat-fish ") and " the Star of Merodax " {Bilgan^ 
Capella). The portion of the heavens, therefore, specially under 
view is mainly that which extends from V'irgo to Capella. The 
Tablet then proceeds : — 

I. x.^,^^ ^I ^£E< A^ <H<!E ^-^>f 

Kakkab ' Su - zak - Gud ; elim, kakkab 

The star Right- hand-of -the- JTorned-biill, tlie-constcllation 



Ux 

tlie- Worm 



fabba"! 
\nap J 

r f the-sca 
-'f [light 



The first star in As. is Ka/ii aniutu A/pi karinii. The Ak. elim 
signifies "a horned animal," and hence is rendered in As. by di/ann, 
'gazelle.' The Rev. Wm. Houghton has excellently explained 
the ideograph, which reads 'foot' -+ 'water' + 'tear,' as referring 
to the Gazella sub-gutturosa''' ; and Ea himself is " the Lusty- 
gazelle" and the "Gazelle-god" (vide W.A.I., II, Iv, 31-33), 
whilst, as Prof. Sayce informs me, ^* t ; <!*" is also explained as 
' Belu,' so that we might possibly render Gud-clini " the Bull of 

■■' \'ide Transactions, \"I, 473. 
16 



Jan. 8] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Be!." There would be nothing specially strange in this, as in the 
Gilgames Epic we read of "the Bull of Anu," which was slain by 
(iilgames and Ea-bani. But it is certainly preferable to understand 
elim here as signifying "a horned creature"; and this being was 
bovine, and also had "a hand"; in a word we have before us the 
constellation of the Centaur. As Berosos tells us, when speaking of 
the primeval Darkness and Chaos, the mystical Scorpion-and-Dragon 
period : — " Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and 
horns of goats [Satyrs] ; some had horses' feet, while others united 
the hind quarters of a horse with the body of a ?)!an. Bulls likewise 
were bred then with the heads of men* and dogs, with fourfold 
bodies, terminated in their extremities with the tails of fishes [like 
Capricorn\ In short, there were creatures in which were combined 
the limbs of every species of animals. Of all which were preserved 
delineations in the temple of Belos."t Most of the composite 
creatures of the monuments, e.g., the winged and human-headed 
bulls of Khorsabad, are too familiar for special reference ; and their 
symbolism, whether as combinations of wisdom and strength, or of 
evil, malignity, and ferocity, e.g., the Demon of the South-west 
wind,:}: is sufficiently obvious. Sometimes we meet with the Man- 
lion ; or, again, with fantastic creatures combining lion, eagle, 
gryphon, ram, etc., in a single form. The Man-bull is very 
prominent, and Ea-bani, the bull-slayer, although not strictly speaking 
a centaur, is yet always represented with the horns, feet, and tail of 
a bull. 

Again, the expression " Horned-bull," may seem peculiar, but 
it is, as a fact, the exact name of the Urus [Bos primigenius), the 
Ak. ^w-// ("Horned-wild-bull"), As. i?/w?/, Heb. Rem (the 'Uni- 
corn' of the A. v.), i.e., the creature with huge horns; and it is 
perhaps still more singular that this very name is reproduced by 
.'\ratos, and applied by him to the zodiacal Taurus : — 

" The horned Bull (Kepaov TaCpov) fallen near the Driver's feet.''§ 

* Vide ?■/{/:, p. 19. t CJnildaika, i, 4. 

X A statue in the I-ouvre shows "this tyrant of the atmosphere. One can 
Iiardly imagine anything more frightful than his grinning, quasi-human counten- 
ance, resembling a death's head in some of its lines"; with "great round eyes 
and goat's horns . . . meagre body . . . hands large and flat, the fingers short and 
blunt, while the feet are a curious combination of human extremities with the 
talons of a bird of prey " (Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, of Art in Chaldaea and 
Assyria, Eng. tran., Vol. ii, p. 80. As to the feet, cf. Fig. II). 

§ Phainomeiia, 167 ; vide Proceedings, February, 1890, p. 1S6, Fig. I. 

17 H 



Tan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCH/liOLOGY. [1S95. 

In further illustration of the passage I will next refer to the 
description of the Centaur by Aratos : and I think we shall arrive 
at some very curious and interesting results. iVratos says, in a 
passage which I have previously quoted {Procecdifigs, Februar}', 189c, 
p. 202) that the Centaur underlies two Signs, the "human part" 
being below the Scorpion, and " the hinder-horse-part " below the 
Claws. His "right-hand," i.e., the kakkah Suzak, is stretched out 
before the Altar and grasps the Wild-beast, which is included in the 
constellation. The tail of Hydra, also, is stretched over him, and 
his mighty back is on the Tropic of Capricorn. With the Scorpion 
come the Centau?-''s head and body. 

"and the Wild-heast, uhich 
The Centaur's right hand holds. But there await 
The coming Bow the Centaur's foremost feet ;'"' * 

'iTTTToTfl ^i]()o^, lit. " of the Horse-monster. When the Water- 
pourer rises, 

" Sign-potent Night draws Centaur by the tail. 
His breastplate and his head and shoulders broad 
As yet she cannot take." + 

" The Cetitaur, too, when first the Fishes rise, 
She quickly swallows." X 

P'rom the foregoing account it is clear that the figure of the 
constellational Centaur which Aratos had before him was, in all 
probability, not that of the ordinary Classical type, but represented 
a creature whose forelegs and feet were those of a man. And this 
becomes practically certain when we consider the centaur-figure 
represented on the famous chest of Kypselos, and remember that the 
Hellenic stellar Centaur was Cheiron (" the Skilful," lit. ' Handy '), 
an adept in the arts of hunting, medicine, music, prophecy, and 
astronomy, a pupil of Apollon, and an instructor of heroes. >5 
Kypselos, despot of Korinth, whose 30 years of sway began about 
li.c. 658, received his name from the chest (fci'Y^tX*/) in which he 
had been concealed when an infant. || This famous coffer, made of 

* Phainomena, 661-3. t Ibid. 695-7. X Ibid. 700-1. 

§ For detailed consideration of Centaurus, vide R.B.Jr., Eiidanus, River 
and Constellation, Sec. X. It is amusing to find Sir I. Newton maintaining thai 
Cheiron "delineated the constellations and was a practical astronomer" (vide 
Sir G. C. Lewis, Astron. of the Ancients, p. 73). 

I! Vide Herodotos, v. 92. 

18 



JAX. 8] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1895. 



cedar-wood, ivory and gold, and " richly adorned with figures in 
relief," had, long ere his time, descended as a precious heirloom in 
his family ; and we therefore see that the designs upon it must have 
been of a very archaic type. At the time of the traveller Pausanias 
this chest was one of the treasures of the temple of Hera at Olympia, 
and he has left us a fairly full description of it. He says : — "And 
there is a centaur, not with all his feet horses' feet, for his forefeet 
are those of a man. . . And the tradition about the centaur is, 
that Cheiron, although he had been removed from men, and had 
been thought worthy to be a companion with the gods, returned to 
earth to comfort Achilleus."* We thus see what was the special 
form of the Cheiron depicted on the chest of Kypselos, and of the 
Centaur of Aratos, and now, fortunately, by the aid of two engraved 
stones from Western Asia, figured by Lajard,t I am enabled to 
carry back this special constellational group of Centaur and Wild- 
heast to within measurable distance of regions Euphratean. 




Fig. I. — GuD-ELiM and the Wild-beast. 
(Centaurus and Lupus, i.st type.) 

Fig. I shows the Centaur, horned {i.e., eliin)X and winged, with 
his fore parts those of a man {i.e., like the centaurs of Aratos and 
Kypselos), kneeling on one knee, in the familiar Gilgames attitude, 
which has been preserved in the constellation Engonasin (Herakle?- 

* Pausanias, V, xix, 2. t Culte dc jMit/tra, PI. cxviii, Figs. 19, 20. 

% The horned, bearded, and human-headed Bull appears on a fragment of an 
engraved shell found by M. de Sarzec at Tello \Dccoiivertes en Clialdee, pi. 66, 
Fig. 4), and is thus a very archaic Euphratean concept. Such a representation 
ai once recalls the bearded, human-headed, Dionysiac Bull figured on some 
Greek coins (vide R. B , Jr., 71ie Great Diotiysiak Myth, i, ;^()o et seq.); and is one 
of the innumerable links which connect Dionysos with the Euphrates \''alley 
(vi^le Proceeainqs, April, 1892, pps. 300-I ; and the excellent remarks of the late 

19 B 2 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.'EOLOGY. [1895. 

Hercules), and holding up by the hind legs the IVild-beast, the 
kakkah tjrhat ("constellation Beast-of-deatk" vide Proceedings, Feb.. 
1890, p. 202), in this instance a boar, the animal hostile to the solar 
Adonis. Fig. II shows the Centaur, horned and winged, with human 




Fig. II. — GuD-ELiM and the Wild-heast. 
(Centaurus and Lupus, 2nd type.) 

forelegs, but his forefeet those of eagles, a farniliar Euphratean 
type ;* and holding up by the forelegs the Wild-beast, in this 
instance a lion.t The animal-part of the body of the creature 
resembles in each case that of a horse. Another curious example 
of the Centaur is given by Cesnola,+ which he describes thus: — 
"Another quaint toy of terra-cotta represents a centaur. On the 
head is a high helmet [the Centaur of Aratos wears a breast-platej, 
the crest of which is like a cock's comb [a solar emblem] ; a small 
buckler, with a cross device, is on the left arm ; the right arm is in 
the act of brandishing a now lost weapon." This weapon reappears 
in the Thyrsus-spear of the Ptolemaic Centaurus, which has become 
the simple spear of the modern constellation-figure, and with this 
he now transfixes the IVi id-beast, which in Greece and the West 
naturally became the JVoif. That the wise Centaur Cheiron, who 

Fox Talbot, Transactions, II, 33, on the origin of the name ' Dionysos '). The 
star /tT-^ (ty^ ?) < ^'-Tr<T'- , Gud-elim, is mentioned in the much mutilated 
fragment IV. A. I. Ill, Ivii, No. 9, 1. i, in connection with Allah (probably 
Alphard, "The Solitary," a Hydrae) and Lik-gula ('The Great-dog' = 'Hon,' 
I.eo). 

* Vide Canon Rawlinson, And. Monarchits, ii, 31 ; Periot and Chipiez, 
Hist, of Art in Chaldaea, Vol. ii, Fig. 87. 

t Vide R. B., jr., Rridanns, Appendix III. The Sun-god and the Lion. 

:;: Salamima, p. 243, Fig. 23-. 

20 



Jan. 8] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

sprung from Kronos and a daughter of Okeanos, is, at all events 
so far as art goes, connected with the wise, unanthropomorphic 
Ea-bani (" Ea-made-me "), who "was believed to have originally 
ascended out of the abysses of the sea,"* is sufficiently obvious. t 
In both Figs. I and II, the right hand of the Centaur, the Kakkab 
Suzak, is much in evidence, and grasps the Wild-beast exactly as 
described by Aratos. The Wild-beast of Aratos was probably 
depicted head upwards, as in Fig. II, like the /^F//^/-/w?j"/' of Ptolemy, 
and the Lupus of a modern map. 

The general treatment of the figures on the Chest of Kypselos, 
was distinctly oriental. Thus Pausanias observes: "Artemis, I kfimi.' 
not on luliat account [I.e., it was contrary to the general canons of 
Hellenic art] has wings at her shoulders, and in her right hand she 
holds a leopard, and in her left a lion." This is thoroughly in the 
spirit of Western Asia. The figures on the monuments represented 
as holding up various animals are too familiar for special reference. 

Line i is unfortunately mutilated, so that the full name of the 
second constellation referred to can only be conjectured. In As. it 
is apparently to be read Clplu nuri (" The-Worm-of-light ") or Uplu 
tamti (" The Worm-of-the-Sea"). In the latter case the reference 
may perhaps be to Hydra, " Lerna's worm," the tail of which, as 
noticed, extended over Ceiitaurus. The Rev. Wm. Houghton has 
some interesting remarks + on the ideographs -<^'-'-y, "a small 
worm," and -<^'"'^yyy, ' worm,' the archaic type of the former 
character showing brightness (a star) in a circle, and probably 
originally referring "to some species of glow-worm." As the Nahru 
Tsiri (" River-of-the-Snake"), the Nahru ap.H rabi (" River-of-the- 
Great-abyss"), is the Milky Way,§ "the \Vorm-of-light" may perhaps 
be the TaXa^ia?. The constellation Centaurus, of which the Wild- 
beast was a part, extended up to Ara, including what is now the 
constellation Norma (the J^ule), which dates from 1752. Centaurus,' 
therefore, as well as Ara, included a portion of the Milky ^Vay, which 
is likened by Manilius to a cloud of incense ascending from the 
Altar ; — 

'^ Ara ferens turis, stellis imitunlibus ignem."|| 

* Smith and Sayce, Chaldean Acconiil of Genesis, p. 205. 
t Vide R.B., Jr., Eridanus, p. 25. J Transactions, VI, 480. 

§ Vide R.B., Jr., The Milky Way in Eitphratean Stellar Mythology {^\xv The 
Academy, Jan. 9, 1892). 
II Astron., v, 340. 

21 



Jan. 8] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1S95. 



..... --{^>f V^ ^<^ •^TI <I^ ... 

Kakkabi Gu - si - sa ... 

. . . the-siars of -the- Leading- Urn . . . 

Gu is the Urn, the Amphora of A<juari2is (vide Proceedings, 
May, 1893, p. 340), and appears as such in the Tablets of the 
Greek period of Babylonian astronomy.* With Gusisa cf. Kaksisa 
{Ibid., April, 1892, p. 286). We have seen reason {Ibid., Jan., 1890, 
p. 142) to identify "the Star (or constellation) of the Foundation" 
with Skat {c Aqiiarii), also called Sakib ("the Pourer"), and the 
adjoining stars ; and have noticed that the winter solstice was one 
natural commencement of the year. This consideration throws 
light upon the expression "the Urn, the Leader ;" and its stars will 
be those of the Urn of Aquarius, and probably also those in " the 
flow of the water " from it, to use the expression of Ptolemy. The 
Urn is frequently figured on the monuments.f 
3. ... the'-star Right-hand-of-the-Horned-hull, the-god . . . 

4. --^>f B -Ul A"^ <^^^ -Hh J^^T ^\^ 

Kakkab Su - gub - Gud - elim, 'ilu Iz - si, 

The-star Left-hand-of-the-Horned-buU, the Fiery-oJie, {and) 

-ty^ ^]]^ -^y ^>f -^r <r- ^IIT^ w 

kakkab Zi - ba - an - na innamar - u ; 3 
the-star Boundary - of- heaven are - seen ; three 

(t lacuna, tj ?) 
(rabi) 
{great) 

"The Star of the Left-hand^' is alluded to in W.A.I. Ill, lix, 
No, 15, Rev. 1. 13, and is there mentioned next to the Scorpion, 
a circumstance which tends to connect it with the part of the 
heavens occupied by Ccntaurus. It is probably a Liipi, and we 
may observe that a star will naturally be called 'great' by a 
comparatively rude astronomical observer, not in comparison with 
rhe other stars generally, but as contrasted with those in its own 
immediate neighbourhood. 

* Vide Epping and Strassmaier, Bahylonlsche Mondheobachtungen aus den 
Jahren 38 unci 79 der Selatciden-Acra (in the Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie, 
Dec, 1892, p. 223). 

t For instances, vide R.B., Jr., Tlic Law of Kosinic Oraer, p. 84. 

22 



kakkabi 
stars 



Ian. 8] PROCEP:DINr,S. [1895. 

Izsi := Mars (vide Proceedings, May, 1893, p. 319). 
Speaking against the view which identifies Zibanna with El-zubcna 
("the Claws"), Professor Oppert remarks, " Zibanm^ est un 'sumer- 
sches Lehnwort ' (Delitzsch) de Ziba-anna, et ne saurait donner 
'eu a aucun calembour arabe, pour y trouver la balance."* I have 
held, with Professors Oppert and Sayce, that Zibanna = Saturn (vide 
Proceedings, May, 1893, p. 322), and the passage before us appears 
to speak of 3 stars, not constellations, namely (i) a particular star in 
the Centaur ; (2) Mars, and (3) Saturn ; nor, if we are to read rabi, is 
it easy to see how in any sense « and j3 Librae could fairly be called 
'great' But, although I think it is clear that there is no linguistic 
connexion between the names Zibanna and Zubcna, yet there may 
have been some special connexion between Zibanna, Saturn, and 
the constelation of the Altar, afterwards known as the Claws. For, 
in the Te Tablet the special star of the 7th month is ' Ziba '- {lacuna), 
and the passage IV. A. I., V, xxvi, 11-12 would appear to show some 
connexion between ^T^, Nk. bir, As. niiru, 'light' (vide Proceedings, 
March, 1891, p. 260 et seq.), and the libbu sa zibaniti, whatever 
may be the exact meaning of the latter expression. I have noticed 
the special connexion between Saturn and the Sun {Ibid., p. 248). 
and that the feeble autumnal sun is reduplicated in the faint light of 
the stellar and zodiacal Ara {Ibid., p. 261) ; Saturn as Zibanna, may 
therefore be specially connected with Ara {-^Libra), Prof. Oppert 
translates the name " Life-of-heaven," but this would rather be Zi-anna 
{e.g., Sib-zi-anna). If we are to read Zi-ba-anna (and not Zibantia), 
the name may mean "Life-maker-of-heaven," an epithet apparently 
primarily solar, and so very applicable to the solar, circular Altar. 

5- ^^K>f Jr:^^! *^r^T ^^^>f <EE -]ll ^]^ <H<E 

Kakkab Iz - si, kakkab Ner-gub-Gud- elim 
The-star the Fiery-one, The-sfar Left-foot-of-the-Harned-bull {and) 



-HF- -TIX^ -^r ->f 


-^T 


<v m^ 


t^^>f 


'ilu Zi - ba - an 


- na 


innamar - u ; 


kakkab 


Boutidary-of-heaven 




are-seen ; 


the-star 


x<m ^^r -T<T^ . • . 








Rim - ab - nam . . . 









J Proclaination-of-tlie-gatheriug- 
\ of-the-seas . . . 



Zeitschriftfiir As., March, 1891, p. 1 12, note. 
23 



Jan. 8] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH^iOLOGV. 



[1895- 



The Left-foot (As. Sepii siii/ielu) of the Centaur will probably 
be or include (i Crucis. It will be observed that here Zibaiuia, 
like IzH in line 4, is styled V//^ not the ordinary ^J:][>->f- {kakkab), 
a circumstance which points to planetary dignity ; for, whilst 
CtY>">]f- is constantly applied to planets, >->f- is rarely, if ever, 
applied to fixed stars. The star Proclamat'um-of-the-gathering-of-ihe- 
seas, a name which reminds us of " the gathering together of the 
waters called He seas," is apparently the Kakkab Nabu tamti ("The 
Star of the-Proclamation-of-the-sea "), 29th in the list of the Thirty 
Stars, and otherwise called the Kakkab Tamti ("Star of-the-Sea," 
vide Proceedings, Jan., 1890, pp. 146-7), also known as Nunki 
(= o- Sagittarii. Ibid., May, 1893, p. 317), "the Star of Eridu,'" 
"a city which took its name from its bow-like shape."* There 
appears to have been a mystical and mythical, as well as an archaic, 
actual, and geographical city of Eridu. t 

6. V ^^K>f <X T • . • 

4 kakkabi esiri ana . . . 

The four stars propitious for*. . . 



7. ^^^>f ^^t] '^T^I < tth-^ 


Kakkab 


Iz - si u kakkab 


T/ie-star 


the-Fiery-one and the -star 


-]<^ >ir 




ibassu - va 




are, and 




8. ::^^>f 


-T^ -^\ -Hh - 


Kakkab 


Zi - ba - an - 1 


TAe-sfar 


Boundary-of-heaven 



Rim - ab - nam . . . 

Proclamation -of-the-gatheriiig - 
of the- seas . . . 



innamir - u 

is-seen ; 



kakkab 
t he-star 



Ner-gub Gud - elim, karnu - su yubbal . 

Left-foot ofthe-Horned-buIl, its horn disappears 



* Sayce, Babylonian Literature, \>. 39. Prof. Sayce, Ret. Ancient Balis, 
p. 134, explains Eridu, a contraction for Eri-duga, as the " Good-city." 
t Vide R. B., Jr., Eridanus, Sec. xxiii. 

24 



Jan. 8J 



PROCEEDINgS. 



[1S95. 



Zibanna, therefore, was seen at times with (line 5), and at tin)es 
without the star of the Left-foot ; and as Zibanna was certainly in 
the ecliptic {md^Q Proceedings, May 1893, p. 312), the inference is 
that it was a planet. I am indebted to Prof. Sayce for the rendering 
' disappears.' ^ 

The expression "the horn (point) of the Leftfoof' may seem 
somewhat strange, but it is really very curious when, in the list of 
the stars in the Ptolemaic Centaur, we read : — 

33. " The one under the bend of the sinister foot." 

34. " The one at the frog* (iSarpaxiov) of the same foot." 

Indeed, the coincidence is so very singular, that I prefer to 
leave it without further comment. 



9. ^th>^ m 


t\ m 


Kakkab Ku 


- ma - ru 


T/te consiellaiioii the Dusky-part 


^^FHf- ^in^T 


^\ -^IrJ • 


kakkab Ega 


Ud- gu - - 


the-constellatio)i Croivn 


of-the-Si/iitiiig- 



^^ -^H ^^^ Ty 

Ud - gu - du - a 
of-the-Smiting-su7ifacc, 



du - a, 



>--Y n^ 
kakkab 

the-constellation 



B -Ml {A t^) 

Su - gub (xi - bi) 

the Left-hand {tvanting) 



Doubtless the line originally read "the Left-hand of Udgudua ."' 
and the scribe now not unnaturally passes on from one Centaur to 
the other, i.e., Udgudua-Sagittarius (vide Proceedings, May, 1893, 
p. 332). We have here an interesting instance of 3 sub-constella- 
tions, the Kumar, the Ega, and the Sugub (As. Sumelu) of Udgudua. 
As the 'hand' and 'foot' of the LLorned-buU are mentioned, so are 
the 'hand' and 'foot' (line 11) of Udgudua. And, these two 
creatures being distinct, it follows that, just as the former is the 
Centaur, so is the latter the other Centaur, i.e., Sagittarius, a conclu- 
sion at which we had previously arrived from other and independent 

* "Frog. In farriery, a sort ot tender horn tliat grows in the middle of the 
sole of a horse's foot, dividing into two branches, and running towards the heel in 
the form of a fork " (^Imperial Diet, in voc). 

25 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S95. 

reasons. A glance at the constellation-map will show that each of 
the two solar Centaurs is attacking a creature opposed, or specially 
devoted to the Sun ; the Scorpion of darkness in the one case, and 
the Wolf, a familiar type of darkness, and also a creature at times 
connected with the Sun-god by play on words (Xr/c-o'? — Xpi'voV) ; the 
Boar, another emblem of darkness ; or the Lion, the special animal 
of the Sun-god, in the other. 

Kakkab-Kumaru. The first sub-division of Sagittarius is styled 
the Kuniaru. The meaning of this word, which is As. in form, has, 
I believe, hitherto been unknown. A careful inspection of the 
constellation convinced me that the dusky hinder-part of Sagittarius 
was intended ; and I was naturally led to compare Knmarii with 
"1*23, ' blackness,' whence the name of the Chemarim,* i.e., " the 

Black-robed-ones," "the idolatrous priests."! But this does not 
exhaust the matter, for, as might well be expected, kumaru is merely 
the Semitic form of an Akkadian loan-word kiiniar, connected with 
the Turko-Tatar root kom, kuni, an allied variant of which is toni, 
tum,X one of the root-meanings of this latter form being 'darkness, 
'night,' 'mist.' And the connexion between the forms ^'«w and 
tiun equally appears in Sumero-Akkadian itself, where we find that 
turn = As. yartsu, ' obscurity.' Such words as the Uigur komar and 
the Tchagatai toniar, which, though having a different signification, 
belong to the same word-group, illustrate the form of the Ak. himar, 
which will, therefore, signify '"the Dusky-part" of Sagittarius, just 
as Aratos styles the adjoining constellation " the Dusk}'-Goat."v; 
Thus, the 21st moon station, called ^/-/^e/^t?//. (" a District "), is a 
starless space in Sagittariiis, " the vacant space between the Archer's 
shoulders and Capricorn's horns . . . Kazwini, Firuzabadi, and 
Fizini, mention al-helda/i and its boundary of six dark or small stars, 
called el-kelddah, or necklace." || From this example we learn 
incidentally rhe interesting fact, that these star-names, or most of 
them, are Sumero-Akkadian in origin, the Altaic word kumar having 
been draped in a Semitic form. 

* Zephaniah i, 4. 

t A.V. 2 Kings xxiii, 5. 

+ Vide Vambery, Etymologisches Worterhnch der Turko-Tatarischen Sprachoi , 
Sees, xcvii, clxxix. 

§ Phainomcna, ^(^2. 

II Smyth, Cycle of Celestial Objects, ii, 413. Ei-beldah is used of "the 
hairless space between the eyebrows." 

26 



Jan. 8] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1895. 



Kakkah Ega. The second subdivision of Sagittarius is styled 
Ega, = As. ag7/, 'crown' {i.e., halo), 7izzu, 'glory.'* And here wc 
have a further illustration of the meaning of Kuniaru ; for, as that 
is the 'dusky' hinder-part of Sagittat-ins, so Ega-Uzzu is the 
'Glory,' or bright upper fore-part of the constellation, which part 
is elsewhere called PapUsak (' Winged-fire-head 't). As Ega means 
' crown,' at first it seemed tempting to identify this constellation 




Eig. III. — Udgudua (Sagittarius), .-ind its subdivisions. 



with the Corona Australis, sometimes called Corolla ("the 
Wreath "), which, in representations of the constellations, is placed 
immediately in front of the forefeet of Sagittaritts. But, I think, 
this is clearly not the true interpretation of the text. The Sttphanos 



* For a play on words between the name of the Ak. solar god Uz (' Goat,' 
vide Proceedings, April, 1892, p. 300; June, 1893 p. 462), and the Semitic word 
iizzu, vide Sayce, Rel. Ancient Babs., p. 285. 

t Vide R.B., Jr., The Te Tablet (In The Academy, Nov. 4, 1S93, P- 396). My 
suggestion [Proceedings, March, 1891, p. 266) that Papilsak was not in 
Sagittarius, must be withdrawn in the light of the further evidence. 

27 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [189 

Noiios is noticed by Aratos, but even m his day it had not yet 
received this name : — 

" Other few 
Below the Archer under his forefeet, 
Led round in circles roll without a name."* 

And here I would call attention to the fact, that the Sagittarius of 
Aratos evidently resembled the Euphratean type (vide Fig. Ill), and 
not the ordinary classical and modern type, in the position of his 
forelegs or leg, which were over the Corolla^ instead of being imme- 
diately behind it, as e.g., on the Farnese Globe. t This is one of 
the innumerable interesting indications that Aratos had before him 
constellation figures whose prototypes belonged to Western Asia. 

Kakkab-Sngub. The 3rd subdivision of Sagittarius, is " the 
constellation of the Left-hand ;" and we see at once, from Fig. Ill, 
the position of prominence of the Left-hand, and from the latter 
we obtain part of the southern boundary of the sub-constellation 
Ega (= Papilsak).X 

The Ptolemaic description of the stars shown in Fig. Ill is as 
follows : — 

I. Stars in the Kakkab Ega {Papilsak). 

\. " The more-southerly of those in the northern part of the bow." 
/«. " The more-northerly of them at the end of the bow." 
a. " The one at the left shoulder." 
0. '* The one in front of this towards the shaft." 
v'^, v". "The nebulous and double star at the eye." 
^. " The leading-one of the 3 in the head." 
o. " The centre-one of them." 
TT. " The hindermost of the 3." 

T. " The centre-one of the 3 in the back, towards the shoulder- 
blade." 

f. " The one below the armpit." 

* Phainomena, 399-401. 

t Flamsteed, Atlas Coelestis, 1729, places the Corona Australis between the 
two forelegs. Proctor, improperly, places the two forelegs in the midst of the 
Crozun. The Stapha)ios Notios is a distinct constellation in Ptolemy. 

% Hommel {Die Astronomic dcr altcn Chaldaer, iii, 12) appears to place 
' Pa-bil-sag ' somewhere between 6 Ophiuchi and jt Sagittarii. 

28 



[AN. 8] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

II. Stars in the Kakkah-Sugub ("the Constellation of the Leli-hand"). 

7I, 7^. "The star at the point of the arrow." 
h. " The one at the grip of the left hand." 

III. Other stars shown. 

6. " The one in the southern part of the bow." 
/3i, /S^. " The one at the ancle of the left forefoot." 
a. " The one at the knee of the same leg." 

Hence, the Sagittarius of Ptolemy, the prototype of modern 
figures, had the foreleg straight, unlike the Euphratean type of 
Aratos. The Sagittarius of Ptolemy wore a "martial cloak," which 
is often represented, e.g.^ in Flamsteed's Atlas Coelestis, as flying in 
the air, as if blown out by the wind. In this garment we may 
readily see the wing of the original Euphratean figure. Another 
interesting instance of the Sagittarius-type occurs on a monument 
in the British Museum.* The general attitude and position and 
the wing are similar to those shown in Fig. Ill ; but the 
bow-string appears, and is grasped by the right hand. The two 
forelegs are broken off at the knees, the tail is that of a scorpion, 
and behind, attached to the human head and facing tailwards, is the 
head of a gryphon. Below the Sagittarius, and with his claws 
towards the genitalia, as so frequently figured in Mithraic represen- 
tations, is a scorpion; so Manilius, " Scorpios inguine gaudet.'t 
According to C. W. King, " in this particular situation it expresses 
Autumn "| in the Mithraic symbolism ; and this circumstance is in 
exact and interesting harmony with the role which we have seen the 
zodiacal Scorpion play in connexion with the waning, autumnal sun 
(vide Proceedings, Feb., 1890, p. 198 ; March, 1891, pp. 261-2). 
But the earlier and wider symbolism is diurnal, not annual, i.e., that 
of the darkness-power seizing on and destroying light day by day ; 
and it is interesting to notice the Euphratean origin of this peculiar 
artistic feature in the Mithraic cult. We have in this design another 

* Figured in Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, of Art in Pha-nicia and its Jcjxn- 
iiencies, ii, 204. 

t Astron., ii, 462. 

X The Gnostics and their Remains, 2nd edit., p. 134. 

2.) 



J AX. SJ 



SOCIETY OF IMl'.I.lCAL ARCH.EOLOGY. 



[1S95 



(vide Ibid., March, 1S91, p. 265) instance of the Scorpioti-Sagittary, 
the figure combining the potency and protective power of two 
zodiacal signs, not to mention the solar Gryphon.* MM. Perrot 
and Chipiez remark, " We have yet to find the form of centaur 
preferred by archaic Greek art on some monuments from Phoenicia 
or Mesopotamia." They will find this long-lost link in Fig. I ; for 
the Cheiron of the chest of Kypsalos is the true representative of 
this form. And the same type appears in Kypros, for they figure 
a centaur t who "wears a cap of cloth or felt," like the Sagittarius 
above described. " The hind-legs are formless, but in the other 
pair, clumsy as they are, we can divine the sculptor's wish to repro- 
duce human limbs ; the rudiments of a [human] foot and knee can 
be readily distinguished. This centaur, therefore, is composed of 
the whole body of a man with the middle-piece and quarters of a 
horse added to it." That is to say, it exactly resembles Fig. I in 
this respect. 



10. -][^>f ^ ^ :^r ^r 


V 




4ST <^ 


kakkab ' Za - ma - ma. 


4 


kakkabi 


nas - u 


The-constella tio/i the- Living-eye, 


four 


constellations 


rise ; 


^"A-^ <^ (4 ;^) 








kakkab Ner - (xibi) 








the-star Foot- (wanting) 









The second star is probably Nerzak-Zaniania (" the-Right-toot 
of-the-Living-eye "). In W.A.I., II, Ixi, 52, we read: — 

'Ilu Za-ma-ma sa Kisu, 
The-god Living-eye of Kis. 

'•a great town in Babylonia, now represented by the mounds of 
Hymer,"J and mentioned in Tablet XII of the Gilgames Epic. 



* Vide R. 15. , jr., Remarks on the Giyplton, Hcratai: and Mythoioqicai (in 
Arckaeoiosia, Vol. XLVIII). 

+ Hist. Of Art m P/uvnicia, etc., ii, 200. 
J Geo. .Smith, in Transactions, iii, 364. 

30 



J\N. 8] PROCEEDIXGn. [1895. 

'I'he word kis is akin to the Turko-Taiar root kis, kiz, ' fire,' 
' warmth,' ' redness,' " to glow," whence the Uigur kis, ' fiery,' and 
numerous similar words in the various connected dialects, with 
meanings such as 'gold,' ' red,' etc. Sometimes the consonant in 
the root is abraded, and we meet with such forms as the Tchagatai 
is-\k, /^-sig, 'warmth,' Yakute zV-i, and Koibal-Karagass /V-seg,* 'hot,' 
which = the Ak. iz-si, 'fiery' {sup., line 5). Kis, As. Kisii, is, then, 
" the Fire-town," a centre of a solar cult ;t so far, therefore, it seems 
probable that Zamama was a solar divinity. His name occurs at 
times in the lists of gods,:}: and in JV.A.I., II, Ivii, Rev. Col. A, 
line 53, we read : — • 

Kakkub Id-^u, 'ilu Za-ma-ma j 'ilu Xin-ip 
7'hc Constellation thc-Eagle {i.e.) the god Zamama \ the-God the-Lotd, 

the Creator. 

Here the Eagle is identified with Zamama, and both are identified, 
or closely connected, with Ninip, "die Ostsonne,"§ the solar Uras 
("the Veiled," vide Proceedings, April, 1892, pp. 302-3). But 
further: we find that "Aldla ("the (ireat-spirit ") the Eagle,' 
mentioned in the Gilgames Epic Tablet VI, was " the symbol of the 
noontide sun ;" || so we have here the solar eagle, and the solar divinity 
Ninip-Uras,11 both identical, or most closely connected with the 
evidently solar god Zamama. What, then, is the meaning of the 
name Zamama? The ordinary signification of the first syllable za, 
tsa, is '4;' but, as I have shown {Proceedings, Feb., 1888) the Ugro- 
.\ltaic ' 4 '-word, is an ' eye '-word, and the line of idea which arrives 
at '4 ' is represented by (Hand + hand -f eye) + eye.** We may 

* Vide Vambeiy, Worterbuch, pp. 89-90. 

t It was one of the 20 " oldest known cities "" of llabylonia (\'ide .Smith and 
Sayce, Chaldean Account of Genesis, 313). 

+ Vide W.A.L III, Ixvi, 45 ; Ixviii, 62 ; Ixix, 78. 

55 Jensen, Die Kosniologie der Babylonicr, p. 457. 

II Cf. Sayce, Rel. Ancient Babs., p. 248 ; vide R.B., Jr., The Myth of Kirl:?, 
Sec. ix, for an account of Istar-Kirke and her luckless lovers Dumuzi (Tammuz), 
' Alala, the Eagle," the ' Lion,' and the ' Horse.' 

H It is interesting to find that Uras, the ' Veiled " or ' Secret ' god, is, in 
the Tel el-Amarna Tablets, identified with the god of Jerusalem : — • 

No. 106, 1. 15; "The city of the mountain of Urusalim, the city of 
the temple of the god Uras (whose) name (there is) ' Salim'." 
(Ap. Sayce, Records of the Past, new series, v, 72.) 

** For Table of '4' and 'eye' words, vide K.I!., Jr., Tlic Etruscan 
Nttinerais p. 20. 

31 



lAN. ] 



SOCIETY OF P.IHLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. 



[1895. 



therefore regard za in this archaic diyinity-nanie as meaning 'eye.' 
Ma-ma is an abraded form of mal-nia, mal-mal ;* and the Ak. mal 
= As. sakanu, " to be established," and bitu, ' house ' {i.e., that which 
is established ; e.g., " by understanding is an house established,' 
ProT., xxiv, 3). M and v are interchangeable in Akkadian, and the 
Ak. mal, val = the Turko-Tatar var, bar, "to be," "to exist," e.g.., 
Tchagatai bar, Osmanli var, "it is," Tshuvvash /^zr, " to be," " to 
exist," etc.t Mai is therefore "to be," "to exist," and hence "to 
be established." We need not here trace it further back, or enquire 
whether in primitive idea "to be "'= " to breathe ;" and, as the Altaic 
par^=i " to be," 'existence,' so will mal— ' existence,' " the existing,' 
doubled by way of intensity, after an archaic fashion, the solar god 
Zamama thus being "the Living-eye." 

The originally solar Zamama is next, in accordance with a 
principle of which we have had innumerable examples, and without 
grasping which mythology is incom- 
prehensible, reduplicated in a stellar 
form ; and, in this phase, is identified 
with the Eagle. But, it will be re- 
membered that, by almost universal 
consent, Idxti or Erigu ("the Power- 
ful-bird ") is identified with Altair 
(ft Aquilce, vide Proceedings, April, 
1892, pp. 294-6). The fact is that 
there are two Eagles in the case : 
(i) Idx" Zamama ("the Eagle, the 
Living-eye'') = Aquila (the constel- 
lation), and {2) Idxu (" the Eagle " star) = Altair ; and, if anyone is 
inclined to doubt this, he will find on reference to Ptolemy's Star- 
catalogue, that both these eagles reappear' in it^ the constellation 
being 'AeToT' (Kncpiai^io^, and the principal star in it o tVt to/' 
fieriKppei'ov Xf//(7r/;o9 KaXovfievo^ 'Agto?, Thus the Tablet describes 
the rising of Sagittarius (in 3 divisions) and Aquila (Fig. IV). 

The representation of the Eagle, "ein schreitender Vogel," a^ 
Hommel well calls it, is, like many of the bird-figures on the 
monuments, a purely conventional type. 




Fig. IV. — Zamana (Aquila). 



* Cf. Lenormant, £tude siir qiielqttes parties dcs Syilabaires CioiciformL 

P- 23. 

t Vide Vambery, Worterbuch, p. 198. 



Jan. 8] TROCEEDINGS. [1S05. 

Kakkal) Ur - ner - gub Ud - gu - du - a, Kak.kal> 
The-star Solc-of-the-Left-foot of-the-Stnitljig-sun-face, tJic-star 

-^ Vr y- J^Ii 

Dil-bat A - nu - turn 

Venus of-t]ic-Grcai-Goddess (Lstar) 

12. <y^T^ c;:?^>f B (4 :^) • • . 

Va kakkab Su - (xibi) . . . 

And flic-constellation Hand - (ivanting) . . . 

The first star is /^ Sai^itta?-!! (vide snp., p. 27), and the last, " the 
constellation of the Left-hand oi Udi:;udiia (vide line 9). The "star 
Venus of Anunit '' is not the kakkab Annnituni (vide Proceedings, 
Feb., 1890, p. 203), which re!)reserits Istar-Venus reduplicated in a 
ste'lar form, but the planet Venus in Saiiittarius. 

Kakkab Uz, kakkab Ner- zak Za-ma-ma va 

The-star of-the-Goaf, the-star Right-foot-of-the-Living-cye, and 

-v^ B^r -i<i m ^^^4- (4 :^) . - . 

kakkab Id - x\\, 3 kakkabi (\ibi) . . . 

the-star ihe-Eai^le {A If air), fhire sfa?-s (icanfiui;) . . . 

A^ersak-Zaman/a = II Aquilae {vide Fig. V). Fig. II in the JVn- 
cccdings, May, 1893, p. 340, shows the part of the heavens referred 
to. 

14. n -IH --I -4- -^T -TM -^] -^' -^I tt]--^ 

2 biritu : kakkab 

7\c<o anJuKciions : f he-star 

Id - x^^ sunuKi same 

ihe-Eagle (is) at the zenith (lit. height-of-Juavcn). 

33 c 



Jan. S] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895 



The term 'conjunction' is not here used in the astronomical 
sense of "the meeting of two or more stars or planets in the same 
degree of the Zodiac,'' but is applied to two stars or constellations 
rising about the same time and about the same longitude. So we 
read in Aratos :■ — 

" When the Goat rises others mount, 

The feathered Arroi'Js stars, the Eagle, Bird."* 

The As. hiritii, Heb. herith, 'covenant,' is said to be so called 
from " the idea of cutting " (victims on the making of agreements) : 
and the line of thought connected with this use of the word is : — 
cutting — sacrifice — covenant — (astronomically) conjunction. This 
is equally illustrated by the Ak. term of which hirit is the As. 
rendering. The passage in Ak. reads : — 

Kas sa-ba-an-na sa-ba-an-na. 

Two covenants {conjunctions) of heaven. 

The word has generally been read ribi-anna, but I read saha-anna 
because >^A, ^Iso = sa and the Ak. 
sa-ba is evidently connected with 
the Ak. sab, sap, "to sacrifice," and 
the Turkic sefa, 'agreement,' the 
whole class of words belonging to 
the Turko-Tatar root sap, sab, cap, 
"to hew," 'cut,' e.g., the Altaic 
saba, 'cut.'t Loth the Semitic and 
Turanian words, therefore, proceed 
on the same line of thought. The 
noontide or zenith Eagle-sun (vide 
sup., p. 31) is thus reduplicated in 
the zenith Eagle-star; and Fig. V 
illustrates the process of the formation of the constellation-figure in 
archaic idea. 




P^ig. V. — Aquila. 

(Illustration of the formation of 

the constellational figure.) 



Kakkab Gu - ur - ku, kakkab Uz, 

The-constellation Seat-of-t/ic-J/o7C'ing-7vate)-s, i he-star of -the- Goat, 

kakkab Sak - sa - di va kakkab Dil . . . 

the-star Br!ght-ho}-Ji-of-slaughfer, and t he-star Venus {cf. 1. 11) . . . 



Pkainonieua, 689-9 ' • 



t Yidc Vambcry, Wortcrbucli, p. 142. 
34 



Jan. SJ PROCEEDINGS. [1855. 

The Ak. ,i,v/;- = As. apsti, "running water," and one of the 
renderings of the Ak. kit, ' seat,' is As. subat-sa-apsi (" Seat-of-the- 
running-water "). The constellation in question consists of the stars 
in Aquarius from Sitiila ("the Urn,'^ k Aqiiarii) to that which 
Ptolemy calls "the last (star) of the Water, and the one at the 
mouth of the Southern Fish " (<■/ Piseis Australis).* 

Saksadi. This is a new and interesting star. The Ak. sai;.=i 
' head,' ' horn ; ' ths Ak. sa, amongst other meanings, = As. maxatsu, 
'slaughter,' and ^/ is 'brilliance.' The star in question is /i Capri 
corni. These two stars Uz and Saksadi, which form the 22nd 
moon-station, are called by the Arabs Sa'd-el-dsabih ("The-lucky- 
constellation-of-the-Slaughterer ") ; and it is very interesting to find 
the original Akkadian name thus reproduced. .Smyth observes, 
'• Although Capricorn is not a striking object, it has been the very 
pet of all constellations with astrologers, having been the fortunate 
sign under which Augustus and Vespasian were born." But its 
good-omened character was not occasioned by or dependent on 
these two personages, although their fortunes served to enhance 
its reputation. He continues, "It was also mightily looked to by 
the Arabians . . . the XXI Ind Lunar Mansion was a popular one : 
and Kazwini, Tizini, Ferghani, and Firiizabadi of Khorasan, author 
of the Kdmus, i.e.. Ocean, the most famous of all Arabic Le.xicons, 
mention its happy tendency."t Thus, alike in East and West, was 
Capricorn a fortunate Sign, the real reason of this circumstance 
being the original importance of the Cloat-sun, with its bright horn 
(ray) of slaughter for darkness, night, and stars, the Sea-goat or 
Goat-fish being his stellar reduplication. 

16. <Mro[ -;^^>f s^y ^r<y . . . 

Ya kakkab Id -j\^u . . . 
and the-star the Eagle . . . 

kakkab Gu - la, kakkab Gu - ur-(ku)... 

Tlie-consiellation of-thc-Urn, the constellation Seat-of-flowing-ivaters . . . 

■* For remarks on the celestial seat of the waters, vide ri-ocecdiiigs,]^n., 1S90, 
p. 149. 

t Cycle of Cclcsiial Objects, ii, 473. 

35 c 2 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1895. 

Vide 1. 15. Gu is the U/Ji of Aquarius (vide sup.^ 1. 2. For 
further illustration of the word, vide Proceedings, March, 1891, 
p. 268). La is the emphatic prolongation (cf. Bartabbagalgal-la, 
Dingirgalgal-Ja, Ibid., Feb., 1S90, pp. 185, 187).* But the name 
G7i-Ia thus contains a punning reference to the goddess Quia ("the 
Great "), who was identified with the goddess ^J "^ff , Ba-hu 
(= Heb. bo/iu, 'wasteness,' Ge?i. i, 2), the Phoenician Baau, this latter 
personage being the representative of the Ak. Gurra ("the Watery- 
deep"), "the waters of the abyss in their original chaotic state" 
(vide Proceedings, May, 1888, p. 351), and thus suitably connected 
with the constellation Aquarius, and the foundation and watery 
commencement of things (vide Ibid., ^■m\., 1890, p. 143). Bahu 
"became the wife of the Sun-god of Kis,"t i.e., of Zamama (vide 
sup., p. 31); and it was very possibly the proximity of the Kakkab 
Gula and the Kakkab Id^u which caused this formal mythological 
arrangement. In W.A.I. Ill, liii, No. i, Rev., 1. 22, the Kakkab 
Gula is mentioned in connexion with the Kakkab Idy^ji, and in 
1. 29 in connexion with the Goat-fish ; and from W.A.I. III. liii, 
No. 2, Rev., 1. 24, we learn that in Kisleu, the month of Sagittarius, 
Venus, a planet referred to here (vide 1. 15), was called i^^ "J^-^ ^^^l, 
Kakkab Gula, " the Star of the Urn." Other references speak of 
Jupiter in Gula (vide Proceedings, Jan., 1890, p. 148). 

18. . . . r^^- 'i^<- "5^11 .. . 

. . . (kakkabi) Gu - si - (sa, Cf. 1. 2) 

. . . (stars) of-the-Leading-Urn . . . 

The passage is too mutilated to translate with certainty. But 
the meaning seems fairly clear, especially when compared with 1. 2 : 
"the stars of Gusisa," namely that Gula and Gurku are asterisms 
in the zodiacal constellation of Gusisa, which constellation apparently 
consisted of the hinder part of our Aquarius, and did not include 
/i Aquarii, which we have seen reason to identify with the Kakkab 
Nanunax ("the Star of Mighty-destiny," vide Proceedings, June, 
1893, p. 457), and the other stars above Capricorn, and now in 
Aquarius. Gula, from the comparatively frequent mention of it, 
.was evidently the most important part of Gusisa ; and the reason 
of this is obvious, i.e., that the asterism of Gula is close on the 
.ecliptic (vide Ibid., May, 1893, Fig. II, p. 340). 

* Vide R. B., Jr., Tlie Te Tablet (in Tlic Academy, Nov. 4, 1893. p. 396). 
t Sayce, Rel. Ancient Babs., p. 263 ; vide W.A.I. Ill, Ixviii, 33. 

36 



Jan. 8] PROCEEDINGS. [18:95. 



THE BOW IN THE EGYPTIAN SKY. (2) 
P. LE Page Rexouf. 

Just about eleven years ago, I published in these Proceedings 
(March, 1884), a note bearing the above title, and explaining a 
passage in the Book of the Dead (ch. 132), wherein the Sun-god 
is said to issue from "the Bow." I showed that this Bow is the 
Crescent of the Moon, from which the Sun-god is said to shine forth. 

But I am surprised that neither I, nor (as far as I know) any 
other Egyptologists, have hitherto recognised in the texts another 
mythological expression of the same idea of the Bow, as the Sun 
shining forth from the Moon. 

Yet every Egyptologist is aware that || -jj, the god An, is Osiris, 

and that this is his special name, when he is supposed to be residing 
in the Moon.* He is generally known in this capacity from the 
later texts. But the Pyramid Texts mention him under the forms 

^ , [I ^ or [11 coupled with some other word, but always in 
some connection with the Bull of Heaven, or of the Tuat. 

rfl in these and similar texts has commonly been translated 
colum?i, pillar, support ; but this is a mistake. I'he word has various 
meanings, and among them that of botv is conspicuous. The evi- 
dence for this meaning is so well-known and so undisputed that I 
need not repeat it. 

Hathor, the female Sun at Dendera, who bears the name of 

I (](j g Anit, is called ^ZZ7 | ^ ^^ T ^1 -^ ^^ " ^li^tress of the 
Bow and (lucen of the arrow." 

It is not easy to say how [11 comes to mean Boiv, which it does 
not at all resemble, and how it also comes to mean column, obelisk, 

* "Der Gott An ist der Osiris in seiner lunaren Natur, in welcher Auffassung 
cr in Edfii unci noch mehr im Tempel von Dendera eine ganz besonders Verehrung 
genoss." Diimichen, Zcit^clir., 187 1, p. 29. 

37 



Jan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S95. 

pyramid, etc., but it is evident that the notion which undcrhes all 
these applications must be akin to what we mean in speaking of a 
shoot, or of a column as something ela)icc. 

With this meaning of the word we shall now obtain a very 
intelligible sense of several passages in well-known texts. 

The 53rd invocation in the Litanies of Ra addresses that divinity 



'"' ^ J a \ ^ W 1 ^ " 8°^ "^ '^'^ ^^^'"'"S horn, Bow of 
the West [or of Amenta]." 

Let us compare with this another in\ocation, from the Pyramid 
Texts; "O A71, [steer] great in ploughing, who art Prince in the 
Tuat ; lo, she cometh to meet thee, the Fair Amenta ... to meet 
thee, with her beautiful locks — and she saith : ' here cometh he 
who is born of the god of the shining Horn, the Bow which is tipped 
with stibium, the Bull of Heaven, " Unas, t.'^~^ • 

The extremities or tips of the Bow are called /lorns in Egyptian 
as in Greek (cf. Oifjss., 0. 359), and the horns suggest the notion of 
the horned animal. The Moon is called by the Greek poets Kcpdcaaa, 
TuvpoKcpw^, ravpic-ij^-. and even the curious epithet "tipped with 
stibium " has its counterpart in ihe uh/miccXaiuiowffti of Nonnus of 
Panopolis. 

Just before the passage I have cjuoted from the inscription of 

Unas, the god is called f|i "the Bow of the Stars"' Ui'darcpo^), 

and m ^ "^23^ "the Bow of Konsit, the Bull of 

Heaven." (Konsit is here probably taken in a mythological not 
geographical sense. The 'sleepers' in Konsit [Teta 65] are gods 
like the 'sleepers' in Heliopolis, Tmu and his two children.) 

I will not at present proceed in a subject which admits of a con- 
siderable amount of illustration and development. 




Jan. S] proceedings. [1895 



THE KARIAN AND LVDIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 
By Professor A. H. Sayce. 

Since the publication of my Paper on the Karian Language and 
Inscriptions in the Transactions of this Society, Vol. IX, pt. i, I 
have collected several fresh inscriptions which are written in the 
Karian alphabet. Most of these I copied last winter in the temple 
of Thothmes III at Wadi Haifa. The greater part of the temple has 
recently been cleared of sand by Captain Lyons, and it was on the 
walls and columns of the newly-excavated portion that I found the 
graffiti in qnestion. They seem to point to the existence of a 
Karian garrison on the spot in the age of the XXVIth dynasty, or 
of the Persian dynasties which followed. At least it is otherwise 
difficult to account for them. A comparison of them with the 
Karian inscriptions of Abu Simbel shows that none of them could 
have been engraved by the mercenaries to whom the Abu Simbel 
graffiti probably belong. Greek inscriptions at Wadi Haifa, it may 
be noted, are very few in number. In the temple of Thothmes III 
the most careful searching only revealed three. One of these is 
written in letters the forms of which are those of the Greek graffiti 
of Abu Simbel, though the sandstone on which they were scratched 
is so weathered that very little of them is now decipherable. In fact 
the only word that I could read with certainty is ZTPATEFON. 
A second consists of the single name AAAMAZ, while the third is 
as follows : — 

TACIME 

NHCKYPHNAIOC B 
lAZnNKYPHNAIOS A 

The letters belong to the second or third century v..c., and it is 
interesting to find that the two forms of the sigma, C and Z, occur 
together. The B and A probably signify " second " and " first." 

39 



Jan. 8] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILF-OLOCV. [1S95. 

I will now take the Karian texts in the order in which they have 
been reproduced upon the accompanying i)late, transliterating them 
in accordance with the values I have assigned to the letters of the 
Karian alphabet in my former Paper. 

1. I. ()-u-n-d-bkh-a s-mi a-v-o-e-g mi-g-a-o-v-ii u-v-o-v-i.i 
a-kh 6(?)-v-h(?)-e. This inscription is clearly and deeply cut on a 
column on the south side of the first court of the temple. The 
syllable )}iig is found in two of the graffiti published in my former 
Paper (IV, 5, 11). 

2. A(?)-e ? m-a-d mi-*-o-a-w a-o(?)-v-u u-v-*-n(?) . . . h-e. 
These letters are written on the third column, starting from the 
south, of the first court. They are too much obliterated to make a 
continuous reading of them possible. Some letters may be lost at 
the end of the first line. In this case we may have the name Aladys 
which occurs at Abydos (IV, 6, 9, 10). 

3. A-n-a-e-th(?)-d-. . Written on a broken block. 

4. Me-s-n-a-w-wu E-v-v-s-e-ii. Mesnawwu is evidently the 
same name as Mesnbai which occurs on the Lausanne Stele from 
Memphis (II, 4) and Mesnabai at Abu-Simbel (I, i). The father's 
name Ev{a)vse is also clearly the same as that written Evavse and 
Avavssa at Abydos (IV, 2, 3). The inscription is on a broken 
block. 

5. Me-5-n-a-w-wu. On an isolated block. 

6. These two inscriptions are on a column to the south-east. 
The first of them does not seem to be in the Karian alphabet, but 
their obliterated condition makes the reading uncertain. 

7. This graffito is on the second column of the first court, starting 
from the south. It may be read as Cypriote se-re-ta-ve-tci, but I 
am inclined to think it is more probably intended to be Karian. 

II. I. I discovered this inscription three years ago on the lower 
part of the southern side of a large boulder of stone on the eastern 
bank of the Nile, opposite Silweh, and about two miles to the north of 
the Shat er-Rigaleh. At the corner ofaWadi, about a hundred yards 

to the north of it, is the hieroglyphic graffito : .S^ ^^ V^ = 11. 

The characters were clearly cut, though I was not certain about one 
or two of them owing to a slight attack ot ophthalmia from which I 
was suffering at the time. The following year, accordingly, I 
revisited the spot in order to verify my copy, and was much 
disgusted at finding that during the interval, the boulder had been 

40 



J¥oc Soa£U>O.Aroft,.Jan? 1896 



I WadlHalfa^l) yA T A A- »1 V tl 

3 ft 9 ^ A 1/^ A^ 

\ Q>WC) O > &^ 

(4.) .V\OhN /^ AA 



(2.) A/XAAiyi^Ti 

(3) i ^ PAA^ cp ^ 

(5.) V (D A A/ /v\ AA 

(7) H H ^ y 



II North of Sils.l.s. (I.) ^IDi^YA V^/^V WAVW>V(2.YC3 

(2) tYi>JiyAri#VlA~lA^6 



ni. 




IV. 






VI. 



Krr^ ri>rTMirr 



'1 Oh atttj/>\j 



KARIAN AND LYDIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 



Jan. 8] TROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

utilised as the Ijasis of a telegraph post, and the inscription upon it 
ruthlessly destroyed. What makes this the more deplorable is that 
the inscription contains letters, or forms of letters, not found else- 
where in the Karian texts, so that it probably represents a local form 
of the alphabet and a local dialect. 

2. E-v-a-s-a(?) k-*-6(?)-a-r(?)-v-k-r-k(?)- . . This is inscribed 
on the summit of a rock, about a quarter of a mile to the south of 
the last-mentioned inscription. The numerous Greek and hiero- 
glyphic graffiti scribbled on the rock show that it must have been 
regarded as sacred, and even at the present day offerings of corn are 
made by the natives to the spirit of a " sheikh" who is supposed to 
haunt it, and are placed by them in a hollow on the top. One ot 
the Greek inscriptions runs : To irpoaKvin-i^ui \\-o\\wi>iot> Yvfiuor. 
Evasa is evidently the same name as Evavsa or Evavse, noticed 
above. 

Ill and lA-^. No. Ill is a copy of an inscription on a lentoid 
gem or "island-stone" sent to me in 1SS6 by Dr. Ohnefalsch- 
Richter. He informed me that the stone was steatite, and that it 
was the property of a monk, in whose family it had been for the last 
hundred years. It was found in the neighbourhood of I'aphos, and 
is engraved on both sides, the inscription being on the convex side, 
while on the other side is the figure of a hippocampus. If the copy 
is correct, I do not know how to read it. ^^'ere it not for the 
square at the top, the characters might be regarded as Cypriote. 
For the sake of comparison I have added (No. IV) the copy of an 
inscription on an unpublished bead, now in the Ashmolean Museum, 
which is certainly Cypriote, in spite of the second character to the 
left. It reads : pe-mo-ta-ka-ko-ya-ta. How this is to be mter- 
preted I do not know. 

V. This inscription I copied two years ago on a rock on the 
western bank of the Nile, about a mile to the north of Silsilis, my 
dahabiyeh having happened to have been moored for the night just 
under it. The inscription was cut on the edge of the sandstone 
rock overhanging a quarry which had been excavated subsequently 
to the time when it had been engraved along with other (hiero- 
glyphic) inscriptions which the quarrymen had afterwards cut away. 
These inscriptions are for the most part of the age of the Xlth and 
Xllth dynasties, and several of them contain the name of Mentu- 
hotep. Greek graffiiioi the age of the Ptolemies which are inscribed 
on the quarried surface of ihe stone show that the quarrying cannot 

41 



Jan. SJ SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCFLliOLOGY. [1895. 

have taken place later than the Greek period of Egyptian history. 
Two of the gyctffiti are as follows : — 

(i) AMMLONIOC (2) AAEEAC AIONYCIOY 
KAAAIAPOMOY HKIO 
EH'EN 

The inscription is somewhat difficult to copy, as it is on the 
very edge of the cliff formed by the quarry, and for one who stands 
on the edge, looks the wrong way, showing that the engraver must 
have sat on a piece of rock that was subsequently excavated away. 
On the other hand the letters, especially of the second line, are 
several inches in length, and are very deeply cut, so that their forms 
arc perfectly distinct. 

I believe that it is a specimen of the long-lost Lydian alphabet 
and language. We learn from the inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal 
that the foreign forces with whose help Psammetichos revolted from 
Assyria, were sent to him by Gyges of Lydia, and consequently 
though Herodotos mentions cnly Karians and lonians, there must 
have been Lydians among them. Now though i\\Q gmffiti oi Karian 
and Ionian mercenaries have been found in Egypt, no record of the 
Lydians has hitherto turned up. It was, however, reasonable to 
expect that one would be discovered sooner or later. The alphabet, 
again, points to Lydia. The letters belong, in general type, to the 
Phrygian alphabet, but certain differences in form between them 
and the Phrygian characters make it evident that the alphabet 
employed is not that of Phrygia. Nor is it that of Kappadokia, an 
example of which is known. The alphabets of Kilikia, Pisidia, 
Lykia and Karia belong to wholly different alphabetic systems, so 
that of all the populations whose alphabets were derived from the 
Phrygian, and who were likely to have visited Upper Egypt, the 
Lydians alone are left. Lastly, the names at the beginning of the 
second line are distinctively Lydian. Alys reminds us of the Lydian 
Aly-attes, and Mrshtl which follows would naturally be a patronymic. 
Now we learn from Herodotos (I, 7; see also III, 122) that the 
Lydian king Kandaules was called Myrsilos by the Greeks, because 
he was the son of Myrsos, from which we may infer that in the 
Lydian language the suffix -(/)/ denoted the patronymic. It may be 
added that the characters engraved on the base of one of the 
columns presented by the Lydian Kroesos to the temple of Ephesus, 

42 



Jan. S] rROCEEDIXGS. [1S95. 

and published by Sir Charles Newton in the Transactions of this 
Society (IV, 2), are identical with the characters of the Silsilis text. 

Our knowledge of the Phrygian alphabet enables us to read the 
second line of what I will now call the Lydian inscription without 
any difficulty. It runs; A-l-us ISI-r-sh-t-l z-u-1 ; " Alys the son 
of Mrsht . . . ". The first line of the inscription appears to be by 
a different hand. The characters in it are much smaller than those 
in the first line, and are not formed in quite the same way. Nor is 
it easy to decipher. Perhaps it may be read 1-kh-w-e-g. 

VI. This inscription is lightly scratched on a small platpe of 
steatite which was found at Sardes, and presented by the Rev. 
(Jreville Chester to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. If it is 
genuine, it will also be Lydian. But I am too doubtful about its 
character to attempt to read it. 

It now only remains for me to add one or two notes upon my 
Paper on the Karian Inscriptions. The obliterated word in the 
first line of the longest of the Abydos graffiti (R', 32) can be 
improved. A recent inspection of the inscription has shown me 
that the word is I *-0^:iv^2}^;\. J^Ir. Theodore Bent has visited 
Skopi, and made an improved copy of the Karian inscription there 
(No. VII). As compared with Hamner-Purgstall's copy, the last 
letter of the first line is Wy , which occurs again in the inscription I 

copied near Silsilis (II, i ), and the 5th and 6th letters probably 
form the single letter V^. In line 2, Mr. Bent makes the last letter 
but one P, while the 3rd letter is ; in line 3, the 3rd letter is V\, 
and in line 4, the 3rd and 4th letters are F and 0, as in the copies 
of P'orbes and Hoskvns. 



Jan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1895. 

ADDITIONAL NOTE ON A FRAGMENT OF THE 
ADAPA-LEGEND. 

Dr. Bezold's note in the Zeitschrift fiir Assxriologic (IX, 4, 
p. 405), so far as it concerns myself, demands just so much of an 
answer as is conveyed by the following statement of facts. My note 
was in the printer's hands on the i8th of May, 1894 : the first 
proof was corrected and returned before the end of May, and the 
second in the first week in June. The first part of the ninth 
volume of the Zeiisdwift^ containing Dr. Bezold's article, was sent 
to me by my bookseller on the 15th of June, when the separate 
copies of my note had already begun to be printed off. These facts 
are of themselves sufficient to exhibit the character of Dr. Bezold's 
assumption that I had seen his article, though I did not refer to it : 
indeed it would seem that " es musz hier ein Missverstandniss 
vorliegen."' 

S. Arthur Strong. 



The next ^Meeting o'i the Society will be held at '^J, 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbur}^, W.C, on Tuesday, 5th 
February, 1895, at 8 p.m., when the following- Paper will be 
read : — 

Rev. Dr. Lowy, " On the Pre-Mosaic Culture of the Hebrews." 




44 



Jan. S] proceedings. [1895. 



NOTICES. 

Subscriptions to the Society become due on the ist of January 
each year. Those Members in arrear for the current year are 
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Members having New Members to propose, are requested to send 
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A few complete sets of the publications of the Society can be 
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The Library of the Society, at 37, Great Russell Street, 
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As the new list of members will shortly be printed, Members are 
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45 



Jan. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCILLOLOGV. [1895. 

THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having; duplicate copies, will confer a favour by preseiitiu^Q the in to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologic der Biicher cler Kiinige una PaialipomenOn ini 
Einklang mit der Chronologic der Aegypter, Ass5Ter, Babylonier und Medcr. 

Amelineau, Histoire dii Patriarche Coptc Isaac. 

Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant noire ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, Thommc de Uicu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Bal)yloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aiis der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 



Baethgex, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religiongeshichte. Der Gott Israels uml 

die Cotter der Heiden. 
Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegyptiaca supcrest. 
BOTTA, Monuments de Xinive. 5 vols. , folio. 1847-1S50. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriflen Altacgyptische Denkmacler. Vols. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recucil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lioux et publics par 

H. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and tlie text by Diimichcn 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
BUDIXGER, M.. De Colonarium quarundam Phoenicianun priniordiis cuni 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BUKCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Acg}ptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1S62-1S73. 
DiJMiCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1S67. 

2nd series, 1S69. 

Altacgyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 18S6. 

Tenipel-Inschriften, 1S62. 2 vols., folio. 



E.^rle's Philology of the English Tongue. 

Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. Die Masse und das Kapitcl iiber die Augcn- 

krankheiten. 
Erm.vn, Papyrus Westcar. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., conqilcle to iSSo. 
Gavet, E. , Steles de la XII dynastic au Musec du Louvre. 
GOLENISCHEFF, Die Mettemichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-qualre Tablettcs Caj^padocicnncs de la Collection de 

IIaupt, Die .Sumerischen Eamiliengesetze. 

IIess, Der Gnostischc Papyrus von London. 

MoMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babylonicns und Assyriens. 1892. 

Jastrow, M., A J"ragment of the Babylonian " Dibbarra " Iqiic. 

JEN.SEN', Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 

46 



lAX. S] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Jerkmias, Tyrus bis zur Zcit Nul)ukadnezar'.s (jescliichlliclic Skizze niit heson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der Keilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, IL, Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch liber Ileilkundc. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F. , De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyjitiaca commcntatio. 
Leuerer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aeg>'pten bis zum 

IJeginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Berichsichtignung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aeg)'ptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Xalionale. 
LEFfeBURE, Le Mythe Osirien. 2"'« partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G. , Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin KiJnig von Babylonien 668 vchr, p. xiv, 173. 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c., iSSo. 
Lyon, D. G. An Assyrian Manual. 
.Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
Mui.LER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Arabien. 
NooRDTZiG, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptischc out 

dekkingen. 
Place, Ninive et I'Assyrie, 1866-1S69. 3 vols., folio. 
PoGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
]\.Oi!iou, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

S.\RZEC, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Schaeffer, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

Scnouw, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris. 

Schroeder, Die PhiJnizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Alfagj'ptishe GiJtterglaube. 

Virey, p., Quelques Observations sur TEpisode d'Aristee, a propos d"un 

Monument Egyptien. 
VisSER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1S91. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
WiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigi. Bank zu Thcben. 
WiLTZKE, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische IIorus-Ra. 
Winckler, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

Wesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gescllsch., Vol. I, 1S47 ; Vols. IV t.) XII, 

1850 to 1858, inclusive ; Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 to 187S. 
ZiMMERN, H., Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft fiir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



47 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price 5s. each. "With full Illustrations of the Vignettes. 
Parts cannot be sold separately. 



Zhc ]£G^ptian :Boo\\ of the IDeab, 



Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes, 

By p. LE page RENOUF, Esq. (Fresidenf) ; 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ ^crtcs of ^Slates of ti)£ Fipcttcs of t^t different (JT^aptcrs. 



The first CXVI Chapters have already been issued in \}:iQ Proceedings. 

The request having been made by a number of friends that this 
translation, &c., should be issued in a different form, so as to be a 
separate book, and Mr. Renouf having kindly consented, it is proposed 
to issue a limited number of copies upon large paper, in numbers, at 55. 
each. Mertibers desirous of obtaining copies should at once communicate 
with the Secretary. 



Xlbe JBionse ©rnaments of tbe 
lp)alace (Bates from Balawat. 

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Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to jQ\ \os. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £i IS. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President, 
P. LE Page Renouf. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halskuky. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, Bart., G.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 

Council, 

Rev. Charles James Ball. ■ Claude G. Montefiore. 

Arthur Gates. | Walter L. Nash, F.S.A., &c. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. | Prof. E. Naville. 

Charles Harrison, F.S.A. i Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 



(JRAY Hill. 
Rev. Albert La wv, LL.D., &c.' 
Rev. James Marshall. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



J. Pollard, 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S 

&c. 
E. Towry Whyte, jNLA. 



Honorary Treasurer — BERNARD T. BOSANQUET. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HAKRISON AND SO.VS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTINS LANE. 



VOL. XVII. Part 2. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 

Second Meeting, February ^th, 1895. 



-<ai^ 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
P. Le Page Renouf [President). — The Book of ihe Dead, 

Chapter CX 51-56 

Rev. G. Margoliouth. — The Divine Name Hin'' 57-63 

Theo. G. Pinches.— The Lament of the "Daughter of Sin" 

(2 double plates) 64-74 

Rev. Dr. Gaster. — An Unlcnown Aramaic Original of Theo- 

dotion's Additions to the Book of Daniel (III. Commentary) 75-94 



-^M?>- 



published at 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

189 5. 



[No. cxxvii ] 



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37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



TRANSACTIONS. 





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s. d. 














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• VI, 


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.. 10 


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2 ... lO 


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53 


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o 


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n, „ 


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o 


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I ... 8 


o 


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o 


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J ) 


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2 ... lO 


6 


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r? 


VIII, 


J, 3 • 


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I ... 12 


6 


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>> 


IX, 


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6 




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2 ... lO 


6 


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PROCEi 


55 

:di 


IX, 

NGS. 


7, 2 . 


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12 6 




















To 












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Vol. I, 


Session 




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6 


n, 


>7 




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V, 


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XI, 


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„ XIII, 


Parts I to 


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„ XIV, 


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„ XV, 


Parts I to 


7, 


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„ XVI, 


Parts I to lo 


. 1893-94 




2 


,, , 






2 


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„ XVII, 


In progress 


1895 




2 


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2 


6 



A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may he: 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Greal 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be 
held at 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 
W.C., on April 2nd, at 8 p.m., when the fol- 
lowing Paper will be read : — 

Rev. Dr. Lowy : ** The Primitive Culture 
of the Hebrews." 



^ j.iicn_j^<jii.n_j c*i, nn^ jLJiiiiaii iTiuacuin. OVU. \0()K. 

From the Author :— Rev. R. Waddy Moss. Genesis and Semitic 
Tradition ; Outlines of the History of Judea. 8vo. 1S94. 

From the Author :— Professor Guidi. Abyssinian Proverbs, &c., 

Rome, 1894. 
[No. cxxvii.] 49 D 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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Vol. VI, Part I . 


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I, 


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2 . 


.. 10 6 


12 6 


„ n, 


,, I 


.. 8 O . 


. lo 6 


„ VII, , 


I . 


.. 7 6 


.. 10 6 


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2 , 


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,, I 


.. 8 o .. 


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„ in, 


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„ IV, 


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2 . 


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. 15 


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.. 30 6 


.. 12 6 


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,. 2 


.. lo 6 .. 


. 12 6 


„ IX, , 


2 . 


.. 10 6 


.. 12 6 



PROCEEDINGS. 



„ XV, Parts I to 7, 1892-93 ... 20 

„ XV, Part 8, 1892-93 ... 50 

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2 6 

6 o 

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A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may be 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Great 
Ru5sell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



Second Meeting, ^th February, 1895, 
Rev. JAMES MARSHALL, IM.A. 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-^:e- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — H. Rassam. History of Assyrian and 
Babylonian Discoveries. Svo. 1S94. 

From the Author : — H. Rassam. Assyrian and Babylonian 
Antiquities at the British INIuseum. Svo. 1S95. 

From the Author : — Rev. R. Waddy Moss. Genesis and Semitic 
Tradition; Outlines of the History of J udea. Svo. 1894. 

From the Author : — Professor Guidi. Abyssinian Proverbs, &c., 

Rome, 1894. 
[No. cxxvii.] 49 D 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

The following Candidate was submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting, 8th January, 
1895, and elected a Member of the Society. 

Rev. Henry Jones, St. John's Parsonage, Ashborne, Derby, 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 
The University Library, Giessen, Germany. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election 
at the next Meeting, to be held on the 5th March, 1895 : — 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, 237, S. 21st Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
Rev. Percival Clementi-Smith, M.A., 35, St. Andrew's Hill, E.G. 

A Paper was read by the Rev. Dr. Lowy on " The Pre- 
Mosaic Culture of the Hebrews." 

Remarks were added by Theo. G. Pinches, Thos. Tyler, 
M.A., Rev. G. Margoliouth, and the Chairman. Thanks were 
returned for this communication. 




50 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

By p. le Page Renouf. 

CHAPTER ex. 

The Beginning of the Chapters of the Garden of Hotepit, and of the 
Chapters of coming forth by day ; and of entering and coming 
forth in the Netherworld^ atid of arriving at the Garden of 
Aarrii, at the Rise (1) in Hotepit and at the Grand Domain, 
blest with the breezes : that I may take possession there and be in 
Glory there : that there I may plough and motv : that there I 
may eat and drink and love : doing whatsoever things are done 
upon earth. 

Horus is seized by Sutu : who looketh as one turning (2) towards 
the Garden of Hotepit. 

But for me Sutu releaseth Horus : and the double path which is 
nigh to Heaven is thrown open by Sutu. And Sutu taketh his 
portion of the breeze through the Power of his own day, (3) and he 
dehvereth the bowels or Horus from the gods below. 

Lo, I sail the great Bark on the Stream of the god Hotep. I 
took it at the mansion of Shu. 

The mansion of his stars is again and again renewed. (4) I sail 
upon its streams that I may come to the domains thereof. 

For I am in unison with his successive changes and his rules, 
and his papyrus, (5) and his attendant gods, and his chieftains. He 
reconcileth the two Warrior gods with those who have the charge 
of food and the beautiful creation which he raiseth up ; and he 
reconcileth the two Warrior gods with each other. (6) 

He severeth the mourners from those who quarrel with them : 
he putteth a stop to them whose hand is violent against those weaker 
than themselves : he keepeth within bounds the contentions of the 
Powers. 

May I have possession there. 

51 D 2 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-EOLOGV. [1895. 

I know it, and I sail upon its streams that I may come to the 
domains thereof. 

My mouth is potent and secured against the Glorified that they 
may not have the mastery of me. 

May I have the investiture of thy Garden, O Hotep. What thou 
wiliest, do thou it. 

Let me be glorified there, and eat and drink there, and plough 
there, and reap there, and grind (7) there, and have my fill of love 
there. 

INIay my mouth be potent there, let me there utter my ^^'ords 

of Power and not be slighted. 

******* 

I am in possession of that Word of Power of mine which is the 
most potent one within this body of mine here : and by means of it 
I make myself either known or unknown. 

I make my progress and I plough. 

I take my rest in the divine Domain. 

I know the names of the domains, the districts and the streams 
within the Garden of Hotep. 

I am there, I am master there, I am in glory there, I eat there ; 
I plant and I reap there ; I plough there, and I take my fill of love, 
I am united there with the god Hotep. 

I cast my seed there, and I sail upon its stream that I may come 
to the domains thereof, O Hotep. 

Lo, my mouth is armed with sharp points. There is given to 
me the abundance which belongeth to the Ka and to the Glorified. 

I give the reckoning of Shu to him who understandeth it. 

I sail upon its stream, and I range within the Garden of Hotep,. 
for Ra is in the sky, and Hotep is putting together the oblations. 

I hasten to the land, and I fasten my stole upon me, that I may 
come forth, and that that may be given to me which hath to be 
given ; that I may have joy and take possession of the wealth which 
Hotep assigneth to me. 

Rise in Hotep, I arrive in thee, my soul is with me, and my 
provision is before the Mistress of the Two Earths, who maketh fast 
my AV'ords of Power, which recall to mind that which I have 
forgotten. Let me live free from strife ; and be there granted to 
me enlargement of heart. 

Let my arteries be made fast, and let me have the enjoyment of 
the Breeze. (8) 

52 



Feb. 5] TROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Rise in Hotep, blest with the Breeze, I arrive in thee, my head 
is uncovered : Ra sleepeth, but there waketh for me, and there 
shineth upon me Hesit [the Cow-goddess] (9) who lieth at the 
•confines of Heaven by night. 

He standeth in my way who heapeth against me his own dross. 

But I am in my own domain. 

Great Domain, I arrive in thee and I reckon up the abundance 
as I pass on to Uach. (10) 

I am the Bull, raised on high in the Blue ; the lord of the Bull's 
field ; which Sothis describeth to me at her successive hours. 

Uach, I arrive in thee, and I eat my cakes, and take possession 
of my joints of flesh and meat and fowl. 

The winged things of Shu are given to me, and my Kau follow 
•me. (11) 

T'efait, (12)1 arrive in thee, I put on the stole and fasten upon 
me the girdle of Ra, whilst he is m heaven, (13) and the gods who 
are in heaven are following Ra. 

Rise in Hotep, Lord of the Two Earths, I arrive in thee : 
I salute the stream of T escrit. (14) Lo, here am I, and all impurity 
is far from me. The great one flourisheth ... I net the 
ducks, and I eat dainties. 

Kankanit, (15) I arrive in thee; that I may see my father and 
attentively view my mother. 

I lake care to net the reptiles ; and that which protecteth me is 
that I know the name of that god who is next co T'eserit (goddess 
with flowing locks and armed with horns), and who reapeth. 

I myself plough and reap. 

Hesit, I arrive in thee, and I encounter the Blue. 

I follow the Breezes, and the company of the gods. 

It is the Great goddess who hath given me my head, and he 
who fasteneth my head upon me is the Great god, the Blue-eyed, 
who doeth according to his own will. 

Userit, (16) I arrive in thee, in face of the mansion where food 
is produced for me. 

Smait, (17) I arrive in thee. My heart is awake: my head is 
provided with the White crown and I am conveyed over the 
heavens : and I make those things to prosper which are below me : 
a joy to the Bull of the gods above, the divine company. 

I am the Bull, the Lord of the gods ; and I make my way 
through the midst of the Emerald ones. (18) 

53 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

Isle of Corn and Barley, divine district, I arrive in thee. I 
encounter and I bear off that which proceedeth from the head of 
Ra : the pair of horns which have the force of purification. (19) 

I make myself fast to the Block of Moorage on the heavenly 
stream, and I utter my praise to the gods who are in the Garden of 
Hotepit. 

Notes. 

The text of this chapter handed down by the Turin papyrus 
and those which agree with it contains nothing very difficult for a 
translator, but on being compared with the older copies it is found 
to consist of a collection of small fragments of the older text put 
together without any regard to their original order or context. And 
about three-quarters of the old chapter are suppressed in the new 
recension. 

The editors of the fine papyrus of Sutimes in their notes upon 
this chapter remark, that in the Turin text the sentences are in quite 
a different order from that of their papyrus, " On peut y voir," they 
say, ^' I'effet de lectures et de transcriptions en rebours du sens, par 
des scribes ayant mal compris les editions, en colonnes retrogrades." 

This is, curiously enough, the very fault of the papyrus of 
Sutimes itself, which is here wrong from beginning to end,* though 
probably derived from an excellent original. It begins with the 
" Isle of Corn and Barley," and jumbles together quite incoherent 
sentences. 

The oldest copy of the chapter yet discovered is that of the 
Tomb of Cha-em-hait, at Thebes, and by a strange fatality it has 
been published in such a form that in order to read it correctly, we 
must begin with what is printed as line 11 and finish with line i. 
We have it also in a very incomplete condition. We miss the first 
eighteen lines contained in the papyrus of Nebseni and the last 
words of every line. 

The papyrus of Nebseni is the only complete text we have, and 
here as well as elsewhere it is extremely incorrect. Some parts are 
so corrupt that a translation must necessarily be dependent upon 
conjectural emendations which can have no genuine claim upon 
the reader's confidence. We must be content with waiting till 
better authorities are discovered. 

* See ]M. Naville's remarks, EiitlcHinig, p. 156. 
54 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

The Gardens of Hotepit and Aarru are the Paradise, Elysian 
Fields and Islands of the Blessed of the Egyptian imagination.* 
They were supposed to be situated in the neighbourhood of the 
rising Sun, but certain features were apparently suggested by the 
islets of the Delta. 



The usual meaning of the word Hotepit, c. n ,1 when 

d III 

written according to the orthography of the Pyramid Texts, is 
oblations, offerings. This, however, is only a derived meaning. The 
word really only expresses a predicate of the things oifered, as 



putting together, uniting, reconciling ; Hotep might signify Rest, 



or Peace ; very appropriate names for such a garden. ^ is 

the name of a god who dwells here.^. There is also a goddess here 



called Hotepit ^ J4 , mentioned in the Pyramid inscription of 

Pepl I (line 423), as mother of the great Scarab : and the same name 
is given to Hathor in the temple of Dendera. The name of Hotep 
(with different determinatives >;) belongs to one of the islands of this 
blissful place. 

The Pyramid Texts furnish some interesting information not con- 
tained in the Book of the Dead. We are told that the approach to 
the Garden is over the Lake of Putrata (see chapter 40, note i), 
that there is a great lake (? that of Konsit) in the middle of the 
Garden of Hotepit, upon which the great gods aUght, and that the 
Achniiu Sekii/, the starry deities who never set, there feed the 

departed with the wood of life i ,,„,^ -y lignum vitcc I " upon 

which they themselves live, in order that he too may live." Shu 
and Tefnut are mentioned as divinities of this place. But perhaps 
the most remarkable fact is that Horus had enemies even here, who, 



* Mission Arch., I, p. 125. 

t Also written ^ {Unas, 422 and elsewhere). 

X The garden is also called \W p^ Another form is I 



1 K:) {rcpi I, 309). 



^ /WNAAA Nebseni, I \ Sutinies, \\ in all the later 



papyri. 

55 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [1S95. 

however, were annihilated by the divine weapons at the disposal of 
the departed worthy, who was led there in order that " he might sit 
among the stars in heaven." 

And here it was that the beatified personage sat upon his throne 
of steel, which was decorated in front with faces of the lion-god 

— ^ X Z^ }^5^ Maahes, the feet of it being the hoofs of the great 

I'lull Siiia-i/ra, and extended his hand to the coming generation of 

men (the x vl Vv ^K\ Q), whilst the gods approached him in 

submissive attitude, and made offerings to him. It was, perhaps, 
from these offerings that the Garden derived its name. 

(These notes 7vill he continued in the next number of the Proceedings.) 




56 



Fkb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [189: 



ON THE DIVINE NAME niHV 

By Rev. G. Margoliouth. 

It is well known that the Divine Names '^'^ and mH^ have, by 
several modern scholars, been held to mean, " the sender of storms, 
of lightning, and the like." This theory rests on the derivation of 
■*'1tr* from the x\ramaic h^lU?, 1r») "to cast," or "to throw down," 
and on the supposition that the name nin^ does not represent the 
A'<?/ with its simple intransitive meaning of " being," or " becoming," 
but the Hifll, or causative of the verb niH, which in Arabic (i_s»J5') 
means "to fall down," and which, in the form ^^IH, also bears the 
same meaning in Job xxxvii, 6, where the phrase occurs : ^3 
yii^ i^in ^^h^"" "h^, "for he saith to the snow, fall down upon 
the earth." 

This conjecture has, however, hitherto been confined to the 
vSacred Name mn^ itself, whilst its explanation by the phrase HTTb^ 
n"^n^^ "^UJi^, as given in Ex. iii, 14, has not been supposed to bear 
any other meaning than that which the verb Jl'^PT usually has in 
Hebrew. The only question that has been admitted on the point 
was whether rT^n^^t expresses the absolute being of God (LXX, 
h 101'), or the " simpler meaning of actuality," with which, as Professor 
W. R. Smith suggested, the ctrv/nai of Aquila and Theodotion 
appears to be connected, or whether finally it is more akin to the 
Greek ^ji-p'o/iuK, to "become something," the latter being the 
meaning favoured in the new edition of Gesenius' Dictionary, which 
is now being published by Drs. Brown, Driver, and Briggs, where 
rr^nb^ Itl^i^ n'Tlb^ is translated by, " I shall be the one who will 
be it." 

* Gesenius [Thesmirtcs, under ''"'Iti') mentions Seb, Schmid and Dryling as ap- 
parently the first to suggest this derivation of '•"'ItJ', but it was the late Professor 
R. W. Smith who brought the theory into pron\inent notice for both names. See 
Dr. Driver's very important article on the subject in Stiuiia Biblica^ I. 

t See W. R. Smith's Prophets of Israel, pp. 385-7. 

57 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.FOLOGY. [1895. 

It appears, however, that the possibiUty of extending the above- 
mentioned conjecture on the meaning of niH^ -t-Iso to the ex- 
planatory phrase n'TIi^ "^11?^^ rfHt^ is by no means excluded, 
and the main purpose of this paper is to offer a few tentative 
remarks in the direction just indicated. 

One reason why the explanatory phrase before us has not 
hitherto been allowed to embody the meaning which Professor 
W. R. Smith and others claimed for nin*', is the idea that the 
designation of the Deity by the term " sender of storms," was held 
to be derogatory to the spirituality of the Mosaic idea of the 
Supreme Being. It was all very well to suppose that such an idea 
existed in very ancient pre-Mosaic days, but even advanced critics 
have felt a certain very laudable shrinking from a theory which 
would carry a merely physical attribute like this into the very 
centre of the religious system propagated by Moses. This objection 
need, however, not stand in our way, if we only suppose — -as we are 
fully justified in doing — that the physical notion of " sending down 
things from the sky" would gradually pass over into the meaning of 
" sending to man all things that he needs," and, like the Arabic 

\-\\, It might even have assumed the idea of "sendmg down a 
revelation."''' niH'', therefore, if it be taken as the causative of 
mrii k_>v^' " *-° f^^'V might in the Mosaic conception have had the 
meaning of the " sender of the law," and from this point of view 
there can so far be no objection to a similar interpretation of the 
explanatory phrase in Ex. iii, 14, and Pf^I^^^ llTi^ n''i~It^ may, 
therefore, not inaptly be taken to mean : " I will send down what 
I will send down," i.e., " I will give you a law from heaven in 
accordance with the plan of my inscrutable providence." 

But the other and perhaps more serious objection to this theory 
lies in the fact ttiat the verb TT^Tl never means anything but " to be " 
or "to become" in the Hebrew that has come down to us. It is 
different, so it may fairly be argued, with regard to the name nin^ , 
for there we have a root mn, which in the Arabic fourth form 
actually means "to send down," and which, as we have seen, is also 
found once in Job in the unmistakable sense of " falling down ; " 
whereas in the phrase rT^Hh^ "^tTt^ rTTT^^ ^\'e have the usual verb 
TT^Tl , which nowhere means anything but " to be." This argument 

* Instances of similar evolutions of ideas and terms are too common to need 
any specific justification. 

58 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

is no doubt a very strong one, and I own to feeling its weight myself. 
My remarks are, however, as I have already said, merely tentative ; 
and if my suggestion should be found worth consideration on other 
grounds, we shall also be disposed to reflect that we are not now 
investigating what the phrase H'^ili^ ItT^^ HTlt^ meant later on — 
say from the time of David onwards — but what it meant in the 
original source from Avhich the Elohist, to whom critics assign the 
main portion of Ex. iii, drew his account. That the roots H^n and 
mn interchange in Hebrew is shown., e.g., by the phrase TT)?! 
"f^n^T ■^''1:J in Gen. xxvii, 29, and by ']r2b "MID ""in in Is. xvi, 4, 
where HIH is found in the usual sense of HTf, and we therefore 
have a right to suppose that in a very early stage of the language, i.e., 
before Hebrew and Arabic were yet quite distinct from each other, 
HTF might have also been used in the sense which i»^in has in 
Job xxxvii, 6, namely, that of "falling down." Nor ought we to 
overlook the fact that in Job vi, 2, '^H'^n , in the sense of "abyss," 
or "engulfing ruin," is the ITl^D instead of T^^D, which is the "i^p. 
This clearly shows that the root Tl^Tl was not unknown in the sense 
of " falling down " in that dialect of Hebrew which exhibits most 
affinity with Arabic, and as the Sinai revelation actually takes us 
into the territory of the Midianites, who were northern Arabs, we 
need not be surprised to find in a very ancient phrase an unusual 
meaning of nTf , if that meaning can be justified by the very 
similar Arabic root , c»Jb. 

Another aspect of the question before us is the very important 
grammatical one. There is hardly any scholar who has not found 
the phrase TT^Tli^ "itL''h^ nTlt^, when taken in the meaning usually 
assigned to it, difficult to construe. The late Professor W. R. 
Smith's elaborate note on the subject, in his work on the Prophets 
of Israel (pp. 385-7), ends with the confession that a "little 
awkwardness of expression " still remains. The difficulty, however, 
lies not so much in the repetition of the word MTf^^, as in the 
particle 112)^ standing between the double n'^ni^. This relative 
particle * may follow either a substantive or a verb. If it follows a 



The idea that "^tTi*^ is here a coujunciive particle, and that the phrase is to 
be rendered, " I shall be ivasmiich as I shall be," has not found favour amonrj 
scholars generally, although advocated by Ibn Ezra, J. D. I\[ichaelis, and 
Wellhausen. See the new edition of Gesenius" Dictionary, under HIH- 

59 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [1S95. 

substantive, it is equally usual and equally easy whether ^U,^^ has 
to be construed as a nominative or as an accusative. The case is, 
however, rather different when it follows a verb, for it is then far 
more usual, and it appears also to be far more natural to construe 
it as an accusative. A few instances will indeed be found in which 
it stands in the nominative case, and the phrase *7~i "^tl^t^ "T^ '^11"' 
in Gen. xxxiii, 9, shows that it would be justifiable to take the "^UJ^i 
in rr^nt^ lir^^ rr^n^^ in a similar sense. De Lagarde* also 
quotes the Arabic phrase Ijiljij ^J:s\\ liiUt) , «Ar^ (donee accidit ei 
quod accidit), from which it can be seen that the relative pronoun 
j<-jk!l' ^\'hich answers to the Hebrew "lllj^^, can also be used as a 
nominative after a verb. But the accusative signification is far 
more frequent, and no one will, I believe, doubt that, grammatically 
speaking, the phrase n'^Hi*^ ^IT^ rT^nS^ reads much more smoothly 
and much more naturally, if rTTfb^ be taken as a causative, and 
"^IT^ consequently as standing in the accusative case ; and as the 
meaning of " causing to be " is excluded on the simple ground that 
no Semitic language f uses the Hif'il of Tl'^Tl in that sense, it 
follows that we must adopt the only other possible translation, and 
render: "I will send down what I will send down." This phrase 
would then be entirely analogous to iCi^ iDb^il "llT^^ Hh^ in Ex. 
xvi, 23, or JHh^ "^tl^^ n^^ "^nsni in Ex. xxxiii, 19. 

You will of course not expect me to say much on the views 
which Egyptologists or Assyriologists have held on the subject 
before us. There was a time when the Egyptian " nuk pu nuk" 
(occurring in several places of the "Book of the Dead") was held 
to be analogous to HTl^ "^tli'b^ nTtt^, and practically to mean 
the same. If that were so, my theory of a causative sense for n"^Hh^ 
would be considerably weakened; but Mr. le Page Renouf has, in his 
Hibbert Lectures J (pp. 244-5), entirely refuted the analogy, and 
shown that the phrase " nuk pu nuk " only means, " I, even I," 
without containing any verb signification whatever. From an 
Assyriological point of view, the list of names compounded with Ya 
and Yawa in Assyro-Babylonian inscriptions, as communicated by 

* Psalter iuii! jit. \ta IMnros Hicroiiyiiii, Lipsi.v, p. 138. 

+ The use of w»001| in Syriac is a very late formation. I'ayne Smith only 
•quotes some instances from Bar-Hebreus and Ebed-Veshu. 

X Published by Williams and Norgate, 18S0; quoted also in Dr. Driver's 
article in Sttidia Biblica, I. 

60 



Feb. 5J PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Mr. Pinches in the Proceedings of this Society for November, 1892, 
appeared rather formidable ; but Professor Sayce, with— one may 
suppose — Mr. Pinches' very carefully drawn up statement before 
him, declares, in his work on the Higher Criticism and the Verdict 
of the Monuments (p. 89), that, "apart from the names of Jews 
and that of Yahu-bidhi [who may have been of Jewish origin], the 
cuneiform inscriptions, in spite of the wealth of proper names 
which they contain, show us no names that are compounded with 
the name of the God of Israel." Until, therefore, Mr. Pinches, or 
another experienced Assyriologist, draws up a theory which would 
materially strengthen the hypothesis of Professor Friedrich Deiitzsch,* 
which, as Dr. Driver has shown, is now practically disproved, the 
Biblical student is obliged to confine himself to the evidence offered 
by the more general Semitic branches of research. 

I began my paper with a statement of modern conjectures, not 
only with regard to the Divine Name XTSTV-, but also with regard to 
iltii'. These two Sacred Names must indeed, from the point of 
view taken up here, be treated together. The two most important 
rival roots to which ^ItL^ has been assigned by different scholars are 
"T"Tt2? and ^^IlLVf I need not repeat what has been said on the 
subject before, and I will, therefore, only adduce a grammatical 
reason in favour of t^lU?. as I am not aware that this reason has 
been thought of before. If "^IlL^ were derived from "Tltr, the "i 
would have to be taken as a formative letter, and the word woukl 

be a relative adjective of the same type as, e.g., ] i n\^ "belonging 

to a king " or " royal," and X*\^ " belonging to the outside," or 
"external." "^'^ would therefore mean, "belonging to one who 

destroys," or " to one who is powerful." But it is clear that the 
Divine Being would hardly be designated in this manner. He 
would be called, "the Powerful," or "Almighty," not "belonging 
to the Powerful" or "Almighty." If, on the other hand, illT be 
derived from i^TtT, Ir*, the word would denote a "Being who is 
in the habit of sending down things from heaven," and it would 

* See Professor Driver's article on the subject in Stiidia Bil'lica, I. 

t I am aware that analogies from the Egyptian and Assyrian have been 
suggested for this name also, but it will hardly be affirmed that a definite theory 
has been formulated as yet. The Egyptian expression " nutar nutra" {see Le 
Page Renouf, Hibbert Lectures, p. 99) would of course be a striking parallel if 
^'ICJ' really meant "the Almighty." 

61 



Feb. 5J SUCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCII.FOLOGY. [1895. 

then be analogous in form to such words as Q^p, the constant one; 

t' — 

l;niJ. , the hero ; )*1!Lid > ^ sailor. 

I will close my remarks with one more suggestion, namely, that 
'^'Iti? and T^^'il'^ are in reality the same Divine Name expressed in 
two different Semitic dialects, '^1v2? being the Aramaic name of the 
God of the Patriarchs, and nirf the Hebrew- Arabic translation or 
equivalent of the Name. Both Names really mean — according to the 
opinion advocated in this paper — the same thing, namely, "one 
who sends down things from heaven," and it is only natural that 
Abraham the Aramaean should have known the Godhead by the 
Aramaic designation "^TiLS and that the Hebrew-Arabic designation 
of the true God should have been adopted by his descendants later 
on. With this view before us the well-known third verse of Ex. vi 
becomes quite clear and natural. When iSIoses was informed that to 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob the God of Israel was known by the 
name of "'"^tl'' h^ , but not by that of mn^, this appears to mean 
that to the three patriarchs, who had remained more or less Aramreans 
in speech, the Divine Being was known by the Aramaic name 
■^■^ir, whilst their descendants, who became more and more identified 
with Canaan, and also came into very close contact w^ith the northern 
Arabs, naturally adopted the name Tl^TT^ to express the Name of the 
Deity, who had been known to the patriarchs by an Aramaic 
designation. A modification of a similar tendency appears to lie 
before us in the two forms of the name borne by Abraham's wife. 
"^"y^ may be taken to have been her Aramaic name,* which in 
Canaan was naturally modified into '^'^^''. One is surprised to find 
that Prof. Saycef is so much puzzled over the form of the word '^"]^\ 
and that he could only find an explanation of it in the Canaanish 
forms Za/hii, lion, and Adai, as found on the Tel-el-Amarna tablets, 
where the words just quoted are, however, not of the feminine gender. 
The termination at for the feminine is well known in the Aramaic of 
an archaic form, as is shown by the words ^^^cL ' ^ spider, ^qj2* 

a condition, . , n\f^ , a quail, and a few other examples; and there 
is besides the analogous Arabic feminine termination in ^ or U of 

See Wright's Comparative Grammar 0/ the Semitic Lan^iiaqes, p. 138. 
t Higher Criticism an.i the Verdict of the Monuments, p. 179. 

62 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

which there are many examples — as ^-.-j, a claim; (_fi'j, memory; 

^"^ ^jLj 5 good news. 

You will have noticed that I have been careful to qualify my 
remarks by the term "tentative." No one can boast to have arrived 
at anything like a certain explanation of either of the Sacred Names 
which we have been considering, and a difficulty has been felt 
all along in the construction of the important phrase ItTi^ HTf^^ 
n'^n^^- My only object has been to suggest one or two fresh lines 
of argument and investigation, and it is just possible that what 
I have said may deserve to be subjected to a further examination in 
future treatises on the same subject. 



P.S. — I have not discussed the vocalisation of the words treated 
on in this paper, but it is clear that if my suggestion should be 
adopted, the original pronounciation of the verbal form in the 
phrase rfH^^ "^tTh^ H'TIt^ must have been different from that 
usually assigned to it. 




63 



FrB. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1S95. 



THE LAMENT OF "THE DAUGHTER OF SIN." 
By Theo. G. Pinches. 

The lower right-hand portion of what was originally a large 
closely-written tablet of red baked clay, the text measures at present 
2| inches high by 4I inches long. The obverse has the latter 
portion of fifteen lines of column I, and no less than twenty-fouj- 
lines, more or less complete, of Column H. The reverse has 
twenty-five similar lines of Column HI, and the latter halves of 
eighteen lines of Column IV. Like most bilingual texts, the trans- 
lation is interlinear, the Assyrian lines being inset about §■ of an 
inch. In some places, however (especially on the reverse), the 
scribe seems to have wished to economize space, and he has there- 
fore written the Assyrian line or lines in smaller characters in such 
blank spaces as were available. The style of the writing is 
Babylonian, and the tablet was probably copied from a Babylonian 
original by Assyrian scribes at Nineveh, where the present fragment 
was found, either by Layard or by Rassam. 

Though only a fragment of a large tablet, the text seemed to me 
to be worth publication, not only on account of the subject, but also 
because of the new words or phrases it contains, both in the Semitic 
and non-Semitic Babylonian versions. As will be seen, it is a kind of 
legend referring to a high-placed lady, seemingly even a goddess, 
who had been driven from her house and city by her " enemy." * 

* Dr. Bezold's description of the text in Vol. I of the British Museum Cata- 
logue, is as follows : — 

" Part of a clay tablet, 4J inches by 2j inches. End of obverse with twenty- 
four, and beginning of reverse with twenty-four for the most part pretty clear 
Babylonian lines. A mythological tale (or part of an incantation?) in tlie 
interlinear style of writing, the explanations of the ideographs being given some- 
times in very small characters between two lines of a larger writing. Mentions. 

the god ^>f >^ <^y.- :^y (y-)."* 

* " Accoiding to some Akkadologists, this text would be one of the so-called dialectic."' 

64 






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iv^ 



Fer. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1^95. 

Column I. 

I ^ul dug-ga-mu 

2. . u(?)-sal- pi - tu 

he hath caused evil 

3 [ma-da] in - ga - du - a 

4. . ma-a-ti in-ni-ip-pu-us 

\i}i\ the land zvas made 

5 ma - da gul - gul 

6 ma-a-ti u - tab -bat 

\in'\ the land was destroyed 

7 kur-ri ba-da-ab - gam. 

8 nak - ri is - ta - lal 

the enemy carried off 

9. [Dumu seg - ga ] kur - ri 

ma-ri dam-ka mina 
\The son the fair one ^\ the enemy {carried off) 

10 su - nu-um - du - du 

II ul us-tak - la - lu 

7vas not completed 

12 e-a am - gi 

13 ina beti pi - Iju - u 

is shut up in the house 

14 ub - bi ba - da - gub 

15 ina tup - ki su-uz-zu-zu 

was made to settle in the region 

Column II. 

I ra - mu 

2 . 

3 u - a - mu 

4 elippi ar - ka - bu 

[///] the ship I rode 

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Feb. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1895. 



5. [ur - ri - bi ]e- sir ma-al - la sala - mu ni - in - tu 

6. [Nak-ru su-u ina sepa-su ?] se-e-nu sak-nu ana mas-tak-ki-ia 

i-ru-ba-a'" 
// 7vas the enemy, uf>on \Jiis feef\ the s/ioe 7C<as set, to my 
sanctuary he descended 

7. ur - [ri - bi §u] nu - lag - ga - bi ma - ku mu - si - in - ir 

8. [nak - ri] su - u kata - su la me - si - a - ti ya - si ub - la 
// 7vas the entmy ! his hands not ivaslied upon me he brought 



9. su-[ni] mu - un - si - in - ir 
10. ka -ti - su ub - lam - ma 
his hands he drought and 



im - mu - e - gm 
u-par - ri - da -an - ni 
he drove me forth 



11. [ur]-ri-bi su - ni mu - un - si - in -ir im-te-a mu-un-gam-en 

12. nak - ri su-u kat - su u-ub-lam-ma ina pu-luh-ti us-mi-tan-ni 
It was the enemy! His hand he brought and in fear he made 

me bo7V do'icn 



14. 



]Me - e im - ma - da - te 
Ana-ku ad - luh - ma 
/ ivas troubled and 



as 



e-ne nu - mu - da - te 
su - u ill ip - lah- an - ni 
for him he feared me not 



15. Te - mu mu-da-an - sig dam-a-ni mu-ni-in-dur 

16. Su-ba-a - ti is-hu - ut - ta - an - ni-ma as-sat-su u-lab-bi-su 
Mv clothes he tore ojf from me and his 2uife he clothed - 

17. Ur - ri - bi na-za-gin mu - da - an - tar dumu - ni mu-ni-in - lal 

18. Nak - ri su-u uk-ni-i ip-ru-^'-ma ma-rat-su is-kun 
// luas the enemy ! The lapis-lazuli he snatched away and {on) 

his daughter lie placed. 



19. Ki - gub-ba-bi 

20. Man-za-as-su 
His domain 



am-gug - e - de 

a-kab-ba-as 

/ li'ill make desolate 



21 im - ni - ma ki - a si-in - ki - ki - e 

hi - bi e§ - Su 

22 im ra-ma-ni-ia as - ra-a-ti es - te- ni-'-e 

myself the places I 7inll seek 

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Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

23 gir - e amar dim ba-ab-hu-luh-ha 

24 ia ur-ri-ha - an - ni ina i-ga-ri-ia u-gal-lid-an-ni 

[To] my he hurried me, in my enclosed place he disturbed me 



Column III. 



1. Tu - musen im - te - a- dim mu - ur - ra ud - ba - ni 

2, Ki - ma su - um-ma-tu™ u(?)-ri-it-ti ina gu-su-ri a-bit 



Like a lonely (?) dove 



upon a beam I rest 



3. Su - din musen 

4. Ki-ma su-din 
Like a sudin 



dal-la-dim di-da-al kabar-kabar-ri-en 

nu D.S. [ir?]-ri-si ina ni-gi-is-si es - te - ri 
bird wounded (?) in a hollow L perch 



5. E - ma musen - dim 

6. Ina beti-ia ki - ma is-[su]-ri 
In my house like a bird 



uii-ma-ra-an - ri-e-en 
u - sap-sak - an - ni 
he putteth me in anguish 



7. Eri - ma musen - dim 
In my city like a bird 



un 



he {putteth me in anguish) 



8. E - ma egir - mu 

9. Beti ar-ki - i[a] 
My house behind me 



gu - mu - un - de - de - e 
il - ta - na - as - si - a 
constantly repeateth 



ro. Gasan - gin. Eri- ma egir [-mu] gu 

Be - li - ku a - li ar - ki - ia mina 

'•''I am the lady.''' My city behind me {constantly repeateth) {the same). 

1 1. Me - e e - mu E - mu [nu] - gin a - dim in - na - an - de 

12. Ana-ku ana beti-ia[Ul] beti at - ta"^ ki-i ak-bu - u 

/ to my house " Thou art?iot my house," thus I have said 

13. Me - e eri-mu Eri - munu-gina - dim 

I to my city ^^ Thou art not my city " thus {I have said) 



14. Na - an - na - tu - tu - de - en im - mi - gu - a la - bi mu - un-ku-e 

15. La ir-ru-ub-[su] ak-bi-ma la - la - su ik - kal - an - ni 

" / will not enter it," I said, '^ for its splendour will eat ?ne up" 

67 E 2 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1895. 

16. Na-an-da-ra . . de-de-en im-mi-gu i si-is-bi mu -un-da-si -gi 

17. La ut-tak .... as-su ak-bi-ma si-ha(?)-la-su-u-Sa-na-a§-an-ni 

"• I will not //" I said, '■'■for its lamentation 7vill make 

mc sad " 

18. A-dim ni- -gul - gul ni - zu a-dim mu - un - pi - el 

19. Ki-ma .... -ri-su kl-i tu-ab-bi-ti-su ra-maii-ki, ki-i tu-gal-li-Ii 
Zike its .... tlius thou hast destroyed it, thyself thus thine 

hast ruined 

20. Nin saLi(?)-zu .... -ni-gul-gul ni-zu 

21. [Be-el]-tu'" [masj-tak-ki ki-i ta-bu-ti 

Lady, thy sanctuary, thus thou hast destroyed, thyself {thus thou 
hast ruined). 

22. . na - d - im 

23 - ad - di - ni 

\thou\ hast given 

24 - i 

25 - en 



Column IV. 

I 

2 il 

3 - nie - en 

am I 

4 esig - ga 

strong 

5 

6 bara mu - ru . . . - an . 

7 ina ar - ki - ia man - nu 

behind me, who . . . . ? 

8 a - ba ba - ra - e 

ni-is i-ni-ia 

.... the darling of mine eye, tvho hath driven forth? 

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Fkb. 5] PROCEEDINGS, [1895. 

Q a - ba ba - ra - sub - ba 

. . . . ii.<ho hath overthroum ? 



10 >->f- Mu - 111 - lil - la - mc - en 

II - ti sa >->^ yy ana - ku 

. . /he . . of Bel am I 

12 tu"' En - zu - na - me - en 

a-bi-ia Sin ana-ku 

. . the . . of my father Sin am I 

13 tak - nit >->y- Nu - dim - mut - me - cn 

•>->{- yy ana-ku 

. . the . . of the god Ea am I 

14 u - mu - un - il - j„,. • «« e 

'•+ na-as-si ^aul j| 

[J/l' lord hath'] taken aiuay, my king hath taken away 

- un -na -ab- il - e 

u - 5a - as - si 

lie hath caused to be taken away 



15 ga(?)-a mu 

u - 5a - as - si 



16 mu - un - na - ab - si - am - ma 

ya-iki a-nam-dim 
/ 7vill give 

17 mu - un - na- ab - sa - e 

u-se-pis 

/ ic'ill have it made 

J 8 mu - un - na - ab - gub - gub 

/ 7vill have it made firm. 

In order to make the text more intelligible, I give also a free 
rendering without the interlinear Sumerian and Assyrian versions. 
A more correct idea of the state of the text, and the amount that is 
preserved, will probably be gained from this, than from the threefold 
version printed above. 



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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

FREE RENDERING. 

COLUiSIN I. 

I — 2 he hath spoken (caused) evil. 

3 — 4 was made in the land. 

5 — 6 was destroyed in the land. 

7 — 8 the enemy carried off; 

9. The enemy carried off my fair son. 

10- 1 1 . . . was not completed. 

12-13 is shut up in the house. 

14-15 was made to settle in the district 

Column II. 

3 — 4 I rode in the ship 

5 — 6. It was the enemy, the shoe was placed upon his foot, and 

he descended to my sanctuary — 
7 — 8. It was the enemy ! — He laid his unclean hands upon me, 
9-10. He laid his hands upon me, and he drove me forth. 
11-12. It was the enemy! — He laid his hands upon me, and made 

me bow down in fear. 
13-14. I was in trouble, and as for him, he feared me not — 
15-16. He tore my clothes off from me and clothed therewith his 

wife. 
17-18. It was the enemy ! — He plucked off from me my lapis-stone 

and gave it to his daughter. 
19-20. I will make desolate his domain ! 

21-22 myself — I will seek the (holy ?) places ! 

23-24. He hurried me [to] my . . . . , he disturbed me in my 
enclosed place. 

Column III. 

I — 2. Like a lonely dove I rest upon a beam. 

3 — 4. Like a wounded si/din?iu-h\rd I perch in a hollow place 

5 — 6. He frighteneth me like a bird in my house — 

7. He frighteneth me like a bird in my city. 
8 — 9. My house behind me constantly repeateth (that) 

10. "I am the lady" — My city behind me constantly repeateth 
(the same). 

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Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

11-12. I have said thus to my house : "Thou art not my house " — 

13. 1 have said thus to my city : "Thou art not my city." 
14-15. "I will not enter it," I said, "for its fulness will eat me up." 
16-17. "I will not approach (?) it," I said, "for its lamentation will 

make me sad." 
18-19. Like .... , thus hast thou destroyed it — thyself, thus 

hast thou ruined ! 
20-21. Lady — thy sanctuary — thus hast thou destroyed — thyself, 

thus hast thou ruined. 
22-23 [thou] hast given 

24-25 

Column IV. 

3 am I, 

4 strong 

5 

6 — 7 behind me who ? 

8. . . . the darling of mine eye, who hath driven him forth? 

9 who hath overthrown ? 

10-11. . . . the . . . of Bel am L 

12. . . . the . . . of my father Sin am L 

13. . . . the . . . of the god Ea am L 

14. [My lord hath] taken away, my king hath taken away. 

15 he hath caused to be taken away. 

16 I will give. 

17 I will have it made. 

18 I will have it made firm. 

Judging from what remains of the text, it would seem that the 
heroine, who speaks in the first person, tells of some one who 
caused evil, who had plundered the country, and who had carried 
off her fair son {inari danika, "my son, the fair," or "the fair son," 
in which case, however, the final / of mari would be difficult to 
explain). She then speaks of something that had not been com- 
pleted, of some person or persons " shut up in the house " (Sum. : 
ia amgi, Assyr. : ina beii pihii), and being " made to stay in the 
region " (Sum. : ub-bi badagub, Assyr. : ina tupki suzzuzii). 

The fracture of the tablet has broken away the upper part of 
Column II, and where it is complete, the heroine is speaking of 
liaving " ridden in a ship." Her enemy (the Assyrian has nakri sii^ 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1S95. 

'■ it was my enemy," but the Sumerian text gives iirri-bi, " it was the 

enemy " " my enemy," in that language, would probably be 

nrrn-nn/), however, descended to her sanctuary or dwelling 
{//idsfakkia), and placing his unclean hnnds upon her, drove her 
forth, humbled her, and set her in anguish. He even went farther 
than this, for he tore her clothes off from her and clothed his wife 
therewith, and, snatching away her jewel of lapis stone {i/k/u), 
placed it upon his daughter's neck. In her anger the heroine 
threatens that she will make desolate his domain, and will betake 
herself to other places. In Column III, which immediately follows 
Column II without any gap, she mourns her luckless case, liking 
herself to a dove sitting in solitude upon a beam, and to a sudinnu- 
bird moping in a hollow place, for like a caged bird her enemy had 
put her in anguish in her house and in her city. She hears her 
house and her city saying behind her that she is the lady (in 
Sumerian gasan-gi?i, in Assyrian btiikit, "I am the lady"— an 
example of oblique narration). She tells her house and her city 
that they are no longer hers, and that she will not enter them, for 
their splendour and their lamentation (at her absence) would con- 
sume her and make her sad. These words are followed by lines in 
the form of reproaches, probably uttered by her enemy, who tells 
her that it is she who has destroyed her sanctuary, and ruined 
herself. A gap follows, embracing the remainder of Column III 
and the beginning of Column IV, where she seems to ask, " Who 
hath driven forth my darling {?iis inla, lit., "the darling of my eye") 
and overthrown [my dominion?"]. She then tells who she is — 
the [honoured one] of Bel — the [beloved] of her father Sin, — the 
[handmaid?] of the god Nudimmut or Ea. It is [her lord] and 
her king, she says, who has taken away (her precious things, in all 
probability); but a restoration of the things is promised either by 
the goddess herself, or by another speaking, in the text, in the first 
person. 

Such is the nature of the inscription, which is rare enough in its 
way, and when such texts come to light, they are, on account of 
their rareness, all the more precious. The principal defect about 
the above is its incompletess, — the remainder of the tablet (more 
than two-thirds) probably still lies hidden in the ruin-mounds o 
Nineveh. 

A very interesting question is. Who was the narrator and heroine 
of the story? In Column IV, line 12, she mentions her father Sin, 

72 



Fkb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

the moon-god, and it is not improbable, therefore, that the speaker, 
in the narrative, is Istar, who, in the account of the descent of that 
goddess into Hades, is called "daughter of Sin.'' It is noteworthy that 
the heroine of the story, in Column I, 1, 9, speaks of her son {mari 
damka, " my fair son " — unless, indeed, we are to translate " the fair 
son," in which case Tammuz would probably be intended), and this 
is supported by the fact that the enemy is said, in the same line, to 
have carried him off, typifying his imprisonment in Hades by Eres- 
ki-gal, the (jueen of that region. In Column H, lines 3-4, the 
heroine says that she "rode in a ship" {\^!na-ra ?] uamu = [/;/(/] 
I'lippi arkabu), indicating the crossing of the waters by Istar when 
she went to seek Tammuz in the Underworld ; and the loss of her 
clothing and lapis-stone, mentioned in Column II, lines 15-1S, 
corresponds with the statement in the story of her Descent into 
Hades, that she had to part with her clothing and jewels at the 
seven gates of that region. 

In the light of the above parallels, we are able to trace the origin 
of the legend of Istar's visit to the Underworld, ^\'e are able to say 
that that legend is a comparatively late production, and is probably 
based upon the present text, and produced by expanding the 
narrative and changing its figurative language into literal statements. 
In the present text, Istar is imprisoned in her own house and city 
(Column II, lines 23-24, Column III, lines 5-13), and apparently 
not in Hades. This is an important difference ; but the idea of the 
Netherworld is apparently contained in lines 3-4, where the heroine 
says that she perches, like a wounded .r/^^/;/-bird, in a hollow place 
{ina nigissi), and it is not unlikely that the goddess's comparing 
herself to birds (Column II, lines 1-7) may have had something 
to do with the statement, in the " Descent of Istar," that the in- 
habitants of Hades are "clothed also, like birds, in a dress of 
feathers;" though this idea, as an early belief, seems to be confirmed 
by certain cylinder-seals which apparently represent the bringing of 
a soul before the king of the lower regions. 

The lamentation of Istar, in our text, gives place, in the "Descent 
of Istar," to a lamentation for Tammuz, her husband, whom she 
had left in Plades, but who, as the waxing summer sun, was to come 
forth, in due time, from the land of darkness, to lighten the world 
once more with his rays. 

But it will probably be asked, " Who was ' the enemy ' whom 
the heroine of the new text feared?" It is probaljly not going too 

73 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S95. 

far to say that " the enemy " was death, the king of terrors, who 
had destroyed the land (Column I, lines 5-6), and carried off [the 
inhabitants] (lines 7-8), including " the fair son " (line 9), Dumu-zi, 
or Tummuz, " the son of life," and who does not spare even the god- 
dess of love herself, taking away from her the things that she loved — 
her garments, and the jewel of lapis stone by which she set so great 
store. "The enemy" is the "porter of the waters" of the legend 
of the descent of Istar, both of them types of death himself. 

The reproaches which seem to be levelled at the goddess in 
Column III, lines 18-21, where she is said to have destroyed her 
home and sanctuary, and ruined herself, are difficult to understand, 
unless we suppose that the ancient world regarded the misfortunes 
of the goddess as the well-merited punishment for her many sins, as 
detailed in the tablet of the Gilgames-series in which she makes love 
to that hero. Even in those remote ages, the goddess of love had 
much to answer for. 




74 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895 



THE UNKNOWN ARAMAIC ORIGINAL OF THEODO- 
TION'S ADDITIONS TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL. 

By Dr. Caster. 



III. — Commentary. 

I pass now to the detailed and minute comparison between the 
Aramaic text published here for the first time, and the two Greek 
translations, the LXX and Theodotion. This comparison will show 
how far the contention is justified by facts that the Aramaic text is 
the very original of those translations, especially of Theodotion's, 
and is not a translation from any of the Greek texts, or any other 
text in existence. I have used O. ¥. Fritzsche's edition,* which so 
far seems to be the best available. 

At the same time I will offer some emendations of the Aramaic 
text, and some observations on the state of its preservation. 

A. T/ie Song. 

V. I. Is almost identical with Theodotion, and just as short ; 
differing from LXX. Instead of (p\o'-/o'.- we have however pHb^ 
b^n"T*^p"^ fc^llw > " The furnace of burning fire," corresponding to the 
second half of the LXX, np ttviu vTronato^icmj^ T/y? Ka/ni'i'oi'. Azarias 
is the only one who prays, not all as in the LXX. 

V. 2. "T^ll corresponds exactly to ev\oy>]To<s ; r\y\l?72 settles 
the reading alve'roi', and refers to the name of God. The verb is 
in the third instead of the second person, in conformity with the 
old Hebrew forms of praise, p^^ pb^ D^li^^ 'H "|1"in Ps. Ixxxix, 
53, and more especially Ezra vii, 27, with which the first half of 
V. 2 is identical. 

* Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Graece. Lipsiae, 1S71. 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1895. 

V. 3. For the first a\)jOii'u stands here t^Tl^'^p, whilst for the 
■second, which in some MSS. alternates with aXijOeia, we have 
the word T^^^^HTD) identical with Syr. P. This is a proof for the 
original character of the Aramaic, where two distinct words are used 
instead of one and the same, as is the case in the Greek. We 
shall find later on similar examples of copiousness of language 
in Aramaic for various shades of identical notions, which are 
rendered however by one and the same Greek word. The two 
words 2"^^^ ^"d 1^'^n^ are used together (Daniel ii, 45), and 
^^!i''T ]l*2t^ is the form used in the morning prayer of the Jewish 
Liturgy, which dates from the times of the second Temple. 

V. 4. Our text has the singular, l^Vk^^"^"! T^l, " true judgment," 
corresponding to v. 7, ej' u\ijOti'7j kpi'irci, where the same words 
occur. 

nriTl'^^'i^, twice so in the IMS., must be altered into i^n*'n''''fc^- 
the scriptio pleiia, which we find in most cases of 2 s. in our text. 
It corresponds to Theodotion cV/)7«7cv in both instances in this 
verse. 

aov of the LXX is omitted by Theodotion and in our text, in 
€v aXijOeuiKcu Kpiaei is not a very happy juxtaposition, it is contrary 
to the constant combination of '- truth ' with ^Judgment.' In our 
text we have the correct form /;/ true judgment, or judgment oj 
truth, once before in the same verse, and in v. 7. Cf. also Nehem. 

^'. 5. ti' TTuai of the LXX, neither Theodotion nor our text. 
<nroaTrjvni is as near a translation as can be found of i^2"Ti^t^'l> 
the Aphel-form of ^"f^^, to depart, to remove oneself from. It 
-Stands in the finite form, and is parallel with the two preceding verbs 
and the following i^^I^ti^T ', so also Syriac, ed. Lagarde. 

^^ 6. The Greek translator has read 7^^ as it is in the Syriac 
{ed. Lagarde) instead of 72^, hence the peculiar ii> -aat, which gives 
no satisfactory meaning. It ought to read tV irurrt -lus^ IvToXah, 
according to the Aramaic text. The whole text of the two verses 
(7 and 8) does not seem to have been well preserved in Greek. 
Y. 7 looks like an unnecessary repetition of v. 4. hi the Aramaic 
we have in v. 8 the justification for the true punishments, and the 
way how they have been carried out. The LXX reading of v. 7 
seems to be the more accurate. 

76 



Ffb. 5] rROCEEDIXGS. [1S95. 

V. 8. e;i^0/(TTa'i' (nro(J7u-ivu is Omitted in the Aramaic text, which 
does not know of apostates, and which has, wicked a?id bad kin(:;s, 
)^'yy^ pluralis, instead of the singular of the Greek, which may have 
been interpoLited into the Greek by a copyist who thought probabl)- 
of Antiochus, "the wicked king." The difficulty felt of old about the 
" apostates " is thus solved, and the speculation about the wicked 
king falls to the ground. {Cf. Fritzsche, Lc, p. 125.) 

V. 9. The wording of the Aramaic favours Theodotion"s Greek 
form tyein']0)i against the senseless ^^/evy0t]/ncv ; the construction is 
however somewhat different in both versions. The Aramaic text 
agrees with Daniel ix, 16; rf. Joel ii, 17; the Greek translator 
must have thought of Isaiah xxx, 5, as he has alaxvvrf kuI ouetco'* 
as in Isaiah, instead of only ulaxvi')] as in the Aramaic text. 

V. 10. The Aramaic text has, ^^ thy great and holy^' added to 
" name," which is missing in Theodotion and LXX. 'Tjllll'^mr 
corresponds to Hebrew 'l^Jl'ni^j "Thy law, covenant." n3*^*r\r 
wrongly translated hmaKccaaip. The idea of God forgetting the 
Covenant is taken from Deut. iv, 31. 

V. II. Abraham, "thy beloved," j)7«7r/;^«fci'o?, is not a very correct 
translation of "r^in*^, which ought to be rendered by, (^iXo'i (xor-, the 
usual title of Abraham. (C/! Isaiah xli, 8.) The Semitic original for 
this translation has been suggested also by De Wette (I.e., p. 509) ; 
Syriac has also *7t2''n^ • 

V. 13. Instead of the word b^^'^Ti^, which does not exist in 
Aramaic, we ought to read i^^ni^T, "we have been diminished," 
"we have become less," i(fi.uKi){i'0qficv. 

oTi is impossible, it must be kuI vdv, '?^3 ^i^l , "and now." 

tff/<6J' Tawetvoi is the inexact rendering of t^^TCt^ r2'^-D':2"Tr 
"miserable," "poor," and helps us to recognize the Semitic original. 

V. 14. In the Aramaic is no trace of a king, as Fritzsche and 
others suggest. ^"1 = ''/'X'^'''? is the "leader" of the people; 
T-JDI i^minQ (copied from Daniel iii, 2, 3) arc the "governors'* 
and "deputies." In the Greek the last word is missing ; the Syriac 
has, like our text, four offices, but in a different order : head and 
governor ; prophet and leader. 

" Incense " missing in Aramaic. 

V. 15. Is based upon and modelled after Ps. li, 19. Fritzsche 
is perfectly right in omitting the interpunction before d-v, which 
belongs to the preceding. The division of the verses is undoubtedly 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1S95. 

wrong in the Greek text, as is evidenced by the Aramaic. Here 
V. 16 commences with Vyi'J, oinws. 

V. 16. Is hopelessly corrupt in the Greek, as pointed out by 
Fritzsche ; kui eicT£\cani oTTiaOdv ffov is omitted by the Syriac. It may 
have been a marginal variant which has crept into the text. The 
Vulgata alone has preserved the old true reading, " ut placeat tibi," 
corresponding to !f^1i^")7. Ethiopic has : " and let it (our sacrifice) 
be perfect with thee." 

earai, Theodotion for e(TT/i', LXX, is justified by the Itpael form 

V. 17. pi/*^, "we pray," "we are desirous," has been evidently 
misunderstood by the translator as meaning ' quaerere ' {cf. Dan. ii, 
13, 20), hence, "we follow thee" or, "seek after thee;" but in the 
Greek, the first kcu is to be omitted, and the tense of the verb 
changed to the Infinitive. ZtjToo/.iei' to irpoaunrov aou is likewise not 
a correct translation of the Aramaic ^T^lp )^ V2.'r\T\, which 
means, "and we beseech thee." 'TtD'fp 'Vd has been taken to have 
the meaning of Hebrew ^^2C?D) ^i^d was translated accordingly. 
The verse does not finish here as now in the Greek, but is continued 
further, being connected with the following through i"T, " that thou 
puttest us not to shame," which gives an excellent reading. 

In the same way is v. 18 to be connected with v. 19, icai being 
left out and t^eXov hf^ia^- connected with aou. Instead of ^^jD^, one 
could read also "^^02- '-"«i"« ^d dav/iu'iaia is identical with Jerem. 
xxi, 2, Vmt^T'Qij but whether it stood in the original is doubtful. 
In the Aramaic it is missing ; it may have dropped out. 

V. 21. '7"T'in/D,> which means "alone," has been incorrectly 
translated Qd's ^lorof, as if it stood "TH hi^, ^nd the whole sentence 
has got a dogmatic meaning alien to the Aramaic text. But no 
stress is laid on the Oneness of God, only on His omnipotence, just 
as in I Chron. xxix, 12, viz., that God is "the ruler over the whole 
world " ; eVf of os for tD'^bli^t rather freely. 

V. 22 agrees more with Theodotion. ov cieXnrov has no counter- 
part in the Aramaic, unless it is added by Theodotion to make the 
statement more emphatic, or 'j'^Hy has been taken as a participle 
and constructed with 'll'^D-, ^s meaning, " and they commenced, or 
continued, to do." I am the more inclined to believe in such a 
misunderstanding, as the latter word is not translated at all. The 
"TTvptTat are the ^nill^^'C?, die word b^D7^"T seems to have 

78 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

followed it, instead of preceding it as in the Aramaic. Theodotion 
must have read ^^^QT -"niU^ntl^ 1^"QV II^D: ]i^r, etc. J-'S"'^: 
occurs for a second time in the following Dragon legend, v. 6, where 
we have the verb 7^~';l'''^, to roll. I translate it therefore, " and 
they made balls of naphtha, pitch, and tow." Theodotion took it to 
be the plural of ^^i;} or h^^:i, hence ickr^na-rlca, {cf. Levy, Targum- 
Worterbuch, I, p. 139, s.v. ^^b''^). 

V. 23. Commences then naturally with Ht^^lDt^ 7, "to increase." 
If we had here ^^pDh^T*, which means, "to hght, to incense," and also 
"to ascend," then Theodotion must have mistaken the meaning and 
translated, '*to ascend," "to stream out." In consequence thereof 

Theodotion omits ^^rT^linvti?") t^"113 in v. 24, as an unnecessary 
repetition. The Aramaic text, however, is quite correct, as in v. 23 
the intention of increasing the fire and flame is mentioned, and in 
V. 24 quite a new thing happened, those very flames " streamed out 
and burned them" (/>., servants of the king), '■' aiid all those Chal- 
d^eans that stood about the furnace." In the Greek pnn'^ i'' 
omitted, undoubtedly by mistake, the " servants " were probably 
understood to be included among " the Chalda^ans." 

V. 25. The Aramaic p^I5!^"'^^1, which means, "and it cooled 
down," is rendered by the senseless, e^eWi'a^e "to smite out, to throw 
out "the fire from the oven. A misunderstanding of the original 
Semitic word, which becomes still more evident in the curious trans- 
lation of V. 26, h^7t;D h^lll?^^ "^1 i<ni"^3, which means, as a wi//d 
that blows (and causes) the deiv (to descend). This is very much alike 
to the formula inserted in the Eighteen blessings of the Morning 
prayer, dating from the time of the second Temple, where it alternates 
with the other formula, "Thou makest the wind to blow and causest 
the rain to descend." Both are based upon Ps. cxlvii, 18, "He 
causeth his wind to blow and waters flow." {Cf. Treatise Taanith, 
fol. 2A, first Mishna.) The Greek misunderstood fc<2U?2^, and 
translated, cmcFviH^oi', whistling. May be that he knew only the 
other Aramaic form 3,ri^ ^'^ meaning to blow, and hence his mis- 
understanding of 3,tI72- 

This passage has also been pointed out by De Wette as proving 
a Semitic original ; v. 27 will therefore have to be translated, "and 
he made in the midst of the furnace like unto a wind that blew 
down dew," etc. The Syriac has, " the angel of dew went down." 

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Feb. S] society OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

Theodotion, 70 Ka6o\ov=^^2- 'r«/)//i'(t''xX»/o-c»' is rather inappro- 
priate after tXvTD/ffci^ (if. Daniel iii, 27), and is probably due to a 
misunderstanding of DV~I'^^) ^ word, by the way, that does not 
occur in biblical Aramaic. 

V. 27. h^riTp'' is omitted in the Greek; the Syriac has ^^^IDt^ 

Vv. 28-65 of the Greek finish regularly with ej? toi-s alwi'av^ or 
</v Toi/ alwi'ct, as if it stood in the original always t^^?27^ "^^bi^S, 
in ssecula sreculorum, or 'J'^^7'J^7- This is not appropriate, how- 
ever, in all cases, and is due, in every probability, to a confusion of 
t^?DSi^D. with ^^^T'i^Tj the former meaning "//^ f//e world,'' or '■'■all 
over the world,'' and " not for ever." In our Aramaic text we find 
indeed both forms used with the necessary discrimination between 
the two. God's Name is to be praised for ever ; His creatures- 
cannot very well praise Him for ever, as they themselves are tran- 
sitory, but they can praise Him in this world and above everything. 
The former is therefore used more in vv. 27-34, the latter in all 
the subsequent verses, where the creatures are appealed to to raise 
their voices in praise of God. Syriac has throughout u^^h like 
the Greek. 

V. 28, absolutely identical with Theodotion, who has not 7ravj(i<y 

as in v. 29, corresponding with the Aramaic ^^2 ', also only in v. 29. 
TO c-i'o/(n T(/v c6^)j<; is an incorrect translation of the Aramaic ^^U)* 
b^'^V^T (i»^3,"l). " Thy great and glorious Name," ^3,"^ is omitted 
by Theodotion. 

V. 30. In Aramaic there is nothing for the Greek tTj's co^ifi aoi\ 
which proved a stumbling block from very ancient times {ef. Fritzsche, 
I.e., p. 128). May be that ^^I'^p'^, from v. 29, or np'', v. 31, was 
added afterwards, in order to make the first half of the verse corre- 
spond with those two verses. It is thus a later interpolation. 

The Ithpaal forms of PQilll^n ''^nd "^p^Tin explain the c'lTra^- 
Af7o;t : v7repv/un]T09 Kiu vrrcpci'Co^ov, as the Greek translator felt 
forced to translate those emphatic forms here and in v. 32. For 
1p^ and its derivation, co^a is always used. I add here a list of the 
translations of vv. 28-33, which will show the relation between the 
original and the Greek. 

n^.'ti^^, V. 28, au'cTov ; v. 29, v7rcpaii'cTo>; -y V. 32, inrcpvfiurjrov - 
rCnt-Tl, V. 30, l-cpvfunph^- ; V. 31, «;rtTov; V. t,Z, i>^iv,ph^. 

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Feb. 5] I'ROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

(Theodotion read thus, miL'*^ in w. 28, 31 and 33, and n^nil^Jn, 
vv. 29, 30, 32.) 

QQT^^, vv. 28 and 29, and Q^T^nri) v. 31, are all translated 
i'-epu^ovficvo^ ; 'Sp^'^r\r\, V. 30, VTTcpcvco^o^- ; "^17X12, V. 2>-^ 'vTrcjn- 
/.ivovjucvo^, and vTTmn, v. 2)3^ (cco^aandvo^. 

The Aramaic is more varied in expressions and more original 
in its forms, whilst the Greek is forced, and clearly an imitation of 
the Aramaic. 

Vv. 31 and 32. Theodotion now reversed {cf. Fritzsche, I.e.) 
probably later alteration. \\ 31. co^ij'i after Opovov in some codices 
of Theodotion is justified l)y "^pi. The expression is borrowed from 
ini37D "^in, Ps- cxlv, 12, "His glorious kingdom." 

V. 32. h5ni^pil1J>^51, "who hast lowered the abyss," or "causest 
the depths (abyss) to sink down," i.e., " established them down 
helow," is mistranslated, c7ri/3\c7r(oi'. Theodotion must have read 
the word differently, probably some form derived from ?|p1Z? : 
*' to look," b^ncp^il't^T ? (</ Deut. xxvi, 15; Ps. xiv, 2; Lament. 
iii, 50, etc.) The whole Song is modelled evidently after Ps. cxlviii. 
The same order is followed in both, only the subjects are more 
numerous in the Song. 

V. ^^. Like Theodotion, t^''?2ll^, " of the heavens," after 

c-epeivfix, ^"^p"^ • 

V. 35 of the Greek, which is only a repetition of v. 2)o, '■'' missing 
in the Aramaic {cf. Ps. cxlv, 4). 

V. 35 Aramaic = 36 Greek. 

V. 36 Aramaic = 37 Greek, kiu Trnrra, which is out of place, 
is omitted in the Aramaic. ical has been omitted also by Theo- 
dotion (v. Fritzsche, /.r.), rf. Ps. cxlv, 4. 

^- 37- If^'^'^T'TI, exactly the cwufuf^ of Theodotion = Vt^llN 

Ps. cxlv, 2. 

V. 39 of the Greek is missing in the Aramaic. In Syriac B it 
is marked with an asterisk, as being a later interpolation (o'i 
Fritzsche, I.e., p. 129). 

V. 38 = Greek 40. t^'i''?2tI7) plural, whilst Greek toT- m>/)ni>oc. 

V. 39. (Greek 41.) tt^v, probably taken from the following verse, 
iis it is here quite out of place. Omitted in the Aramaic. 

V. 40. (Greek 42.) in'cvfuna, an inexact translation of ^"^HT^, 
instead of the proper, ui'c/not. One proof more for the Semitic of 
being the original, and the Greek a translation {r/. Uc Wette, I.e.). 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

V. 41-44. (44 Greek.) The MSS. of Theodotion's version differ 
very much among themselves about the te.xt and the order of these 
verses, which is far from being settled. Our Aramaic text is of 
extreme value for the reconstruction of the original text, and proves 
its absolute independence from the Greek. 

Each verse in the Aramaic stands for two of the Greek. I divide 
them into a and b^ the first and second half, for easier comparison, 
and I add also the numbers of LXX. 

V. 41a = 43 Theodotion and 43 LXX, fire and heat. \\b, 
cold and warm., corresponds exactly with Theodotion 48, xfroxo^ koI 
Kav^ia, although he uses Kadjua also, V. 21, whilst the Aramaic has 
t^?:2'^^n in the second instance. The LXX has, v. 44 (ed. Fritzsche, 
p. 76), pi'yo^ Kctl -ylrDxoy, and the same idea of ice and cold and snow 
and frost is repeated at least four times (vv. 44-47) without any 
apparent reason, unless it is due to inaccurate translation. Vv. 45 
and 47 of the LXX are omitted entirely by Theodotion, probably 
as unnecessary repetitions, and the position of the others is changed. 

V. 42a, h^'iQJ^l must be read h^'i^^">, "■ iJiunders ajid light- 
nings " (literally, " arrows ") ; cf. the first half of Theodotion and 
LXX, 50, affrpaTrai. The "thunder" is left out. 42/--. !f>5"^rp must 
be read b^"^1p ; the words rTlp and i^y\p are taken from Ps. cxlvii, 
17, where they occur together, ice and cold, Theodotion, v. 49,. 
TTaxvai Kdl x'oVe?. In the LXX we have the choice of vv. 46 or 47, 
46 being a more accurate translation of TH'^p and ^^"11p, Trdyo^ kcu 

V. 43^7. Vapours and clouds (Ps. cxlviii, 8), Theodotion 50, has 
only i'e<pe\cu, whilst the LXX has, v. 45, Spotroi kcu mcperoi, which 
latter word could be a corruption from 0. k. vccpeXai. The altera- 
tions into j'tcpcTol may have suggested itself through v. 50, where 
vc(j)l\ai is, however, not in its proper place, at least according to 
the Aramaic text. 43/7, flights and days, Theodotion, 46 ; LXX, 48. 

V. 44«. Light and darkness, Theodotion, 47 ; LXX, 49. 44^^, 
i^niS^^VT b^ 73.p 5 " blackness and gloom," or, as I would prefer to 
translate, "dusk and dawn." These two are omitted in both Greek 
translations. 

The text has now a more systematic and harmonious appearance : 
first heat and cold in the abstract, then thunder and lightning, then 
ice, frost and snow, then vapours and clouds, then day and night. 
All these are phenomena that happen in the air, the earth and its 
elements follow naturally upon it. 

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Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

V. 4^a = Greek 51. Aramaic, the lands, plural; Theodotion, 
7/y. 45*^ (Greek 52), mountains and hills. 

46a = Greek 53. 46^ has only b^'^i^l^^^, these are "the fountains 
of the deep " {cf. Genesis vii, 11), and must therefore be mentioned 
before "the seas and rivers." The transposition in the Greek text 
is therefore not likely to be due to Theodotion, who moreover 
agrees with the Aramaic in omitting o/t^/jo? (so the LXX), mentioned 
already before, in v. 41. Similarly we must alter QaXaaan, v. 55, 
Greek, into OdXaaam = t^^i^'i of the Aramaic. 

Instead of t^"'^1i, Theodotion must have read ^^^2^2]!, hence 
AryTj; instead of the simpleyf^"//. 

V. 4%a. (Greek 57.) tw Treieiva TOO ovpaiwD is as literal a trans- 
lation of the Semitic ^^'^^XI? '^"^D"'!i as can be wished. Theodotion 
has TrdvTci = Aramaic "i;^ in 57 and 58, in the latter only before 
0)]pia, just as in the Aramaic. 

^^nVn means the wild, and t^l^I^l the tame animals, and are 
faithfully rendered by 0>jpia kuI to. KTi'jvtj ; cf. Ps. cxlviii, 10, n^HrT 

tl/^ni hy\, " beasts and all cattle." 

V. 49. (Greek 59.) Theodotion, vloi twv avOpwirun', without ol=: 
Aramaic h^UT^^ '^^1 ; ^I] is omitted in the Greek. 

V. 50. (Greek 61-62.) The second half of this verse seems to 
have dropped out in the Aramaic, as each verse has as a rule tico 
distinct parallel subjects ; and here only priests are mentioned. 
Theodotion has covXol = ^~\y^, after IcpcU, ^'^^IT]^, and icvpt'oo after 
each, just as in the Aramaic 'I'^T. We must therefore complete the 
Aramaic verse accordingly. 

V. 51. (Greek 63.) t^ipi-[^ *i^t^>-| ]^nil = -''e^ymT^ kcu y>^,'xx} 
diKntwu. The wording leaves it undecided whether it is a question 
of the living or the dead {cf. Fritzsche, /.<r., p. 130). The following 
half of the verse mentions however the living, HH/ '^^2^, -r't-cwot 
h] Kiipciq. The p\I?''"Tp, uaioi, must necessarily also be taken as 
living. {Cf. Daniel vii, 21, 22, 27), and we shall translate therefore : 
the spirits and souls of the Just. The juxtaposition of p!y\ and 
tlDli^i occurs in Job xxxiv, 14. I cannot see here any idea of the 
trichotomy of man as suggested by Fritzsche. 

V. 52. (Greek 65.) 7'1^';I> is rendered aoo?. Theodotion has 
eaivaev before tV \cipos: Oai'drov, as in the Aramaic p'^'^D before 

Theodotion €*.- ficerov fcY/ytuVof = Aramaic prib^ 1?2, "From 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S95. 

the burning fire and flame He has saved us." Of these words, 
rZin 7X1*1 p"^/"T ^re missing in both Greek translations, omitted 
l^robably because they appeared an unnecessary repetition of the 
foregoing verse. T'^JJ^ is better rendered by tXi'TpicaaTo, LXX, than 
by eiifn'>(T'tTo, with which Theodotion is credited ; as |1P\^ is trans- 
lated so in the same verse, and it is not likely that he should have 
repeated the same word when he had to translate another Aramaic 
word, ^"^l^-i. 

53. (66.) "Jilin, Greek L^ofio\o'{c7(T9c corresponds exactly. 

53/; (67) differs completely from the Greek. The whole verse 
is not addressed to anyone. Y. 52 concludes fitly with the three 
Children, all the others having been enumerated before. There was 
no room for ccjiof^icvoi to be repeated, as they were included among 
the cov\ot\ etc. (vv. 5offi Aramaic, 61 ft: Greek). 'i^'J:hv ^^^"^ ^ 
*' The lord of the universe," must have been strangely misread by the 
LXX and Theodotion, as well as the following, priS^ '^Xl, "He is 
God." They have to// Ki'/j/oi', tov Odu tHw OeCcv, ''the Lord, the God 
of gods." This verse is evidently modelled after Ps. cxxxvi, vv. 2 and 
3, the Targum of which runs thus :—.... i^^n^i^ TT^^^^ IHIIL'' 
.... i^''")!D "'^'2^ ini'll^- Theodotion or the LXX may have 
thought of these verses, and have changed the primitive form 
found in the Aramaic for the other more dogmatic, but alien to the 
text. 

The result of this detailed comparison is, that the Aramaic is 
a more primitive and more correct text, agreeing in the main with 
Theodotion, but differing sufficiently from his text to show its 
independence from any of the existing forms of the Greek. It 
represents thus the oldest text of the Song, and helps us to recon- 
struct the primitive form of Theodotion's Greek translation as it must 
have been before it was altered and interpolated from the LXX. 

By these means we shall be able to reconstruct also the original 
form of the version of the LXX, as this also must have suffered 
many alterations and interpolations from Theodotion and others. 
Those readings in Theodotion which differ from our text will have 
to be considered as originating from the LXX, and vice versa those 
agreeing more closely with our Aramaic text than the corresponding 
portion in Theodotion, have crept into the LXX from Theodotion. 

We shall thus obtain a clearer insight into the true character of 

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Feb. 5] I'ROCEEDIXGS. [1895. 

the old LXX -version before Theodotion, and understand better 
the reason for its elimination from the church service ; for it will 
be found to differ very materially from the Aramaic text, with which 
Theodotion would then exactly correspond. For this very reason 
the former had been eliminated, and the latter substituted instead, 
though it has become rather mixed in the course of time. It must 
be borne in mind that the Song formed, from very ancient times, 
part of the Church Hymn book, and is often found added to the 
Psalter. Hence the profound alterations to which it was subjected, 
and the amalgamation of LXX and Theodotion. 

We are much better off in the other legend, where such causes 
did not operate to alter the character of the two translations ; and I 
pass on to the examination of — ■ 

Daniel luid the Dragon. 

V. I. (LXX 23 ; Theodotion 23.) The Aramaic text has 
^5inn ^ini^l, "in that place," in common with LXX, i^v -u< «('-<<• 
ToVij', and i^"i^Dl i'^, "great and mighty," with Theodotion /(c-/«v. 

r^n is rendered by both (jhikioi'. 

"i^, missing in the Greek. 

V. 2. (24.) Aramaic totally different. No trace in it of "brass," 
which was suggested in the Greek by the tale of the brazen idol Bel 
(v. 7), nor of "eating and drinking." Instead of -poff/^vi'ijaai' wc 
have ^7^, "pray." 

V. 3 is missing in LXX, but is v. 25 Theodotion, with which the 
Aramaic text agrees in general, but has more than the Greek 
^:kr2h, "to the king;" """innnt^T, '^of my fathers;" and 
17'^nn D.")) "mighty and awe-inspiring," which are all missing in 
the latter. Syriac identical with Theodotion. 

V. 4. (LXX 25; Theodotion 26.) ^lOp-iis^, identical with 
Theodotion, (nroKicvw ; and not LXX, uviACc AH the ancient 
versions have then, " a sword and staff," fiax'n'p'iv (Theodotion), 
(Tiri'ipov (LXX) Kctl fx'iftfou Syriac t^ltSiri- Only the Aramaic has 
the proper word, ^^n'^jH, "lance," which must have been read 
^^■^I3"in from very ancient times, jl'^ini 1'^^\ is a standing [)hrase 
in the Bible, cf. I Samuel xiii, 19, 22 ; xvii, 45, 47 ; xxi, 9. 

V. 5. The Aramaic text is again more complete. I'he permis- 
sion asked for by Daniel is granted in express terms, '77 2TI'' t^Ii^ = 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL^OLOGY. [1S95. 

Theodotion 26, cicccfu <tov, and not LXX, cccorat ae, and then follows 
"leave to do unto it all that thou wishest," which LXX and Theo- 
dotion omit. 

Vv. 6 and 7. (LXX 26; Theodotion 27.) I have already drawn 
attention in the Introduction to the great difference between these 
and the corresponding Greek verses. Among the ingredients we 
have also "irT^^I, "flax." /(f7^«?, Theodotion, is proved by ~>'^7^, 
"a round lump." The whole portion of the iron hatchets is missing 
in the Greek texts, and thus no satisfactory reason for the death of 
the dragon is given, at least by Theodotion. The LXX have the 
large mass of 30 manehs for the lumps made by Daniel. Theodotion, 
T(( acfiaafuna v/nwi', is identical with Aramaic, which he must have 

read ^m^lp JIH^D J^n^^irn p:^ t^n, omitting p^nSb^, and 
took it to be the plural. Totally different is the ironical question 
of the LXX, 01' TctuTa acfteaOe. Syriac differs from all. 

V. 8. (27, Theodotion 28.) Almost identical with Theodotion, 
ly/ai'uk-Tijffcu/ \tau is an excellent translation of the idiomatic Hlpn 
^inV) which is repeated in v. 10 (Theodotion 30), and has the 
meaning " to be mightily (incensed) against ..." r/. Targum to 
Psahii xviii, 8, rT^7 ^I'^pHT etc. Much clearer is the sentence in 
the Aramaic, " for we know now that thou art like unto one of the 
Jewish men." Theodotion, 'lovcaio? <yeyovev 6 /SaaiXevs; cf. Fritzsche 
{i.e. p. 152). Aramaic has, after /g/je??, "of Bel and his temple," and, 
instead of n-areff^a^c, i^pr\'2Pi , " thou hast broken up." 

V. 9. (Theodotion 29.) Aramaic much shorter, a continuation 
of the words spoken by the people in v. 8, and not a new state- 
ment, as in Theodotion. ^n'^12, /// thine house, Theodotion 
has read ^rT^^I, and thine house. 

V. 10. (Theodotion 30.) Here Theodotion has rendered P]'^pD 
by tvrci'yovffti' ac/iocpa (see above v. 8), and instead of H^'T'IOpQT' li^in 
"they wanted to kill him," we find, uvar^KaadeU, "constrained," which 
is rather a mild description of the danger threatening him. Some 
other Aramaic word must have stood in the original used by Theo- 
dotion, or, what is more probable, with the change of a few letters 
he may have read the words as ("ID^) H^-liT'lb^n, "and in his 
being constrained, delivered," etc. 

V. II. (31.) I^^'^liy'l, "they placed," I should like to read instead 
It^'^IU^I, "they cast," as it corresponds exactly with Theodotion, 
iftuXoi'. Instead of uinoi' we have in the Aramaic "Daniel." 

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Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Aramaic Hi^llI^, seven, Theodotion and LXX t"^, six days. 

V. 12. (Theodotion 32.) Aramaic has the addition of t^inh^^ 
i^inrTj 'in that place.' The real meaning of ffwuaja, which could 
mean also " slaves," is proved by the Aramaic p';!?^'^^^ "^"^^D to be 
^' human corpses," 

V. 13. (Theodotion 33.) The Aramaic ^t-^-^lir"'! b^^^'^t^l is 
much more correct than Theodotion, 'luurata, as the prophet Hab- 
akkuk lived in Israel and not in Judaea. ip^ijaLf hycua is as 
litteral a translation of b^^i^^^m ^IZJ'l?^, "sod a pottage" as 
could be wished for. Instead of ffKatpiji' the Aramaic has TT^p^, 
*'his sack "or "knapsack." The Syriac has b^3,li^5 ^ very scarce 
word, which is translated di's/i, and seems to be a hapaxlego77ieiio?i. I 
am inclined to amend the word into t^3,"^1t;3 = Persian > j»v = knap- 
sack, which would make it absolutely identical with the Aramaic. 

In the Aramaic we have also an addition of ^^"^''"TlJn/ /I]'^^7) 
*'to feed the reapers." 

14. (34.) Aramaic has also some small additions: h5m, "and 
there was" (or " appeared "); in some codices o is preceding uyye\o<i ; 
711 is added to ^il'^'^^^'l in conformity with the spirit of the Aramaic, 
*' go and bring." Instead of t'xcf? we have t^D/'^'C^i'T) " which 
thou hast cooked." After 713, the word b^ri"^pj "town," is added 
here and in v. 15. TTh inij "and gave it to him" (to Daniel), is 
also missing in the Greek. 

V. 15. (35.) t^3«bnS not in the Greek. 

V. 16. (36.) Here a peculiar confusion has crept into the Greek. 
Theodotion does not seem to have understood properly the word 
t^7"7p, which he translated icopvcp) " the crown," whilst the true 
meaning of it is " neck." There is then no tautology with the 
following, "hair," or as the Aramaic has it, "lock of his head," 
i^ri'1^1^. Aramaic adds, "and he set him with the food that he 
had in his hands over the mouih of the lions' den which was in 
Babylon." 

V. 17. (36, 37.) The Aramaic text helps us here also over one of 
the most perplexing passages of the Greek text, of which no one has 
hitherto been able to extract a proper sense. Cf. Fritzsche {I.e., 
p. 153-4), who does' not mend matters. The words 3Jn 12 
rr^rmj must have been strangely misread, possibly as nim. 
rr^ni"), "the vehemency," "fury," /5o/^u', and has been united with 
the preceding verses, thus producing a totally unintelligible sentence. 

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Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILFOLOGY. [1S95. 

The Aramaic on the contrary is perfectly clear, and shows unmis- 
takably that it must have been the original. The meaning is, 
" And when his breath came back to him " (or " he recovered his 
breath ") which he had lost through the quickness of the flight, 
" Habakktik called Daniel and said." After . i :i: adds, 

" thine," ^n^t^. 

V. 18. (38.) Aramaic begins with ""hTi UntLn, "and Daniel 
praised and prayed, and said," which is natural when beholding 
the unexpected divine help. Instead of h:cu we have ^T, "for." 
For the rest this verse is identical with Theodotion. 

V. 19. (39.) Theodotion, Trapax/'ij/^ifi LXX (38) Tt] avrij i/fieiifi : 

Aramaic, i^lTl ^T^V'^'^, "in one hour." Theodotion read 
probably ^"TH) "^/^ that very hour." 

V. 20. (40.) Aramaic mni, as in vv. 7, 8, 13, and 17. ^t«l ap*i, 
also a peculiar Aramaic construction similar to 1*2i^1 riD.'b*^ 
'^1^ b^"1pT throughout the text. In the Aramaic there is no 
trace of TrcfOijaai. Did Theodotion read ■'j^iQ^ instead of 

V. 21. (41.) Aramaic !f^37;^, so in LXX, missing in Theodotion ; 
Aramaic ^"'^IDI I'l ((f- v. 20). Greek only, "great" (or loud). 
Aramaic has the third person, "is the god of," rT^n^b^- Greek, cT, 
"art thou." Aramaic i^^'^'^p'^l, "and glorious" (^/. Song of Three 
Children, v. 29). Theodotion (and LXX) have instead /.■«« otV- 

ifTTii' a\Xo9 7r\i]i' aod. 

V. 2;?. (42.) Aramaic has i^j^l^ '^^'^D^) " and the king gave 
orders." Theodotion omits these as well as the words 'y\'^ IT^ 

n^2^"^'1p l7^i^, idiomatic expression, which is paraphrased by 

anioVi riyy u7ro\eiu<i ninov. 

^"2^12 l^t^, also missing in Theodotion and LXX. 

^"^32, Theodotion, irajxixp'^ind ^i'iottioi' ai'joti; probably he read 
T^23n- Syriac has even more, "before him and before Daniel." 

This minute comparison between the Aramaic text and Theo- 
dotion proves beyond doubt that the former is absolutely independent 
of the Greek. Not a single trace can be detected of any Greek 
influence, either in language or in construction. Both are pure 
Aramaic, agreeing in every point with the known characteristics of 
that language. No translation could be as perfect, and no text 
that we have can be looked upon as a probable or even possible 
original. But everything points to the contrary conclusion — that 

88 



Feb. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

this Aramaic text represents the original from which Theodotiorj 
made his translation. Numerous instances of misreadings and 
misinterpretations have been adduced in the course of our examina- 
tion, which prove conclusively the dependence of the Greek text 
upon this very Aramaic text. The close resemblance between the 
Aramaic and Theodotion in the Tale of the Dragon is beyond 
dispute. In this piece we recognise, more clearly than in that of 
the Song, how thoroughly Theodotion differed from the LXX, and 
we find in the Aramaic text the reason for the profound changes 
introduced by him into his translation. He tried to approximate 
it as closely as possible to this original from which the LXX had 
deviated so much. With the assistance of the Aramaic text, we are 
now in a position to remove many of the mistakes that have crept 
in, and to reconstruct the same text of Theodotion. 

Not having found a place in the Liturgy, this tale has suffered 
less from interpolations, and we have therefore two distinct Greek 
texts, and not a mixed text as in the case of the ".Song." In the 
Tale of the Dragon we are therefore also in a better position to see 
how closely Theodotion follows the Aramaic text. 

judging the Song, then, in the light of this almost absolute 
identity of Theodotion with the Aramaic, we are forced to admit, 
as already indicated above, that the literary tradition of the two 
Greek texts is far from being correct, that the difference betweeiii 
Theodotion and LXX must have been more profound than is- 
now the case, and that we shall have to recast the existing text of 
Theodotion and also that of the LXX, as both translations have 
exercised a mutually deteriorating influence upon each other, taking, 
as basis for the reconstruction this Aramaic text, which, as I have 
tried to prove, is the original from which those translations have 
been made. The mistakes, which have their origin in wrong 
readings and misinterpretation, prove also conclusively that tl>e 
original was Aramaic, and not Hebrew. 



IV. Translation. 

A. The Song of the Three Children. 

V. I. And the three went into the furnace of burning fire^ 
praising and blessing the Lord. And Azariah stood up to pray, 
and he prayed thus ; and he opened his mouth and said : V. 2. 

89 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIFEOLOGY. [1895. 

" Blessed be he, the God of our fathers, and be his name praised 
and glorified for evermore. V. 3. For thou art true in all that thou 
hast done to us, for all thy works are true, and thy ways established, 
and all thy judgments faithful. V. 4. Yea, true judgment hast 
thou wrought in all {the things) that thou hast brought upon us, 
and upon Jerusalem the holy city of our fathers, for true judgments 
hast thou brought upon us, because of our sins. V. 5. We have 
sinned, and we have committed iniquity, and we have departed 
(withdrawn) from thee. V. 6. And we have turned aside (trespassed) 
from all the commandments which thou hast commanded us, as 
we have not been willing to keep and to observe them, that it 
might go well with us. V. 7. And because we have not done 
(observed) thy commandments and statutes, V. 8. thou hast wrought 
true judgment in that thou hast delivered us into the hands of 
lawless enemies, and into the hands of wicked and lawless kings in 
all the lands. V. 9. And now we cannot open our mouths, for thy 
servants who cling to thee have become a shame. V. 10. And we 
beseech thee not to deliver us up wholly, for the sake of thy great 
and holy name, neither to forget thy covenants. V. 11. And cause 
not thy mercy to depart from us, for the sake of Abraham thy 
beloved, and thy servant Isaac, and thy holy Israel. V. 12. To whom 
thou hadst spoken that (thou woiildsi) multiply their children as the 
stars of heaven, and as the sand {that /ieth) on the seashore. 
V. 13. And now we are become less than any other nation, as we 
are miserable (poor) this day in all the lands because of our sins. 
V. 14. And at this time we have neither a leader nor prophets, neither 
governors nor deputies, neither burnt-offerings nor sacrifices, nor obla- 
tions, as there is no place to bring all these before thee {in order) to 
find mercy. V. 15. But in a contrite heart and humble spirit let us 
be accepted like as burnt offerings and sacrifices of rams and bullocks, 
and like thousands of fat lambs. V. 16. Thus may our sacrifice to-day 
be acceptable in thy sight : for they shall not be confounded that put 
their trust in thee. V. 17. And now we desire with all our heart to 
fear thee. V. 18 and we pray unto thee, that thou puttest us not 
to shame, but that thou dealest with us after thy lovingkindness, 
and according to the multitude of thy mercy. V. 19. Deliver us and 
give glory to thy name, O Lord ; and let all them that do thy 
servants hurt be ashamed. V. 20. And let them be confounded 
in (in spite of) all their power, and in (in spite of) their strength let 
them be broken. V. 21. And they shall know diat thou alone art 

90 



Feb. S] proceedings. [1895. 

ruler over all the lands. V. 22. And now the servants of the king 
and his attendants, that threw the three men into the furnace, took 
naphtha, pitch and tow, and made balls, V. 23. in order to 
increase the flame of the fire 49 cubits above the furnace. V. 24. 
And the fire and the flame streamed forth and burnt them and 
every one of the Chaldaeans that were standing by the side of the 
furnace. V. 25. And the angel of the Lord came down into the 
oven with Azariah and his fellows, and the fire of the oven cooled 
down. V. 26. And he made in the midst of the furnace like unto a 
wind that blew dew, and none ot the fire touched them, nor were 
they hurt in any way. V. 27. Then those three with one mouth 
praised, and glorified and blessed God in the midst of the burning 
furnace, and said: V. 28. Blessed is the Lord God of our fathers, 
and to be [)raised and exalted for ever and ever. Y. 29. And 
blessed be thy great and glorious and holy name, and praised and 
exalted over all the world. V. 30. Blessed art thou in thy holy 
temple, and to be praised and glorified over all the worlds. V. 31. 
Blessed art thou upon the throne of thy glorious kingdom, and to 
be praised and exalted for ever and ever. V. 32. Blessed art thou, 
who hast lowered the abyss and sittest upon the cherubim and be 
praised and glorified in all the worlds. V. :^;^. Blessed art thou 
in the firmament of heavens, and be extolled and praised for ever. 
V. 34. O all ye works bless ye the Lord God, praise him and 
exalt him in the world. V. 35. All ye angels bless ye the Lord 
God, praise him and exalt him over the world. V. 36. O ye 
waters that be above the heavens bless ye the Lord, praise him and 
exalt him in the world. V. 37. All ye hosts of God, bless ye the 
Lord, praise him and exalt him in the world. V. 38. O )e stars of 
heaven bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt him in the world. 
V. 39. O ye rain and dew bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt 
him in the world. V. 40. All ye winds of God, bless ye the Loid, 
praise him and exalt him in the world. V. 41. O ye fire and heat, 
bless ye the Lord, O ye cold and warmth bless ye the Lord, praise him 
and exalt him in the world. V. 42. O ye thunders and lightnings 
bless ye the Lord, O ye ice and frost bless ye the Lord, praise him and 
exalt him in the world. V. 43. O ye vapours and clouds bless ye the 
Lord, O ye nights and days bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt 
him in the world. V. 44. O ye light and darkness bless ye the 
Lord, O ye dusk and dawn bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt 
him in the world. V. 45. O ye lands bless ye the Lord, O ye 

91 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.FOLOGV. [1895. 

mountains and little hills bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt 
him in the world. V. 46. O all ye things that grow in the earth 
bless ye the Lord, O ye deep fountains bless ye the Lord, praise him 
and exalt him in the world. V. 47. O ye seas and rivers bless ye the 
Lord, O ye fish and all that move in the waters bless ye the Lord, 
praise him and exalt him in the world. V. 48. O all ye fowls of the 
heavens bless ye the Lord, O all ye beasts and cattle bless ye the 
Lord, praise him and exalt him in the world. V. 49. O all ye 
children of men bless ye the Lord, O Israel bless ye the Lord, praise 
him and exalt him in the world. Y. 50. O ye priests of God bless 
ye the Lord, ( O ye sei-vants of God, bless ye the Lord), praise hin'v 
and exalt him in the world. V. 51. O ye spirits and souls of 
the righteous bless ye the Lord, O ye holy and humble men of 
heart bless ye the Lord, praise him and exalt him in the world. 
V. 52. O ye Hananyah, Azariah, and Mishael bless ye the Lord^ 
praise him and exalt him in the world, for he hath delivered us. 
from Sheol and saved us from the hand of death ; for he delivered 
us from the furnace of burning fire, and he hath saved us from 
burning fire and flames. V. 53. Give thanks unto the Lord, for he is. 
good, as his mercies (endure) for ever, and bless ye the Lord of 
the World, he is God, praise him and exalt him in the world. 



B. Daniel and the Dragon. 

V. I. And in that place there was a great and mighty dragon, 
which all the Babylonians worshipped. V. 2. And the king said 
unto Daniel, now thou canst not say that this here is no living god, 
therefore pray to him. V. 3. And Daniel answered and said unto 
the king, I pray only to the Lord God of my fathers, for he is a 
living God, mighty and awe-inspiring. V. 4. But if thou, O king, 
wilt give me leave, I will slay this dragon without lance or sword. 
N . 5. And the king said unto Daniel, I give thee now leave to do 
unto it all that thou wishest. 6. And Daniel went and took pitch 
and fat and flax and hair, and rolled them into one lump, and he 
made unto himself iron hatchets, and rolled all that round and 
round the hatchets, and he threw it into the dragon's mouth. V. 7, 
And it came to pass when the dragon had swallowed it and it had gone 
down into his stomach, the fat and pitch melted away from the hatchets,, 
and the dragon was injured by the (s[)urs) points of the hatchet, and 

92 



Feb. 5] TROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

tlied. And Daniel said, lo, this is your god, whom you worshipped. 
V. 8. And when they of Babylon saw that the dragon was dead, they 
were all greatly incensed, and they gathered together and went up 
before the king, and they spake, saying, now we know that thou art 
like unto one of the Jewish men, for lo ! thou has destroyed Bel, and 
the dragon thou hast killed, and the priests of Bel thou hast broken 
up, together with his temple. V. 9. And now, if thou deliverest not 
Daniel into our hands, we will kill thee even in thine house. Y. 10. 
Now when the king saw that they were all greatly incensed so that 
they wanted to kill him, he delivered l^aniel unto them. V. 11. 
And they cast Daniel into the lions' pit, and he was there seven 
days. V. 12. For there was a pit in that place, in which there 
■were seven lions, and they used to give them every day two 
carcasses, and two sheep ; and on that day they were not given to 
them, to the intent that they might devour Daniel. Y. 13. The 
prophet Habakkuk was then in the land of Israel, and he sod a 
pottage to feed the reapers, and placed bread in his sack, and went 
to bring it to the reapers in the field. V. 14. And lo, the angel of 
the Lord (appeared), and spoke to Habakkuk the prophet, saying, 
go and carry now this pottage which thou hast made to the town of 
Babylon, and give it to Daniel, who is in the lions' pit. ^^ 15. And 
the prophet Habakkuk answered and said to the angel, my lord, I 
have never seen the town of Babylon, neither do I know the lions' 
pit. V. 16. And the angel of the Lord took him by the neck and 
bore him by the lock of his head, and he set him with the food that 
he had in his hands over the mouth of the lions' pit which was in 
Babylon. V. 17. And when he recovered his breath, Habakkuk 
called Daniel, and said, take now this food which thy God has sent 
thee. V. 18. And Daniel praised and prayed, and said, O Lord 
"God, thou hast remembered me, neither hast thou forsaken all those 
that love thee. Y. 19 And Daniel arose and did eat; and the 
angel of the Lord carried Habakkuk back to his place in one hour. 
V. 20. And it came to pass on the seventh day that the king arose 
and went to the lions' pit to see Daniel, and he saw Daniel sitting 
in the den. "\^. 21. And the king cried with a loud and mighty 
voice, and said, the Lord God of Daniel, He is great and glorious. 
V. 22. And the king ordered to draw Daniel out from the lions' 
pit, and those men who had calumniated Daniel, the king ordered 
to cast them in there. And they cast them in the lions' pit, and 
the (lions) devoured them in a moment. 

93 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1^95. 

Postscript. — I have since acquired a Hebrew Manuscript 
(now Cod. Hebr., 130 of my collection) written in a Spanish hand, 
of the end of the XVIth century. It is a collection of tales. One 
among these (No. 72 f. i62a-i65a) is now the Hebrew translation 
of the Syriac text of Bel and the Dragon, published by Dr. Neubauer, 
from the Midrash Rabba de-Rabba. (The book of Tobit, 
Oxford, 1878, p. 39-43). This translation is as literal as possible, 
therefore of no small importance for the criticism of that text, 
especially as it contains a few remarkable variations. I select only 
one, as it corroborates the reading of our Aramaic text in one of 
the most interesting variants. V. 13 reads in this MS.: "Now 
Habakkuk was a prophet in Judah, and he had in his hands a 
pottage (seething) and in his ktiapsack bread, to bring to the reapers 

in the field:" h^^^Ts iTii rvTsrv^ p«i ^i^n: r^'^'n^ pipnm" 

agreeing thus exactly : Hl^l a^-)inpb b^^lH^ DnS "innn^^ll, 
with the Aramaic, in that Habakkuk carried the bread in a sack, and 
in nothing else, although the Hebrew-Syriac text has also the word 
^l^ni^ for it. 



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Alker, E., Die Chronologie der Blicher der Konige und Paralipomenon im 
Einklang mit der Chronologie der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonier und Meder. 

Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 

Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religiongeshichte. Der Gott Israels und 
die Gotter der Heiden. 

Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegyptiaca superest. 

BoTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaeg}'ptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et pulilies par 

PI. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 

BuDiNGER, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primordiis cum 
Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 

BURCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulxjs, Zophnet Paneach Aegyptische Deutungen. 

Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 

Dumichen, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Earle's Philology of the English Tongue. 

Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. Die Masse und das Kapitel iiber die Augen- 

krankheiten. 
Erman, Papyrus Westcar. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 
Gayet, E., Steles de la XII dynastic au Musee du Louvre. 
Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-quatre Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Collection de. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Hess, Der Gnostische Papyrus von London. 

HoMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 

Jastrow, M., a Fragment of the Bal)ylonian " Dibbarra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 



Feb. 5] SOCIETY OF BIDLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Xulnikadnezar's, Geschichtliclie Skizze mit beson- 

derer Beriicksichtigung der Keilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch iiber Heilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom AuszAige aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Berichsichtigung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Eg)-ptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Lefebure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2"'"-' partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G. , Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Kiinig von Babylonieu 668 vehr, p. xiv, 173. 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c. , iSSo. 
Lyon, D. G., An Assyrian Manual. 
INIaruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
;Muller, D. H. , Epigraphische Denknialer aus Arabien. 
NoORDTZiG, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptische out- 

dekkingen. 
Place, Ninive et I'Assyrie, 1S66-1S69. 3 vols., folio. 
I'OGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du \Yadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
RoBiou, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Eg}'pte et sur la chronologic des Lagides 

■Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

^>ARZEC, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Schaeffer, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

>icH0UW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Yelitris. 

ScHROEi.iER, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

J5TRAUSS and ToRNEY, Der Altagyptishe Giitterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptien. 
Y"i3SER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaelogie. Utrecht, 1891. 
"Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
AYiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
AYiLTZKE, Der Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
^VI^CKLER, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

"Weissleach, F. IL, Die Achaenieniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

AVesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. I, 1847 ; Vols. IV to XII, 

1850 to 1858, inclusive; Vol. XX to Vok XXXII, 1866 to 1878. 
.Zimmern, H., Die Assyriologie als Pliilfswissenschaft fiir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



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VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 

Third Meeting, March ^th, 1895. 



-41C0- 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
P. ^ ^E Page Rf.xouf [President). — The Book of ihe Dead, 

I^)tes, Chapter CX. Plates XXV to XXIX 97-102 

Ppoii E. Lefebure. — -Etude sur Abydos, un dialogue des Morts : 

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A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, whio may be 
olitained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A.,57, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



Third Meeting, $th March, 1895. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President. 



IN THE CHAIK. 



-^<^- 



The President referred to the severe loss suffered b}' 
the Society by the death of — 

• Sir Henry Creswicke Rawltnson, Bart., 
K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., etc. {Vice- 
President). 

Profe.ssor F. J. Lautii, Munich {Hon. Meinbei-). 

Hyde Clarre, D.C.L., F.R. Hist. Soc, etc., etc. 



[No. cxxviii.] 95 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.^.OLOGY. [1895. 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — Prof. Guidi. Abyssinian Proverbs, etc. 

Rome. 8vo. 1894. 
From the Author: — Rev. Joseph Horner, D.D. Pul, Jareb, 

Tiglath-Pileser. A Chronologico-Historical Study. 

The following Candidates were submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting, 5th February, 
1895, and elected Members of the Society: — 

Rev. Percival Clementi-Smith, M.A., 35, St. Andrew's Hill, E.G. 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, 237, South 21st Street, Philadelphia, 
U.S.A. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election 
at the next Meeting, to be held on the 2nd April, 1895 : — 

S. Hirschfeld, Bream's Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.G. 
Rev. J. J. G. Valpy, Elsing Rectory, E. Dereham. 
David J. Waugh, 4, Florence Place, Falmouth. 

A Paper was read by P. le Page Renouf {Presideiif) on 
" Human Sacrifice and the Theory of Substitution in 
Egyptian, and other Ancient Religions." 

Remarks were added by the Rev. J. Marshall, Walter 
Morrison {Vice-President), W. St. C. Boscawen, and the 
President. 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



96 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

By p. Le Page Renouf. 

Continuation of Notes on Chapter 1 1 o. 

The Garden of Aarru, 0° MlQ'^V ^'^'^' is often men- 
tioned in connection with that of Hotepit, and may perhaps be 
considered as the most notable part of it. It is through its Gate 
that the Sun-god rises up into Heaven. 

It takes its name from a plant Q'^^^^^^ aarru (later, 
^^^^•^^ ''■^•"■' fliriTT^!'^^'' Chapter 
^7; I ^^ I I I I 111'*^^' Chapter no, by phonetic dissimi- 
lation of rr into 7ir). The usual form in later times is f) ^ "^"^^ 
_ , Y 1-^111 

"^I, but we find even shorter forms in AMUtH, B.M. 32, 



and M4 ^ ^' . The determinative "|||f|_ of a reptile, indicates 

a creeping, climbing, twitiing plant, such as the convolvulus, hop, or 
vine.t 



* Compared with JJL| ^ I <^ 1 "^ , in the papyrus of Nesichonsu, 

puHished by M. Maspero, Miss. Arch., I, p. 612. 

+ The Pyramid Texts have the invocations {Unas, 597), "Hail to thee, 
Horus, in the domains of Horus ; Hail to thee. Sutu, in the domains of Sutu ; 



Hail to thee, Lion (U ^Q\ Aar), in the Garden of Aarru." 

V 1 _&^ _g^ 
Another derivation is suggested in the "Destruction of Mankind," line 39, 

■ 1 _^ ^"^n ^'^'^ ^ ^"^^"^ ^'^ ''^" augmented form of "^^ ^'^^j which does not 
mean pluck, as in Brugsch's translation, Init bind, fasten, tivinc, nectcre, con- 

97 G 2 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895, 

The term 'Garden' implies in this connection nothing more than 
a cultivated enclosure. 

The names of different localities which are invoked by the 
deceased and appear on the vignette of the chapter, have here 
been made prominent by means of heavy type. 



I. Rise in Hotepit, or (later on) Hotep, ^^^\s^ ^ n , , , 

^ ^=i III 



the name of one of the localities. The word .^s^j, as I have often 
said, has the sense of rising tip, coniijig to light, making a7i appearance, 
and like the Greek (palvoiiai is especially applicable to the appearance 
of daybreak, or the rise of the heavenly bodies. 

2. Turning, a |^ . The group has the apparent sense of 
building, but the primitive sense is turning, as in the making of 
pottery. The preposition <rz> which follows it in this place seems 
to show that building is not meant. 

3. This, of course, sounds like nonsense, but so does the original 
as it has come down to us. The papyrus of Ani, which reads 

rn ^o , forces the sense of day upon the sign Q, which in the 



strin^ere, convolvere. This sense would explain the ancient determinatives 
\\\]j iilJ, J and lead to still more interesting results. For the ancient word 



1 



niiirX , aarerit, 'a vine,' has thus clearly the same etymological 



sense as our European word vme. " Vi-mim . . . attaches itself to vi-tis, vt-vien, 
vi-tex, and — exactly like the Greek Fol-vog — to the Indo-Greek root vei, * to 
twine.' So iha.t vf-no means first 'creeper,' then ' fruit of the creeper,' finally 
'drink made from the fruit of the creeper'" (O. '^chrv.(\t\-. Prehistoric Antiqtiities, 
p. 324). 

Philological speculation might make a further advance. 



As V\ oar, is to ^>-#n '"', so perhaps is 

\ij uarru to M. am. The first two groups are not phonetically iden- 

I I I «cz:>i II 

tical, but they are certainly allied and have very much the same meaning ; the 
last has, with some probability, been identified with the Vine-branch, and that, 

flC^vTv O ^ 

in coniunction with the text vi \ [\ 

^ <=^\\ II liJ I ^ 

and the plate corresponding). " The Vine-plant is Osiris." The Greeks, or some 
of them at least, identified Osiris with Dionysos ( Plutarch, de Isidc et Osiride, 
34> 35)- Tl^s go'^l ^s sometimes (as in the papyrus of Nebseni) sitting in a naos 
under a vine, from which bunches of grapes are hanging. 

98 



D 

(see Zeitsclir., 1878, p. 107, 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

sense of turn would have been far more intelligible. There was the 
'Portion of Sutu,' and the 'Portion of Horus,' each being half 
the world, topographically, or half the twenty-four hours as regards 

time. 

I suspect that ' day ' is a faulty interpretation of the ambiguous 
O, and that the true sense of the passage in that Sutu is satisfied 
with the share which comes to his turn, and thereupon delivers 
Horus from imprisonment in the lower world. The perplexity, or 
ignorance of the copyists is seen in the very next words. One has 
' he who is in Merit,' others ' he who is in my mouth,' and two 
* he who is in the egg,' if this be the sense of the very questionable 

group -|[- ^\ Jf , which looks like a mistake for — v\ 

well known title of Anubis. 



c^ 



4. Again and again renewed \ W\- 



5. His papyrus. So the word ^^ mehif, which occurs in the 

rubric of Chapter 134, has hitherto been translated. But the vases 
tQi or \7, as determinatives, rather imply 'inkstand' or 'palette for 
holding colour.' In this place it is the writing itself and not the 
material, paper, ink or inkstand, which is meant. And from the 
entire context Thoth is the god who is spoken of. 

6. He reconcileth the two Warrior gods with each other, 

words en iirn-sen show the origin of the Coptic form It . . , GpKOT 
invicem. 

7. 6^mi!^ 1 Q v_^ , the Coptic from of which is CIKI. From 
the notion of ' reducing to powder,' that of the frequent word 



I I I 



"^^^ "^^^ 'wearing away,' 'decay,' is derived. 



8. Let my arteries be made fast, and let me have the enjoyment of 
the Breeze, or that I may have enjoyment. The oldest meaning of the 
word artery, aprijpid, in Hippocrates, Aristotle and the earlier Latin 
writers is 7vind-pipe, and, in the plural, air-duds. But, even when 
the word was also applied to what we call arteries, these were 
supposed to convey air whilst the veins conveyed blood. " Sanguis 
per venas in omne corpus diffunditur et spiritus per arterias " is the 
classic doctrine in Cicero {de Natura Deorum, 2, 55). Pliny says 

99 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

{JVat. Hist., XI, 89), "arteriae carent sensu: nam et sanguine." This 
error is corrected by Galen, who has a treatise on the question 
*' Whether Blood is naturally {kuto. (j)vaiv) contained in the arteries?"" 
The error of the ancients arose from the arteries always being found 
empty after death. The blood flowing from a wound inflicted 
upon them was inferred to have been intruded into them by the 
rupture of the veins. The Egyptian doctrine of the ' arteries ' 

v\ (Coptic ^A-ItJULOTT) in the head, by means of 

which air is conveyed to all parts of the person, was first found by 
M. Chabas in the Berlin Medical papyrus. The passage of the 
Book of the Dead on which this note is written is no doubt the 
earliest allusion to the doctrine. 

9. Hesit [the Co^..goddess] y ^, | "^ ^d jll S' 
Q I ^ is one of the many names of Isis or Hathor. She is repre- 
sented as suckling her son Horus (see picture in Lanzone, p. 844), 
and it is this which characterizes her and from which she derives 
her name. She is asked on the Louvre tablet (c. 14) for "the 
white liquor which the glorified ones love." This is distinctly called 
'milk' on the Florentine tablet 2567, and vases of her milk are 
mentioned (Dumichen, jResultate, 27, 6) in the inscriptions of 
Dendera. A picture of her given in Dumichen's Historische 
Inscliriften (II, 32) identifies her with Hathor, and calls her "divine 
mother, mistress of heaven and sovereign of the gods," while others 
call her "the divine mother and fair nurse." 

There can be no doubt about the right reading of the name 
which is Hesit ; the — * — is written in so many texts (see Pepi, J, 

306, Amamu, 21, i, Lepsius, Auszvalh, IX, and the form X H rv. a.t 

Philae), that there is no reason for confounding the name with that 
oi hetemit. We must therefore attach no importance to this latter 
name when applied in the vignette of the Turin Todtenbuch to one 
of the divine abodes which bears the name of the goddess, and is 
written exactly like it. 



ID. 



Uach X I ^•^. # W bloomings flowerifig. 



II. — T/ie udnged things of Shu are given to me, and my Kau 
follow me. 

100 



Mar. 5 PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

v^ ""^^"^ '7) ) V ^-^ ' ^^ ^ \vord of very rare occurrence. 

Birch and Naville understood it of the fiettiyig, and Brugsch, of the 
pluming of birds. Both meanings may be disputed, but whatever 
Shu did, was done to birds, and these are said to be given to the 
deceased. 

The prayer that a person may travel over the bhssful parts, 

followed by his kau g iJ f j 11''^^=^' '"'' reP^^^^^^'y found on 

the early monuments. Several papyri say that the deceased is 
followed by ' the gods and the kau.' 

12. Te/ai'f "J^ J|, an abode abounding in ^ 



de/u'acies. 

13. He is in heaven /vfi ^ . The reading J_J to which 

Brugsch at one time attached much importance, has turned out 
to be one of the many blunders of the text of Sutimes. But the 

true reading is not without its difficulties. If /vn is taken 

as equivalent to [J V\ we have a strange anticipation of a change 

in language of which the "enigmatical" texts of the royal tombs* 
give the first intimation, but which first becomes conspicuous in the 

demotic period. In a previous passage we have Jj (I I □ ^v\ /VTi 
D Y^'-"' ' ^^'h*^""^ Nebseni has ^^^ ^^ . But the important 
preposition v\ had already dropped out of the earlier text of 
Chaemhait. The demonstrative particle [J I which occurs in both 

places may be rendered ' there [he is],' ' le voila.' 

14. / salute the stream of Teserit : a corrupt passage like so 

many others in this chapter. The first word ^ "vv P ^^ j\ 



D 

'salute 'is rare but correct and well attested. The proper name 
is but one of the contradictory readings. It has, however, the 
advantage of being a real name and suitable to the passage, being 

* Here we already have y^ = (1|\ ^ ^ ^ <== ^r: -fL ^ ===. 
„ ^__^ ^=5 1>^ F=^ I I I U 111 

^^'^ ^^ ® ^^ ~]r-^-^ . •"'ee my article in the Zeilsc/ir., 1S74, p. 102. 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S95. 

that of a goddess mentioned in connection with the next abode. 

T'eserit is a name corresponding to the classical 'A'^/Xai'u 

or Clara.* In the texts of the Royal Tombs she is named as 

goddess in Lh l-&-i- Cher-aba. And heret she is depicted as the 

goddess with long or flowing locks {ev7r\dkaitov) and armed with 
horns. She is one of the forms of Isis or Hathor. 

15. Kankanit\% etymologically akin to the verb of beating {see 
Chapter 17, note 20), but there is no reason from the notice here to 
suppose that this was a place of punishment. 

16. Userit~\<:rz>^ is one of the commonest appellatives of 

Isis, especially in the later texts. The names of all these abodes, 
situated in that region of the sky where the sun rises, are derived 
from the notion of daybreak. 

17. Smait, another of these appellatives, see Chapter 62, note i. 

18. The Emerald ones -^^^ ^\ ^ > those who are in the 

emerald light of the dawn. The sun rises (Chapter 109) through 
two sycomores of emerald. 



I 



19. Which have the force of purification /V" v\ 1 . The 

syllable db expresses the word signifying horn as well as that signify- 
ing //^r^iTrt/Zw/. 

The vignettes of the chapter which are here given from different 
authorities are explained in their proper place. 

\j <:, <^ 

* It is also the name of a liquid substance ^^^HT =n=, \ n\ 

a produce of the cow, such as cream or clarified butter. It occurs in all the 
lists of offerings. 

t A reference to M. Naville's collation of this chapter (line 40), will show 
the corruption and uncertainty of the text which precedes the name of the 
goddess. If we look beyond the authorities given by M. Naville, the difficulties 
are multiplied. The papyrus of Queen Nel'emit in the Louvre, for instance, 

stead of [1 1 ) etc., reads, /^ <:!:> • 



102 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., March, 1895. 



PLATE XXV. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 




Chapter XCIX. Papyrus Busca. 




Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No. 2. 




Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Brit. Mus., No. 9905. 




Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus, Mus6e du Louvre. No. IH, 89. 



.,' 


, 


r^ ) 


\ \ 


W^^M 


%%J 


p|^4£::^=_I ^ 



Chapter XCIX. 
Papyrus Brocklehurst, II. 



-^^CC 



'^ 



2& 



i 



r/ 



(f 



/^ 



<» — 



Chapter XCIX. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900. 



Proi. So(. Bthl. Arch., March, 1S95. 



PLATE XXVI. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 



-A^k'gihd.-^ 




CHAl'TEK (_'. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, 
No. Ill, 93 





1 


.Z^Uuil 




1? 






II 



ClIAI'I KK C. 

Papyrus, Boulaq Museum, No. 21. 



Chapter C. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, 
No. Ill, 89. 



Ik 


n 




iu 


/^ l» 



Chaiikk ("II. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, 

No. Ill, 36. 




Chapter CIX. 

KosELLiNi, " Mon. del Culto.,"' 
pi. XXIII. 




Chai'ikk CII. 
Papyrus Brocklehurst, II 





CllAI'TEK CVIII. (HAITI-.k ("IX. 

Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No. IL Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900 



Proc. Sac. Bibl. Arch., March, 1895. 



PLATE XXVII. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 




Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., March, 1895. 



PLATE XXVIII. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 




Chapter CX. Bas Relief, Leyden Museum. 






Chapter CXII. 

Mariette, 
' Abydos," I, p. 83. 



Chapter CXII. 

Mariette, 
Abydos," I, pi. 39. 



Chapter CXII. 

Mariette, 

" Abydos," I, p. 82. 



PIATE XXIX. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Mun/i. 1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 




Chapter CXII, 
Mariette, "Abydos," I, pi. 10. 



Chapter CXIII. 
Mariette, " Abydos," I, pi. 29. 




Chapter CXII. 

Papyrus, British Museum, 

No. 9900. 



Chapter CXIII. 
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9964 




Chapters CXII and CXIII. 
Mariette, "Abydos," I, pi. 31. 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



ETUDE SUR ABYDOS. 

UN DIALOGUE DES MORTS : LE CHAPITRE d'AMENER LA BARQUE. 

{Traduction.) 
Par E. Lefebure. 

Les fetes symbolisant le depart des ames se celebraient, non 
seulement a Abydos, mais encore dans tout le pays, avec une mise 
en scene tres detaillee. Leur caractere dramatique, signale par 
Herodote comma par Diodore, avait du necessiter la composition 
d'une sorte d'aide-memoire, scenario ou rituel, comme pour I'Apro, 
et il semble bien qu'il nous en reste une partie dans le vieux texte 
d'amener la barque. C'est une longue scene dialoguee entre un 
mort ou un officiant, et le Charon egyptien, d'abord, puis entre 
le mort ou I'officiant et un mysterieux personnage reveille par lui, 
Aken, le tout au sujet du greement de la barque infernale. On 
n'aurait probablement pas pousse aussi loin une telle redaction, 
sans un but d'utilite pratique. 

Le chapitre de la barque appartient a la haute antiquite, et se 
rattache aux croyances de I'ancien Empire plutot qu'a celles du 
nouveau. Son existence au temps des premieres dynasties est 
indiquee, dans les formules des pyramides royales, par des allusions 
et des citations frequentes, mais c'est le moyen Empire qui nous a 
laisse le texte lui-meme, sur les sarcophages de Horhotep,* de 
Satbastjt et de Mentuhotep.ij: Une seule copie plus recente se 
trouve au Livre des Morts de Tura,§ qui date de la dix-huiticme 
dynastie. 

Comme le dialogue dont il s'agit explique certaines i)articularites 
des rites d' Abydos, la traduction va en etre tentee ici d'apres ces 

* Maspero, Trois annees de fouilles, Sarcophagc de Horhotcp, p. 163-7, 
1. 425-494, et planche en photogravure, (premiere) portion du flanc droit, 
t /(/., Sarcophage de Satbast, p. 228-231, I. 1-31. 
X Lepsius, Aelteste Texte, pi. 12-15, '• 1-66. 
§ Naville, Todtenbuch, ch. 99, A. 

103 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, [1895. 

quatre redactions, lesquelles different assez peu I'une de I'autre pour 
le fond : elles sont designees dans les notes par les lettres A (Hor- 
hotep), B (Mentuhotep), C (Satbast), et D (Tura) : I'absence de 
lettre indique A. 

Le texte le moins incorrect (car on ne saurait guere dire le 
plus correct), et le mieux conserve, celui de Horhotep, A, a 
ete pris pour type : les passages ou les mots qui lui manquent, 
et qui sont dans B, ont ete ajoutes entre crochets, tandisque 
les additions faites pour eclaircir le sens sont niises entre 
parentheses. B etait plus complet, mais il se trouve maintenant 
coupe qa et la par des lacunes ; il offre cette ressource que les inter- 
pellations adressees a Tofificiant (il y en a une soixantaine) sont 
ecrites a I'encre rouge, comme I'avait remarque Lepsius.* C, qui 
ressemble moins a A qu'a B, presente le meme avantage, mais il 
est tres mutile, et s'arrete a la 1. 463 de Horhotep. 

D est extremement fautif; il fourmille d'omissions, de trans- 
positions et de deformations de groupes ; de plus, il s'arrete a la 
I, 467 de Horhotep. 

Plein de locutions speciales et d'allusions obscures, comme bien 
d'autres textes religieux qu'on ne saurait encore interpreter d'une 
maniere definitive, le chapitre de la barque necessite une sorte de 
glose perpetuelle et, en consequence, etendue : pour I'alleger un 
peu, les notes qui eussent ete trop longues au bas des pages ont ete 
renvoyees a la suite de la traduction, au moyen de chiffres romains ; 
ce sera le commentaire des parties les plus difficiles ou les plus 
interessantes. 

Une explication d'ensemble viendra ensuite, afin de montrer le 
jour que peuvent jeter ces vieilles formules sur les ceremonies 
d'Abydos. 

TEXTE DE HORHOTEP. 

Eigne 425. Ameuer la barque \_en en/erj]. Texte. — He, 
Batelier ! Amene-moi ceci : amene-moi Horus a son ceil, amene- 
moi Set a son scrotum (I). En cheminant,!}: Toeil d'Horus 

* Lepsius, Aclteste Texte, p. 23. 

t C'est le texte C qui ajoute ^^\ o 1 . 

t Mcrenra, 1. 291 et Pepi II, 1. 12S3, ont I J\ "wv , etc. 

104 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895, 

Ligne 426. est tombe, dans la partie orientale du ciel, et il defend 
son corps centre Set.* O Celui qui voit derriere lui (II), reveille-moi 
Aken. Vivat 

Ligne 427. pour toi (III) ! Laisse-moi venir (lA^). Qiii es-tn, 
toi qui viens (V) ? Je suis celui qui aime son pere, et que son peret 
aime, grandement, celui qui reveillera 

Ligne 428. son pere gisant. O Celui qui voit derriere lui, 
reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. 

Ligne 429. Dlras-tu^ ioi qtii ic diriges vers la partie orientale 
du ciel, pourquoi tu fy diriges ? Jc releverai sa tete, je redresserai 
sa face. II vous donnera 

Ligne 430. des ordres, et les ordres qu'il vous donnera ne 
.seront ni perimes ni annules en cette terre, a jamais. O Celui qui 
voit derriere lui, 

Ligne 431. reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi 
venir. Qui es-tu, toi qui viens ? Je suis le Magicien. 

Ligne 432, Es-t^i pourvjil Je suis pourvu. Es-tu niuni?X 
Je suis muni. As-tu 

Ligne 433. dispose les deux menibi-es (VI)? J'ai dispose les 

* II y a un texte nnalogue aux pyramides : " Ilorus crie apres son ct-il, Set 
crie apres son scrotum. En cheminant, I'ceil d'llorus est tombe, dans cette partie 
orientale du lac de Kha, il defend son corps (le corps de I'oeil et non, comme a 
iVbydos, I, p. 45 et 83, le corps d'Horus) centre Set, et voit Thoth dans cette 
partie du lac de Kha. En cheminant, I'oeil d'Horus, dans cette partie du lac 
(le Kha, est tombe sur I'aile de Thoth, dans cette partie du lac de Kha ; ces 
dieux passent sur I'aile de Thoth vers cette partie orientale du ciel, afin de parler 
devant Set pour cet reil d'Horus ; ce roi passe, etc. Eveille-toi en paix, Mahaf ! 
(Pepi I, 1. 674-6, Teta, 1. 185-90, et Pepi II, 1. 1282-7). 

t \\. J sa mi're, d'apres D. 

+ II s'agit d'un magicien : c'est done de sa magie qu'il est pourvu, comme le 

prouve d'ailleurs le Todtenbudi, ,^^3[ °^ [J ^^ \\ \\ ) '^ 

V ^ ' (^''^^''1'^' Todtenbuch, II, ch. 23, pi. 85 ; cf. Stele Metternich, 

pi. I, et 1. 213-4) ; au ch. 94, 1. 2, I'eUi demande a etre possesseur et pourvu 
des ecrits de Thoth. Un texte des pyramides fait allusion a ce passage du ch. 
de la barque : " le ciel craque, la terre tremble, (secoues) sur les deux bras 
de ce Pepi. Pepi, c'est le magicien, Pepi c'est le possesseur de la magie, 

vient et reconforte Orion, ce Pepi fait primer Osiris, ce Pepi met les dieux a 
leurs places. Mahaf, taureau des dieux, amene ceci a ce Pepi, mcts ce Pepi a 
sa place de vie et de bonheur." (Pepi I, 1. 176.) 

105 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [15^95. 

deux membres. Que sont-ils, ccs deux iiiembres I Le bras et la 
jambe. Enstiite 2 

Ligne 434. O Celui qui voit derriere lui, reveille-moi Aken. 
Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. Je te reveillerai 

Line 435. Aken, pourqiwi done? (Pour qu')il m'amene* la 
reunion avec Khnemu (VII) dans I'interieur de la Marcheuse du 
lac.t J^ci coupure est fait e dans le 

Ligne 436. mouillage (VIII). Retire sa gauche, (a la barque), 
et pousse-la a (la place de) son arriere, retire sa droite et pousse-la 
a. (la place de) son avant (IX). 

Ligne 437. Elle n^a plus ses roseaux, elle n^ a plus ses jo7ics,% clle 
li'a plus ses piquets (X), elle n\i plus ses courroies. Ses joncs, c'est 
le pelage 

438. qui est a§ la queue de Set, ses roseaux, ce sont les crocs 
(XI) qui sont dans la gueule de Baba, ses piquets, 

Ligne 439. ce sont lespiquants des levres de Bai,|| ses courroies 
ce sont les mains de I'image d'HorusU 



[I A ^ AAAA^ (I , son acte de 711' anicner (Da /\ ^'■^'^■^^ seulement) ; 



t La barque, appclee aussi rAmciieusc, (j A ^ s^ j Merenra, 1. 652, 



pour des infinitifs de ce genre, dans des phrases dont Tune est la consequence 
de I'autre, cf. I. 45 1 : tu viens et coiiiinent venir 'i 

et Pepi I, 1. 437. D au lieu de la Marcheuse, a I X_ , le nome heliopolite, 

Hckes. Si cette le9on n est pas entierement fautive, 11 y aurait la, comme Helzes 
designe le peche, Ic filet, le pecheur, une allusion au role de pecheur donne au 
batelier par le ch. 153 du Todtenbuch : la barque serait la Pecheuse. 

+ Tm<T V\ ^X> ^ 1 V^ ^I ; ce mot est pris ici au sens general, 
^— — ' W^ III r Jl II I Y 

comme dans I'hymne au Nil ou il est dit que le fleuve arrosc les j } | H ^41 » cices 

par Ra pour nonrrir tous les bestiaux (Sallier, II, pi. 7, et Anastasi, VII, pi. 7). 
De meme a Edfou (J. de Rouge, Textes geographiques d'Edfou, pi. 49), et au 
Livre d'honorer Osiris (Pierret, Etudes egyptologiques, I, p. 30). Les textes des 

pyramides placent aux portes de I'enfer les J^mT V\ 1 o \U \U \U 

de Set (Pepi I, 1. 367), dont I'elu renverse la cloture pour sortir. 

a, 

§ B a <zi> , sur. || B et C ont Balia. 

IT C'est une allusion probable aux statues des dieux, dont les bras et les 
mains etaient mobiles, ou bien encore aux serres de I'epervier. Les avirons de la 
barque infernale sont appeles les doigts d'Horus I'aine {Todtenbiuh, ch. 99, 1. 16). 

106 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Ligne 440. qui agit : I'ceil d'Horus les guide. O Celui qui 
voit derriere lui, reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi 

Ligne 441. venir. Qui done gardera V emplacement''' de cette 
barque 1\ Apporte cette queue du Velu:}: et place-la a 

Ligne 442. son arriere : elle la gardera. O Celui qui voit 
derriere lui, reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! 

Ligne 443. Laisse-moi venir. Qui done te Vamenera avee 7noil 
Amene-la avee Neferneteru, et avee Amset, [Mesetmutdjesf], Hapi, 

Ligne 444. Tuaumatf et Kebsenuf:>5 il la gouvernera. || La 
depouille (XII) (de la victime), placee a son avant, la guidera vers 
le lieu ou 

Ligne 445. il est. Eh, pourqiioi done eeci ? Eh, en guise 

AAAA^A 

^- [ ] , oil ^^'^^^ J " pour nous ;" ce groupe ne se trouve que dans A. 

t D intercale ici cette phrase: 1 [j h (\r\ ^ ^ 

v\ v\ > " le Khenti militaire donnera ce qui la gardera." 



surnom de Set ; 

— *— ^^ Y '^^ ^2>- i^ O 
les fils d Ilorus L f] •-^-^•■^•■^ 2)sl ^^^^ f ? I Q ' ^''^^'^'I"^"^ Seiiem qui a 

arrachc Vml cf Horns, et Va mange {Denkiniiler, IV, pi. 46, a, 1. 31). Deux 

determinatifs du mot, dans ses diverses acceptions, sont ^^ et 5^7^* ^'^' ^^ 

H 

Velu, cf. h\^ » c'est la victime du sacrifice, regardee comme typhonienne. 

§ Neferneteru, Ic meillcur des dieux, est represente a la 3"^ heure de I'Amtuat. 

Dans la liste des autres dieux, A omet — « — I c^ ^\\ U — **— I ' ^ omet Hapi, 

et D, qui deforme etrangement le mot Neferneteru, omet Amset. B seul a done 
la six dieux, et il se pourrait qu'en realite il n'en fallut que cinq : le nom de 
Mesetmutdjesf ne serait alors qu'une variante developpee du nom d'Amset 



i H > Oimenoptah, pi. XI, A). Aux pyramides, le groupe des quatre genics 

des canopes est maintes fois cite comme amenant la barque (Pepi I, 1. 464-5, 
et Merenra, 1. 551) ; d'autres fois, il est seulement question des quatre dieux 
^™s^|^^^^^ (Merenra, 1. 650-2, et Pepi I, 1. 436). 

Cinq remorqueurs de la barque, sans doute les quatres genies et Neferneteru, 
tigurent dans un exemplaire du Todteiihuch (Naville, I, ch. 99, pi. 112). Mest t 
ou Set, / 1 ^=i 1 I ' designe une sorte du baton recourbe aux 2'' el 

4* heures de I'Amtuat, oil a la 3" heure figure un taurocephale appele I . 

il Cf. Merenra, 1. 641 : Q (^ I) ^_ ^^J^ 1 . 

107 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1895. 

•d'ailes (XIII), la depouille. Et ensuite ? Ce del rente, et elk n^a 
point son mat. Apporte 

Ligne 446. ce phallus de Baba,* qui cree les enfants, qui 
engendre les veaux. Je Vinstallerai, potirquoi done 

Ligne 447. celal Pour I'enfourchuret (du mat) et le com- 
mencement de la marche. \^Et ses cordages ?] Apporte ce serpent 
qui est dans la main de Hemen (XIV). 

Ligne 448. £n quel endroit de la barque le mettrai-je done? 
Place-le dans sa sentine. % \Et sa toile ?% C'est la trame sortie 
de la tresse (XV) dont Horus ainsi que Nubt respirent I'odeur, au 
jour de la fete du commencement de I'annee]. Et la ralingu$1\\ 
C'est le lien 

Ligne 449. de celui qui effraie les hommes.lT Qui est-ce, celui 
qui effraie les hommes ? Celui qui est en vie dans sa nuit 

* II faut probablement voir, dans cette conception, I'origine de differentes 
figurines obscenes de I'epoque greco-romaine, representant des Priapes grotesques, 
avec mat et voile. 

t Mot a mot les detix jamhes, c'est-a-dire les deux branches de la vergue 
soutenant la voile . 

Y\ , Vuruie. 

§ B (y^^ ^^ V^ [• ^ ' ^ '^ ligne precedente. A, ou tout ce passage 

est tronque, a ,-^ v\ v\ \\ , la voile, au lieu du mot cordages. 

II Litteralement les deux Icvres ; des levres, qui sont des liens, ne peuvent 
guere designer ici que la corde qui borde les deux cotes de la voile, et qu'on 
appelle la ralingue. Ces differentes parties du navire, mat, cables, voiles, et 
attaches, sont enumerees aussi dans le passage d'llomere qui decrit le depart de 
Telemaque (Odyssee, II, v. 424-6). 

^ ^^Z^4^^' "^ >^^^^ '«="."'«■•»"-- 

de determinatif, le mot teinu a ete compris ici dans le sens d'hommes. II y a un 



^1 a la 5= heure de I'xVmtuat (Champollion, Notices, I, p. 762), et un 
^-5' I a Denderah, (IV, pi. 37, 1. 76) ; le chapitre des pecheurs represente Horus 



/w\/\/v\ /\/w\rv\ 



assis seul dans I'obscurite, invisible et effrayant les ctrcs, 
et les cordes de I'objet >-r< du filet y sont dites les liens, ^^^ ')0\ 'j^pp , 
du maitre des humains (Naville, Todtenlmch, II, ch. 153, pi. 434-5). Le mot 
■V", vivre ou surgir la nuit du nouvel an, fait songer au feu qu'on allumait alors 
(J. de Rouge, Inscriptions hicroglyphiques, pi. 279, 1. 27 et pi. 281, 1. 45), et les 
liens du peisounage rappellcnt ccux d'Yama, le dicu des morts dans I'lnde. 

108 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Ligne 450. du commencement de I'annee. O Celui qui voit 
derriere lui, reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. 
Qui es- 

Ligne 451. tu, toi qui viens ? Je suis le Magicien. Tu viens, 
et comme7it venir 1 T21 sors, et comment sortirl* Je sortirai par 
le moyen desf 

Ligne 452. celebrants (XVI) et des victimes (XVII). Pourqiioi 
ceci, et que fais-tu pour elle^X Je marche sur leur dos,§ 

Ligne 453. et je guide ses celebrants. Que fais-tu encore pour 
ellel [Ma droite est a sa droite, mon devant a son avant, ma 
gauche k sa gauche, mon dos a son arriere. Que fais-tu encore pour 
elle .?] L'abattage de ses taureaux, I'egorgement de son oie, le tir 
(de son canard ||). 

Ligne 454. Qui est-ce qui se place sur elle? L'Horus des chefs. 
Qui est-ce qui pi'end ses ohjets mysterieux .?1I Le Khent chef aine. 

Ligne 455. Qui est-ce qui dispose ses vases ?** Le Khent, chef 
de la Bat (XVIII). Que fais-tu encore pour elle? 



* ]\Iot a mot conune quoi sortir? ^-^ a . C'est la sortie de ce monde 
pour s'en aller dans I'autre et monter de I'enfer au ciel ; cf. Unas, demiere 
formule. 



+ P- — ^ v\ /ww\A , forme de I'article et du pronom ; cf. Todlciilmch, ch. 106, 
6 ce batelie}' qui es dans la Sckhd-ani, A v\ M|5 <:::2> i""*" — 

tk ^ <=" v7\ tk - ^ ^ 

C^ V\ (ou (E^)^-^-^ V\ i^:^Si^^^^:^ (edition Naville, II, 

-21 111 III/ /) <:rZ> Ji AA/\AA^ 

pi. 243), coHduis-j7ioi aux ties (ou, cf. Kectteil, XIV, p. 170, aux pains) de ton 

wi, selon ce que j'ordonne (Oime- 



ranal ; cf. aussi ^ 
neptah, pi. 8, C). 

+ /^^AAAAil^ et 1. 453, <CZ:> I, relativeDietit a elle, la barque; ici, et dans 
les demandes semblables, les autres textes ont H TTT, relativement a ciix, la 
barque, les celebrants et les victimes. 

§ Le dos des victimes. 



1 ^^^^ I 

.^ <wvw> -^ /vvvw\ ^ > 



/VWNAA 

(Teta, 1. 389-390, et Merenra, I. 405). 



IT Le materiel du sacrifice. 

** Les vases destines a recueillir le sang et a placer le cceur de la victiine, 
par exemple, comme on le voit dans I'Apro. 

109 



Mar. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895. 



Ligne 456. Marche vers Khem le Coptite et Anubis Abataui :* 
je les decouvre 

Ligne 457. qui celebrent leurs fetes, et qui moissonnent. [Zei/rs] 
blcs ont-ils des cpis\ {pour /aire des painsX] ? Separe les tiges avec 
leurs faucilles§ qui sont 

Ligne 458. a leurs pieds : [tu feras des pains avec (les epis)]. 
Que Celui qui s'eleve me conduise|| a I'Elevee, que le Jeune de Pa 
me conduise au Jeune de Neteru (XIX), 



* Ce titre d'Anuliis, niaitrc des deux ierres, est ecrit Sekhemtaui a la 1. 46S, 
B, et a la 1. 487 [cf. Zeitschrift, 1S85, jd. 10) : le sens est le meme sous ces deux 
formes. On remarquera que le principal hieroglyphe du titre, le sceptre, etait 
divinise et porte sur une enseigne dans les processions, au moins a Denderah, 

Y W fl I (Denderah, IV, pi. 21). 

a:^''-c^; c'est le terme qui designe sous leS formes 
yfr (Oimeneptah, pi. 2, B), 



I I I 



_zr ci 1 1 1 



■^. 



Will 



w 



nicme texte, tombeau de Seti I), et 



ci I I I 



{z" heure de I'Aintuat), les enormes epi;^ 



du paradis egyptien. 

X Les derniers mots de la question, dans B, paraissent bien etre (^ 
poiir des pains. 



& 



^ I 
I I I 



CZSZ] 
proquement. 

Merenra, 1. 301 



CTi d . , . , . 

\J : ces deux versions se completent et se corrigent reci- 
I I I 

-^ V f] a, parmi ses sens, celui de separer : /<,■ nc vicns pas pour 



(^1 
I 



, siparer le dicu du dicu (Abydos, I, p. 42 ; cf. 



Ici, il s'agit de separer la paille du grain : stpare les tiges avec 
h's faucilles, ou, d'apres B, separe les iiges d'avec les vases a mettre le grain. Les 
pyramides mentionnent les rites de la recolte qui avait lieu pour la fete d'Uak 
(Pepi II, 1. 707-8), et le Todtenhuch, au sujet des bles de I'elu, parle des faucilles 
ou des recoltes du dieu Khem (ch. 124, 1. 2) : Khem presidait aux moissons. 

O 5^ <^ 



\\''f- d^~7^Tr, , 



III III 



elles (les heures) conduiseut Ka vers ce dont elles se nourrisseii/, les douze petits tlu 
serpent Ilerer (Oimeneptah, pi. 7, C). 



/ 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Ligne 459. auprtjs ■**■ de cest dieux qui sont dans leurs demeures. 
Je les decouvre qui lavent| leur linge : ils viennent 

Ligne 460. avec les pains des dieux. Ils te feront des pains 
pour Taller, des miches pour le retour. O Celui (jui voit derriere 
lui, 

Ligne 461. reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi 
venir. Qui es-tii, toi qui viens 1 Je suis 

Ligrte 462. le Magicien. Es-tu pourvu ? Je suis pourvu. 
Es-tu mufii ? J e suis muni. 

Ligrie 463. As'iu dispose les deux viembres ? J'ai dispose les 
deux membres. Que sont-ils^ ces deux membres ? Le bras 

Ligne 464. avec Id janibe. Et ensuiie ? Diras-tu, toi qui te 
diriges vers la partie orientale du del, pourquoi tu fais cela ? 

Ligne 465. Je gouvernerai les domaines, j'administrerai les 
loca]ites,§ je connaitrai celui qui possede et donnerai a celui qui ne 
possede pas. Je vous ferai des pains pour 



* ® ; cette preposition ne se trouve que dans A. 

t '^ I'l _P ®) d'apres A, ce qui signifierait les dieux de Pa ; C. a ffsA D *p , 
reste du demonstratif l| D ^ , qui est dahs D : il y a simplement ks dieux, 
dans B. Toutefois, il est fort possible qu'il s'agisse ici de Pa (cf. Todtenbuch , 

ch. 112, 1. 1-2) : ^ Abydos le roi est dit ^^^ D '^^ H Hflrt ^ f\ ^ 

mentionne aussi ^j, (lln [rb • ^^ '-' 1l ^a* ^^"^ demonstratif, on peut le 
comparer a □ 1]^] (Champollion, Notices, II, p. 526). 

•*• ® c '^ /. 5 C/- le nom du lieu appele le pays des Laveuses, et situe dans 
le district Heroopolite d'apres M; Brugsch {Dictioiiiiaire geographique, p. 392). 
La, les divinites locales en rapport avec Osiris etaient Isis, Horus et Amset, selon 
le Todtenbuch (ch. 18, 1. 34). Isis et Ncphthys blanchissaient le linge du Soleil, 

^^>-4^I^|'._-^fj\l^I I ^ (Abydos, I, p. 44; cf- Ber.edite, Philce 

I I I 
I., p. 40). 

retrouve dans une des formules de la pyramide de Merenra, 1. 252 : (1 [ /] 

© © I >?^t ^--~- tii ili // domic des ordi-es H ceux qui 



M VR. 5] SOCIETY OF F.IBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1895. 

Lio-ne 466. Taller, des miches pour le retour. O Celui qui voit 
derri^re lui, reveille-moi Aken. Vivat pour toi ! 

Li"ne 467. Laisse-moi venir. Connais-tu le chemin sur lequel 
tu marches, he, Magicicn? [Je connais le chemin sur lequel je 
marche. Quel est4l, ce chemin * ? Celui sur lequel marche 

Licrne 468. le Sekhem-ta] quand il marche vers les Champs 
Elysees. Qui est ton guide ? L'Abait-ti Kheb-ti (XX) 

Lio^ne 469. est mon guide. Qui parlera pour toi\ a ce dieii 
augustel Udja-ab,| frere de Sakar, I'aine. 

Ligne 470. O Celui qui voit derriere lui, reveille-moi Aken. 
Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. 

Ligne 471. Je ne Vai pas reveille. Dis : 6 Dieu ! forcee est 
I'enceinte : je descelle ton coffre, je compte tes calames, 

Ligne 472. j'ouvre tes livres (XXI); ma face est celle du 
Nun (XXII), ma vue est celle de Shu et mon ouie 

Lit^ne 473. est Touie de Shu ; je donne des ordres aux Akhemu- 
Seku,§ je suis puissant [comme j'etais puissant] sur terre. Pourquoi 

Licfne 474. done ceci ? He ! dit Aken, je suis, et j'etais viort ! 
Aken, amene-moi ceci. Vivat pour toi ! 

LioTie 475. Laisse-moi venir. Qui es-tu, toi qui viens? Je suis 
le Magicien. Es-tu pourvu ? Je suis pourvu. 

sont avec le Nun. Le titre £\ V\ ' L^ *^^'^ connu. Pour le 

I rV^ III I 1 I © ^^ 

mot ker, ^ ^ ^ '^ , B, r/ Brugsch, Zeitschrift, 1886, p. 22, Fepi I, 



III 

1. 162, Horhotep, 1. 172, Todtenbiuh, ch. 84, 1. 3, J. de Rouge, Basse Egypte, 
p. 39, etc. Ker signifie, avec le contexte qu'il a ici, lieu habite, d'apres son 
sens bien connu de posseder, occuper, habiter. On lit au texte de la Destruc- 
tion des hommes, quand le Soleil a fait monter les hommes au ciel : oh ! tu m'as 

fait habiter par une multitude, \ W \>\> "S ^ J__ ^ ^\ 

"^^ V§^ J) ' (•• 38-9). 

Ill ^ iJ. I 

* 67". Todtenbuch, ch. 17, 1. 20 et 22. 

t D"apres A il faudrait lire : qui dim ton nom, /w-yy^ , ii ce dieu ? Cf^ 

Pepi II, 1. 1288. B parait avoir ^]) , le9on adoptee ici ; il s'agit de 



faire reveiller Aken par un intermediare, sorte de -<CS>- V de I'autre nionde. 

:J: Pour des expre?.sions et des noms de ce genre, cf. Horhotep, 1. 209 et 226, 
Pepi I, 1. 410, Pepi II, 1. 1191-2, et Merenra, 1. 586-7 et 754-9. 
§ Dieux des etoiles circumpolaires. 

I 12 



Mar. 5] rUOCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Ligne 476. Es-tu munil Je suis muni. As-tu dispose les deux 
membres? J'ai dispose 

Ligne 477. les deux membres. Que sont-ils, ces deux membres 
[/le, Magicienf\. Le bras avec la jambe. \Et ensuite? dit Ake7i\ 
Amene-moi ceci. Vivat 

Ligne 478. pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. Suis-je done viaitre 
de tout* ce que je t\xmenerais,\ he^ Magicien ? Cetie barque 

Ligne 479. que voici, il n^y a pas son ecope. Apporte cctte 
baguette de Khnemu qui vivifie ce (jui est avec elle, et place-la 
dedans. 

Ligne 480. Aken, amene-moi ceci. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse- 
moi venir. Suis-je done maitre 

Ligne 481. de tout ce que je famenerais, he, Magieien 1 Cette 
barque que voici, il n^y a pas ses agres (XXIIL). Qu'est-ce qui lui 
manque ? 

Ligne 482. [// ;z'_y a pas ses planches\ il ii'y a pas ses grelins, 
il ny a pas ses poteaux, il n^ a pas son inateriel. Va vers ce 
dieu que 

Ligne 483. tu ne connais pas, et rappelle-lui la totalite de ses 
agres, marche, il te (les) donnera. Qui est-ce, ce dieu (duquel tu dis) 
tu ne 

Ligne 484. le connais pas, rappelle-lui la totalite de ses agres, 
marche, et il te les donnera 'i Qui est-ce ? C'est Horus qui est avec 
le sceau (XXIV). 

Ligne 485. Aken, amene-moi ceci. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse- 
moi venir. Suis-je done maitre 

Ligne 486. de tout ce que je famcnerais, he, Magicien ? Cette 
barque que voici, il fi'y a pasX son cdble.% Apporte ce serpent 

Ligne 487. qui est dans [la main de Hemen et d'Anubis] 
Sekhem-taui : place-le en elle, sa tete dans ta main, sa queue dans 
ma main, et tordons-le. Am- 

^ ^ v rn— TT >X 1' '^ ^'^" Tmu, au lieu de V w,— „; ^, c'cst-a-dire : "suis-je 
done puissant comme Tmu? Amene toi-meme." 

t C'est-a-dire les deiniers agres de la barque, nolaniment le cable dont il va 
etre question. 

X B parait remplacer ^JU. par Zl ; (/! la nef^ation douteuse .^^_^ ; mais la 
boucle de -^-A— . peut etre confondue avec un ZI, dans B: la negation ka 
viendrait-elle d'une confusion semblable ? 

§ Son cable de rcn)or(|ui'. 



I I 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1895. 

Ligne 488. tenuni (XXV) sera son nom aux bords (XXVI) 
des bassins qui sont dans ces deux regions. Le fleuve est-il pretl* 
Le fleuve est pret et libra. 

Ligne 489. Aken, amene-moi ceci. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse- 
moi venir. Qu'est-ce qiie\ 

Ligne 489 bis. ces deux regio?is, he, Magicicn ? C'est I'horizon 
avec la Crypte (XXVII), (objets de) mon desir. Alors done 

Ligne 489 ter. tu cofwais ces deux regions, he, Alagicien ? Je 
(les) connais. Qu''est-ce que 

Ligne 490. ces deux 7-egions, he, Magicien ? C'est I'enferl avec 
I'Elysee. Aken, amene-moi 

Ligne 491. ceci. Vivat pour toi ! Laisse-moi venir. Suis-je 
done maitre de 

Ligne 492. iojit ce que je famenerais, he, Magicien ? Diras-tu, 
\toi qui passes% vers le lieu oil est\ ce dieu auguste, si tu me passes 
un individu 

Ligne 493. qui ne sail pas oic sont ses doigts ? [qu'il park I Je 
sais ou ils sont. Ou ? Donne les quatre doigts et le pouce, donne .^ ||] 

* Cette demande manque dans B ; le contexte indique suffisamment que c'est 
une interrogation. 

t Apres 1 ^ ^y D Y> terminant la 1. 489, la photographic ajoute ces deux 
lignes, qui manquent dans B : 

Ligne 489''''^- ®|\\|^(] 2 I U [ju^'rin \:> ^^ ^ 111 






© A □ ^ , 

et le texte continue avec (J de la lignc 490. 

+ Le monde souterrain distingue de I'Elysee, qu'on pla9ait un peu partout. 
§ C'est-a-dire qui veux passer (en barque). 

^ <=:> 1 nil ■^^=~' C\ x^:- La preposition 

<CZ> a ici le sens de par, selon, quant h, c'est-a-dire "donne la main entiere, 
selon les quatre doigts et le pouce." 

114 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Prends I'un et prends I'autre (ceil), lesquels etaient eteints pour toi. 
Alors * 

Ligne 493 <^/^. do?ic donne-ks, donne done .'\ Je (te) les donne. 
Sens vers moi ce dont tu as ete depouille, ce dont tu as ete prive. 

Ligne 494. I/ceil etait perdu :{: pour toi, je (te) rends I'ceil 
(XXVIII). 

* Apres V\ A n 1 '=zr> terminant la 1. 493, vienl dans la 

photographic la ligne 493 bh, dont le debut n'est pas dans B : 

-et la 1. 494 continue en terminant le mot commence ^^^ ) ' ^^^- ^ ^ 

,^ I 



c'est-a-dire (prends Tun et prends I'autre ceil) que in li'avais phis a la iete 
d^Horus. Je te donne pour accompagner ta face ce dont tti as ete depouille, ce dont 
tu as ete prive. 

t Ces mots expriment le tatonnement impatient d'un aveugle : Aken, bien que 
reveille, n'a pas encore recouvre la vue, puisqu'il cherche les mains de son 
interlocuteur lui rapportant ses yeux. Dans toute cette fin, qui est assez obscure, 
il y a, semble-t-il, confusion ou assimilation de la face et des yeux d'Horus avcc 
ccux d'Aken. 

■*• ' I ^1 ' ^ ' rTl) • ^'^^' evidemment le mot qui signific User, 
dt'ranger, tfoubler, comme dans ce passage du papyrus AVestcar : il est arnve 
quelle a derange, [ TT^ "^^t^ ' ^°'* '-^^^ "''^ raineitses (pi. 6, 1. 4). 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-liOLOGY. [15^95 

COMMENTAIRE. 
I. Ligne 425-— 

Dans le reste du chapitre il y a habituellement i\ '""^'^ (J 



avec le pronom de la premiere personne dont I'absence est d'ailleurs 

frequente en bien des cas, par exemple dans le nom de la fete 

de Haker, pour Ha-k-er-a ;* on lit, au grand temple d'Abydos, 

i\ ^A>wv^ ^ (.51-^ (^e |\ '^^'■'''^ Hi ^ dans une adoration adressee a 

Nefer-Tmu par le roi qui prend le role de Thot apportant I'oeil 
d'Horus.t Quant a la forme |\ '^''^^^ de C, comme c'est une femme 
qui parle il est clair que ^ est la pour M , comme dans certains 



passages des Textes du mythe d'Horus, A n , "je t'amene," 



" + 



^^ v\ , "mon fils HoruSj^ou ^ , et (J " , "je viens, 
Jar _m> o^ iJ (5 ^ 

Au chapitre de la barque, la question est de savoir s'il faut 
comprendre "j'ambne,"ou bien "amene-moi." Cette question est 
eclaircie par I'ensemble des textes qui concernent la barque aux 
pyramides royales. La, c'est le batelier qui amene la barque,§ et 
le mort qui amene I'oeil. " O conducteur de la barque de Sekhet- 

hetep, amene ceci a ce Fepi, l\ ^^^^^^ v\ ^^^^^^ Fepi . \\ 

Teta ordonne a Mahaf, batelier du lac de Kha, "qu'il amene (ou 

lui amene) sa barque, [1 A c^ ^^^-^ -^^ (oujl l\ ^ 

d apres Pepi I), du lac de Kha, dans laquelle il passe les dieux vers 

* Reciieil, X, p. 146. 

t Abydos, I, pi. 37, b ', cf. Todteithiicli, edition Naville, ch. 173. 
\ PI. 5, pi. I, pi. 3, 1. 3 et 6, et pi. 5, 1. 4. 
§ Cf. Todte)il>uch, ch. 99, 1. I. 

II Pepi I, 405, et Merenra, 578-9 ; cf. Pepi I, 176 et 473, Mcrcnrn, 316, et 
Ilnrhotep, 37C-3S0. 

116 



Mak. 5 1 PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

cette partie du lac de Kha, vers la partie orientale du ciel." * Une 
autre formule est ainsi congue : " Face en arriere, portier d'Osiris, 

AQ WAA/VA f-1 

l\ ci Pepi >-3fi 

D v\, dans laquelle tu passes tes saints pour recevoir la libation sur 



cette voie (iiar-t\) des Akhemu-seku." J 

On lit ailleurs, au contraire : " apports d'Horus, (ce qu')il aime, 
Teta lui apporte son ceil " (comme a Set son scrotum et a Thoth 



bras), I] \ 0%^^''^K_7>^a ^1 R 



^ I 

Differents personnages, qui ne sont pas representes comme des 
bateliers, apportent aussi I'ceil dans les scenes des I'Amtuat, ])ar 

exemple: J] )l et A , a la deuxieme heure, ou 1] I 

, a la troisieme ; Thoth, auquel I'elu se compare ou 

s'assimile ici en qualite de Hekau, Magicien, portait les titres de 
an-ut'a^'^ et de s-hetep-neteru.% (Au Todtenbiich^ I'elu ramene 
encore d'autres membres divins.**) 

Deux autres formules des pyramides, a la verite fort obscures, 
semblent montrer le roi et le batelier se faisant un apport reciproque : 
" Face-en-avant-face-en-arriere, amene ceci a Unas (pour qu')Unas 

t'amene cela, (j j\ 3^ "^ % .^ U7ias (j R "" Unas — (](] 

(Pepi II, 1002, a ~rr [JO ); batelier, amene a Unas, [1 H "^^^ Unas, 

celle qui s'envole et se pose " (le vehicule symbolique de I'aile).!! 
Et : " Mahaf-herfhaf, laisse venir ce Pepi a la vie, il t'amene cet ceil 

d'Horus, (J |\ ~^~^ V\ C\ , releve, qui etait dans 

1 JJ *J-=^ "- — ^ o JlL o _m> 
la prairie de la navigation, amfene ceci a ce Pepi, la barque," 

\ \ ^ \> -^^ ^'^J'^' ° "^"^Q^-tt (Cette phrase est 

1 rv^/wv\ \J // ^^A/v^A C^ 

* Teta, 193-4, r"*^?' ^' ^77> ^' ^'epi II, 1290-2. 
t Cf. Merenra, 661, et Pepi I, 672. 
% Pepi I, 41 1-2, Merenra, 589-590, et Pepi II, 1 194-6. 
§ Teta, 26-7. 

II Abydos, I, pi. 37,^; c/. Brugsch, Siipplciiieiit au Dutioiiuaire, p. 29, 81 
et 1404. 

IT Benedite, PhiLe, p. 50 ; cf. de Rochemonteix, E.lfoii, p. 25. 
** Todtenlmch, edition Naville, ch. 136 B. 
ft Unas, 603-4, et Merenra, 306-9. 
XX Pepi I, 443-5- 

117 



Mar. 5] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCII.E JLOG V. [1895. 

transformee ensuite, dans une apostrophe aux quatre dieux des 
canopes, par I'omission de la lettre n apres le nom du roi,* ce qui 
donne le sens apparent de : amene ceci, c'est-a-dire alors les agres, 
au roi et a la barque ; Merenra a : amene au roi ceci pour la 

barque, "^ ^^.ww Q,m^^^-tj 

Quoiqu'il en soit de ces deux textes, le debut du chapitre de la 
barque a ete compris ici dans le sens suivant : "amene-moi ceci, la 
barque, amene-moi Horus a son o^il, que j'apporte," bien que, aux 
pyramides, un debut analogue n'ait pas le pronom de la premiere 
personne (qui a la verite n'y est pas toujours exprime, Pepi II, 

864-7); "O batelier, f\ J\ ^\> ^ (1 J5 "^^^^^ 

etc.,:}: amt;ne ceci pour Horus, (j' ?)am^ne son ceil." 

En somme, le sens general n'a rien d'embarrassant : il s'agit de 
faire venir outre la barque I'ceil sacre, que I'ofificiant apporte a Aken. 
Quant a la barque, I'officiant n'ambne rien ; Mahaf lui dit : " qui 
te I'amenera avec moi ? " 1. 443-4, et lui-meme dit d'Aken : " 11 
m'amenera la reunion avec Khnemu daiis la barque," 1. 435. 

II. Ligne4.6.-A^^|>^K_.Be.C^^ 

^ K.=_ , D _^ ^ ^ . C'est le Charon egyptien, qu'on 

appelait aussi Herfhaf, c'est a-dire, Sa-face-est-derriere-lui. La plus 
vieille redaction du chapitre des Pecheurs, au Todtenhtch, le 
designe d'abord par le premier nom, puis par le deuxieme, dans la 
repetition d'une m^me phrase. § On lit e'galement, aux pyramides : 

"eveille-toi en paix, ^^ J^i , en paix, — ^ ^^, ^ , en paix, 

b:' teller du ciel, en paix, batelier de Nut, en paix, batelier des 
dieux, en paix ! " || tine autre formiile reunit les deux noms, 

-^ #^^^=^ ^ IfP^-^, dans Pepi I, 443, et Pepi II, 1129-30, 



tandisque Merenra, 549, a seulement ^ yY ■> ^^~^ ^m~ • Dans 

Unas et Merenra, le dieu €St dit Face-en-avant-face-en-arriere, 



1^ fl h ^ (dans I'original ce signe est le profil entier) 

* Cf. Pepi II, 1129-1132. t 5SO-2. 

X Merenra, 290-1, Pepi I, 183, et Pepi II, 896. 
§ Todtenbuch, edition Naville, II, jil. 433 ct 435. 
II Unas, 489, et Merenra, 362. 
118 



Mar. s] proceedings. [1895. 

u .* C'est ainsi une sorte de personnage 

bifrons, comme il y en a dans I'Amtuat, maniere sans doute 
d'indiquer que rien n'echappe a sa vue.f (Mahomet, d'apres les 
legendes, avait de meme la faculte de voir devant et derriere lui.) 

Les pyramides donnent a ce dieu les titres de *" ^TP ; ou 

_Jp "^^ Y ^^ '^^^ , § "batelier du lac de Kha," de ^ 
"taureau des dieux,"|| et de ^ 



&. 



"portier d'0siris."1T 

Au Todtenlmc/i, le chapitre des Pecheurs I'appelle ^ 

^"^ ^ (^^t "^ ' ^ ^ )' "niaitre de son cceur," c'est-a- 
dire, probablement, " impitoyable." ** Le ch. 125, 1. 25, fait de lui 
un des 42 juges infernaux, celui qui punit la luxure, sous le nom 

'^ W '^ ^ ' "^°^^' ^^ ^^ TeJ>eh-t T'rt-/'," c'est-a-dire, sorti du 

Charonium de Memphis : une variante donne ^ /•^^^/va ^TP >2A ^ 

"sorti de sa caverne."tf II a dans ce chapitre, au papyrus de 
Sutimes, une tete de serpent tournee en arriere pour figurer son 
nom. (Le batelier du ch. 93 a aussi la tete tourne'e en arriere, 
comme les damnes que Dante a places dans la fosse des devins. + l) 
Enfm, au ch. no, d'apres deux exemplaires thebains,^v5 les Champs 
Elysees semblent bien etre appeles "la Campagne de (Ma ou Herf) 
haf," et "la Campagne du Batelier." L'expression de "batelier de 
Sekhet-aru," et " de Sekhet-hetep," se trouve dans Pepi I, 400-5, et 
dans Merenra, 571-8. 

* Merenra, 306, Unas, 603, et I'epi II, 1001-2. 

t Cf. Todtenbuch, ch. 90, 1. 2. 

X Pepi I, 651 ; cf. Horhotep, 379. 

§ Tela, 193-4, Pepi I, 677, et Pepi II, 1 194. Il Pepi I, 176. 

IT Merenra, 589, et Pepi I, 411. 

** 'J odtenbuch, edition Naville, II, pi. 433 ct 435. 

ft Reaieil de travaux, XV, p. 18. %% Enfer, XX. 

§§ Todtefdnic/i, edition Naville, II, pi. 258. 



119 



Mar. s] society OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be holden at 37, 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., on Tuesday, the 
2nd April, 1895. 

The following Paper will be read : — 
Rev. Dr. Lowy, " Pre-Mosaic Culture of the Hebrews," Part II. 




1 20 



Mar. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



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Members having duplicate copies, 7uill confer a favour by presenting them to the 

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Alker, E., Die Chronologic der Bucher der Kiinige und Paralipomenon im 

Einklang mit der Chronologic der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonicr und Meder. 
Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

• Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant not re ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, rhomme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 

Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religiongeshichte. Der Gott Israels und 

die Gotter der Heiden. 
Blass, A. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegj-ptiaca superest. 
Botta, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments figyptiens, copies sur lieux el publics pat 

H. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 
of vols. 3 and 4.) 
BUDINGER, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primordiis cum 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BURCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Aegyptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 
DiJMiCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1867. 
— 2nd series, 1869. 



Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1S62. 2 vols., folio. 



Earle's Philology of the English Tongue. 

Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. Die Masse und das Kapitel iiber die Augen- 

krankheiten. 
ER^[AN, Papyrus Westcar. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 
Gayet, E., Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 
GOLENISCHEFF, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-quatre Tablettes Cajipadociennes de la Collection de. 

IIaupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Hess, Der Gnostische Papyrus von London. 

PIoMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 

Jastrow, M., A Fragment of the Babylonian " Dibbarra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonicr. 



Mar. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.^iOLOGV. [1S95. 

Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nubukaunezar's Geschichtliche Skizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung tier Keilschriftlichen Qucllen. 
Joachim, II., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch iiber Heilkunde. 
Johns HorKiNS University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Berichsichtignung cler Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
LefJ^bure, Le Mythe Osirien. 2'"« partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G., Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmanm, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 vehr, p. xiv, 173, 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, Sec, iSSo. 
Lyon, D. G. An Assyrian Manual. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
MiJLLER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmiiler aus Arabien. 
NoORDTZiG, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptische out 

dekkingen. 
Place, Ninive et I'Assyrie, 1866- 1869. 3 vols., folio. 
POGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
ROBIOU, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologic des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Sciiaeffer, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

Scnouw, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris, 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Altag>'ptishe Gotterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'lm 

Monument Egyptien. 
VissER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1S91. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
WiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
Wiltzke, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
WiNCKLER, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

Wesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. I, 1847 ; Vols. IV to XII, 

1850 to 1858, inclusive; Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 to 1878. 
ZiMMERN, H., Die Assyriologie als Iliilfswissenschaft fiir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



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Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President. 
P. LE Page Renouf. 



Vice-Presidents. 



The Most Rev. His Gkace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

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HARRISON AND SONS, I'RINTERS l.\' ORDINARY TO IIEK MAJESTY, ST. MAKTINS LANE. 



VOL. XVII. 



Part 4. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

VOL. XVIL TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 

Foia-th Meeting, April 2nd, 1895. 

*^ 

CONTENTS. 

I'AGi: 
P. Le I'AGE Renouf (President). — The Book of ihc Dead, 

Chapters CXVII-CXXIII. (/'/(z/t- XXX) 123-129 

Rk\'. C. J. Bali., M.A. — The name Shinar, Genesis .\i, 2 ; anii 

the meaning of niOi '" tii-'i^csis xliii, 11 130 

S. A. .Strong. — Some Assyrian Alliterative Texts 131-151 

Dr. A. Wiedemann. — InscrijJtion of the 'J'ime of Anienophis I\' 152-15S 

^^ 

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PROCEEDINGS. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



Fourth Meeting, 2nd April, 1895. 
REV. JAMES MARSHALL, M.A., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



-^C#<*;^- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From F. D. Mocatta : — Sources of Spanish Jewish History. B)- 

Joseph Jacobs. 8vo. 1894. 
From the Author, Prof. C. P. Tiele : — Western Asia according 

to the most recent Discoveries. Translated by Elizabeth J. 

Taylor. 

[No. cxxix.] 121 K 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHtEOLOGV. [1895. 

From Prof. E. P. Tide : — Overgedrukt uit den Feestbundel van 
Taal-, Letter-, Geschied. En Aardrijkskundige Bijdragen ter 
Gelegenheid van Zijn Tachtigsten Geboortedag. Tan Dr. 
P. J. Veth. 

The following Candidates were submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting, 5th March, 
and elected Members of the Societ)' : — 

S. Hirschfeld, Bream's Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.G. 
Rev. J. J. C. Valpy, Elsing Rectory, E. Dereham, 
David J. Waugh, 4, Florence Place, Falmouth. 

The following Candidate was nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held on the 7th May, 1895 : — 

M. I'Abbe Poels, Lie. en TheoL, Rue des Dominicains, Louvain. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

The General Theological Seminary, E. H. Jewett, Librarian, 
Chelsea Square, New York, U.S.A. 

A Paper was read by Thko. G. Pinches on a "Tablet 
in the Babylonian Character, with Greek transcriptions of the 
era of Alexander." Mr. Pinches spoke of the pronunciation 
of Assyrian, bringing forward evidence of the existence of the 
so-called PCIJ"!^! from the inscriptions, where such forms as 
issi, instead of itti {= iththi), "with" are found, as well 
as from a tablet with a Greek transcription, numbered 
Sp. Ill, 245 + 81-7-6, 141 ; which gives 0g? for pes. The 
existence of <?, both long and short, in places where u or ii 
is now universally read, was also referred to. 

The Paper will be published in full in a future part of the 
Proceedings. 

A Paper was read by the Rev. Dr. Lowy, on " The 
Primitive Culture of the Hebrews." Part IL 

Remarks were added by the Rev. C- J. Ball, Dr. Gaster, 
W. G. Thorpe, F.S.A., and the Chairman. 

Thanks were returned for these communications. 



ArRii. 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 
By p. le Page Renouf. 

CHAPTER CXVH. 

Chapter whereby o?ie taketh the blissful path at Restan. (i) 

paths which are high above me at Restau: I am the Girdled (2) 
and the Mighty one, coming forth triumphantly. (3) 

1 am come : I am come that I may firmly secure my suit in 
Abydos, (4) and that the path may be open to me at Restau. 

Let my suit be made pleasant for me by Osiris. 

I am he who produceth the water which balanceth his throne, 
and who maketh his way from the Great Valley. (5) 

Let the path be made for me ; for behold I am N the trium- 
phant. (6) 

[Osiris is made triumphant over his adversaries, and the Osiris 
N is made triumphant over his adversaries, and is as one of you, 
his patron (7) is the Lord of Eternity : he walketh even as ye walk, 
he standelh as ye stand, he speaketh as ye speak, before the great 
god, the Lord of Amenta.] 

Notes. 

I. This chapter and the following have reference to Restau, one 
of the Gates between the Netherworld and Heaven. 

It is not mentioned in the most ancient recension of chapter 17 
(from which my translation was taken), but in all the papyri of the 
eighteenth and later dynasties it is stated that Restau was a gate 

south of An-aaref and north of the "Domain ([p^X ^ ) of 

Osiris." 

123 K 2 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

The papyrus of Ani has this picture of it, 



Tf^S5 




but the most interesting representations of it are in the Dubhn 

papyrus {D. a), where the Sun god is seen passing between the 

folding doors, and in the papyrus of Hunefer (A. ^^), where the 

doors are also open and the god is sitting between them. {See 

Plates VI, II and VII b.) 

«=>— (g (0— <=. ^ 

The name Restau (the feminine form — (&— ^ 

I -(0- rv/\/1 ^ I ^ '^■^^ 

is more frequent in later texts) signifies Gate of the passages. These 
are the passages guarded by the faithful attendants of Osiris, but 
armed with "hurtful fingers" against the adversaries of Ra, against 
whose onslaught the deceased prays Ra for protection in chapter 17. 
A mystical interpretation will be found in chapter 119 and note. 

2. Girdled, or staled, -^s^ . On the importance attached 

to this ritual investiture, the following references may (among many 
others) be useful : Unas 66, Tela 149, Pepi I, 395, Merenrd 190, 
Todt. 125 (rubric), 145, 25. The deceased prays (Chapter 82, 4) 
that he may be girt by the goddess Tait. A passage in Todt. 78, 26 
(Turin text) would be of greater interest were it not an emendation 
of those who no longer understood the ancient text. 

3. Coming forth triuf/iphantly. This is the reading of the oldest 
authority (Nebseni), but the reading which has prevailed, not 
only here, but in Chapter 147, is "coming forth from the Crown," 



124 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

4. That I may firmly secure my suit at Abydos. The scholion 
on Chapter 17, referred to in note i, states that the "place of Maat 
is at Abydos." It is, of course, the mystical, not the geograpical, 

Abydos which is meant, and the suit 1 ires) which has to be 

settled is the final judgment of the deceased. 

5. The throne of Osiris in pictures of the Psych ostasia {see 
Vignettes to Chapter 125) rests upon water, out of which there 
springs a lotus flower ; and upon this flower stand the four children 
of Horus. In a passage of chapter 147, which is an adaptation of the 

present chapter, the deceased says [J ^ i_, .M> ^^\ S ] a^aaa-v 
Za, "I am he whose stream is secret." And a Pyramid Text 
(Alerenrd, 188, 193) after mention of the Great Valley [J ^ 

(*=|i=» \ AAAAAA nj? 

/wLaI proceeds, a/vwva v ><i j\J 
® / AA^AAA li 

s ^\. ^--^, "thy water, thy fresh current, is 

a great inundation proceeding from thee." Here the deceased is 
identified with the Nile and its inundation, as in Chapter 64 of the 
Book of the Dead. 

6. The chapter ends here. The passage which follows in the 
translation is taken from the Paris papyrus Te. 

7 . Patron, ,vwws Q ^^^ ' Ik ' ^ word supposed by some scholars 

to signify uncle. It occurs on funereal monuments among the desig- 
nations of persons connected with the deceased, such as brother, 
sister, nurse. A man may have several bearing the designation, and 
they are not necessarily children of the same parents {see e.g., Mariette, 
Cat. d' Abydos, p. no, where a man has five chejiemesu, who cannot 
all be brothers either, of his father or his mother). The word occurs 
repeatedly in the Prisse papyrus. I am inclined to think it means 
the legal guardian of a minor. 

CHAPTER CXVIII. 

Chapter 7vhereby one arriveth at Restau. 

I am he who is born in Restau. 

Glory is given to me by those who are in their mummied forms 
in Pu, at the sanctuary of Osiris, whom the guards (i) receive at 
Restau when they conduct Osiris through the demesnes of Osiris. 

125 



Ai'RiL 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S95. 

Note. 

(i) Guards, (J ^^ "^^^^^ v [r ' ^^'^^'^ the same personages as 
those mentioned in Chapter 28, note 2, and they seem to me to 
be identical with the "wardens of the passages," Chapter 17, "atten- 
dant upon Osiris." There is an imperfect tablet of the 12th dynasty 

at Hamamat {Dejikiu., II, 138, c) in which thirty [1 '^z::?« |^ are 
mentioned along with the soldiers and other persons belonging to 
the expedition. The Pyramid Texts have the word [1 ^ — ^ , but 
apparently with a determinative of salutation, 47^. {Pepi I, 160, 
rf. line 82.) 

CHAPTER CXIX. 

Chapter 7vhereby one enfereth or goeth forth from Restaii. 

I am the Mighty one, who createth his own light. 

I come to thee, Osiris, and I worship thee. 

Pure are thine effluxes, (i) which flow from thee, (2) and which 
make thy name in Restau, when it hath passed there. 

Hail to thee, Osiris, in thy power and thy might, who hast 
possession of Restau. 

Osiris raiseth thee up in thy power and in thy might. Osiris 
raiseth thee up in thy power in Restau, and in thy might in Abydos, 
that thou mayest go round heaven with Ra, and survey the human 
race.* 

One art thou and triumphant. 

Notes. 
I. Pure are thine effluxes. The true reading is / | ^aaaaa v\ 

www|C3, a phrase which recurs in these texts. The suffix M^ of 

/VAAAAA I I I C_-l. 

the first person, which is sometimes added to the first word, would 
give the sense " thine effluxes are my purification." On the meaning 

of ^"^^ \\rD, see 65 B, note 4. At the end of Chapter 149 



* The I (Jci^Si=3, Rechit, mankind actually living, as distinguised 

Oil I I I 
from the dead or yet unliorn. 

126 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

the deceased prays, "let me be joined, let me be united with the 
sap which proceedeth from Osiris ; let me not be parted from him." 

2. Which floiv from thee. ' n ^\ , j-/^', which has here 

the same meaning as when the Nile is said {Denkm., Ill, 13) to flow 

into the Great Sea, ^\\^ ~^~ <=> | ,^ ^ • The name of 

Restau is here derived from the Qhlnxc'i Jiowing {stau) from Osiris. 

The various meanings of I ^ ^^ ~^' ^"<^ °^ "^^e Coptic CGT, 

are all traceable to the notion of setiditig forth, throwing, and are 
easily illustrated from the Greek. Thus en^aWeiv is used for the 
discharge of a river into the sea ; cK/SoXal are ' passes, passages.' 
Doors are secured by pushing the bolts, /toxXoi's eV</iaXXe<j/ ; they 

are opened by shooting back the bolt, H n ' (Mariette, Abydos, 

p. 58). I p-j~^ Ti is exactly the reverse of t7ri/3nWciu cjcppayicx. 

' n ^\ w^ ^~' ^^Y^ C^ ) COT", stercus is an lk/BoXij, dfectio. And 

n^*Y^^ 0, ^'^, C^-i", COXe, /3e'\o?, (io\h, \\^Im^, CUV, 

seminare, and ever so many others are all determinations of one and 
the same concept. 

In such passages ^s [1 -f" '^ ^ J^ , P g ^ ^ 5b^ | and 

the like, sta has the sense not of tozoiiig, but of 7rof.i-ij, ' solemn 
procession.' It occurs even where towing is out of question, e.g., in 

the march of military men n n ^ 1^ l (Tombs of Amenemheb 

and Pehsukher, Miss. Arch. Framaisc, V, pp. 229 and 289). 

And I ""^ string, rope is connected with the notion of ' throw- 

ing ' like our own warp with werfen (Goth, vairp-an) and liivr-ra'). 
Chapter CXX is a repetition of Chapter XII. 
Chapter CXXI is a repetition of Chapter XIII. 
Chapter CXXII is a repetition of Chapter LVIII. 

CHAPTER CXXI 11. 

Chapter (i) whereby one entereth into the Great House. 

Hail to thee, O Tmu, I am Thoth. 

I have equally balanced the Divine Pair, I have put a stop to 
their strife, I have ended their complaints. 

127 



April 2] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

I have rescued the Atu from his backward course. 

I have done what thou hast prescribed for him. 

And I rest since then within my own Eye. 

I am free from obstruction; and I come that thou mayest see 
me in the house where I repeat the ancient ordinances and words, 
as a guidance wherewith thou shalt guide posterity. (2) 

Notes. 

I. This chapter (which is repeated in Chapter 139) is like the 
repetition of an important passage in Chapter no. But the 
differences are very considerable, and it is for criticism to decide 
the question of priority between the two recensions. 

\\'hichever be the earlier recension, the present one is of very great 
interest and importance. It is found on two of the most carefully 
written papyri of the eighteenth dynasty. But the most interesting 
feature is the mythological allusion at this date {at latest) to an 
astronomical phenomenon, with reference to which later researches 
may furnish fresh evidence. 

The speaker in this chapter is said (not merely implied, as in 
Chapter no, see note 5) to be Thoth, who is the measurer of all 
things in heaven and earth, and the author and regulator of all 
science. He is here said to have established the equilibrium 

\> ]) H"^ between the Divine Pair, Horus and Sutu ; that is 

Day and Night. Such an equilibrium, strictly speaking, never exists 
except at the Equinoxes. 

But the most important passage is, " I have rescued the Atu 

from his backward course." The V\ 's^pcaj Atu is a mytho- 



logical yf^-//, who is represented as following the course of the Bark 
of Ra. The meaning of the name is, the Cleaver, Divider, Cutter 

in two . It is one of the appellatives of the Sun-god, 

with reference to his path through the sky. But what is that solar 
phenomenon specially deserving to be characterised by its motion 

backwards xy V\ ? 

I do not think any astronomer would hesitate to answer, that 
Precession is meant. The cause of Precession could only be known 
to really scientific philosophers (which is out of question in this 
case), but the phenomena would necessarily be noted by those 

128 



PLATE XXX. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., April, 1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 




Chaiter CXIV 

Papyrus, British 

Museum, No. 9900. 




CiiArxER CXIX. 
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. V. 




Chai'Ter CXVI. Papyrus, 
Mus6e du Louvre, No. Ill, 36. 




Chapter CVII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9933. 




Chapter CXXIII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9903. 




Chapter CXVII. Papyrus, 
British Museum, No. 9900. 




Chapter CXIX. 

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre. 

Cab. des M^dailles. 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

who had important interests in keeping their calendar correct.* 

Even the Chinese, by dint of records and without any mathematics, 

came to infer the precession of the equinoxes ; so did the Eg}'ptians 

apparently at a very much earlier period ; and Hipparchus, who has 

the credif of the discovery, may have learnt it from them. 

Although '^ '^^^=^ is commonly represented as a ^s/i, the 

^^^^^ H-4-H x=X 

same name is given to a Crustacean cr^^a cr^^a whose organs of 

locomotion are specially adapted for backward motion. 

" Rescuing tho. Atu from its backward course" can mean nothing 
less than being able to correct or (in technical language) to equate 
the phenomena. 

It might perhaps be suggested that the backward course here 
spoken of has reference to the year of 360 days, corrected at an 
early period by the addition of the five supplementary days. This 
would certainly have been a very probable explanation of the clause, 
but for the direct connection which this has with what precedes, 
concerning the equilibrium between Day and Night ; that is, the 
Equinox. 

2. Posterity, <ir> ^ 2j) "^^^ ^ I literally, mi?iores. The word 

in the present context seems to have a different meaning from 
what it has in Chapter no, where it is put in contrast with 



^A^^nAA VVVV_ 



1 1 H M^ I violent ones, against whom Thoth interposes 
his protection. 

* " The amount of this motion by which the equinox travels backward, or 
retrogrades (as it is called), is fer annitiii an extremely minute quantity, but 
which, by its continual accumulation from year to year, at last makes itself very 
palpable, and that in a way highly inconvenient to practical astronomers, by 
destroying, in the lapse of a moderate number of years, the arrangement of their 
catalogues of stars, and making it necessary to reconstruct them." Hcrschcl, 
Aslronoiny, chapter 4. 




129 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S95. 



THE NAME SHINAR, GENESIS XI, 2 ; AND THE 
MEANING OF rr)72) IN GENESIS XLIII, 11. 

By Rev. C. J. Ball. 

It has long been recognized that Shinar, or rather Shin^ar, bears 
the same relation to the Babylonian Shumer (Shymer) as dingir 
does to dimmer, or di'mer ; that is to say, it is a dialectic variation 
of the same word. As to the origin and import of this name, when 
I wrote my paper last year on Israel and Babylon for these Pro- 
ceedings (May, 1894), I had already guessed that it might be 
connected with gishimmar, the palm; Babylonia hexng par excellence 
the country of the palm {see Herodotus I, 193). Gishimmar, i.e., 
gish shimmar, the shinwiar tree, the palm, is one value of the 
ideogram ^^yJIyyyy, which was also read shanga {see my paper). 
This shanga may very well spring from an older shanga-r (cf. "J^K, 
read nangar and lamga). And shimmar implies a form shingar, 
as dingir implies dimmer. 

Now the Babylonian shimmar, shi'mar, is obviously related to 
the Hebrew *^?^ri tamar, date palm, "^^jH tomer, do., n"^^n tim- 
mora, palmette (Ezek. xli, 18), the well-known Assyrian architectural 
ornament, on the one hand, and to the Arabic ^^ tamr, dates, jX^ 

ihamar, ./♦,: thumar, and \^-fi thimar, fruit, on the other. The 
meaning of shimmar or shimar thus appears to be fruit, especially 
dates ; and gishimmar is the fruit tree, i.e., the palm. The equiva- 
lences shimmar, shimar = thamar, thimar = tamar (timmora) are 

parallel to those seen in 13,'^^ = .jf^ = "I3,r\- And since the inter- 
change of T, i~|) ^) is also a known phenomenon {cf. pT^, and pJlD. 
with the Talmudic pfD,), we may add that Y'^^^n n"^^T really does 
mean fruit of the land, although the Assyrian zumrii, fruit (Norris ; 
Dillmann) is a nonentity. 



1^0 



April 2] PKOCEEDIxNGS. [1S05. 



ON SOME BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN 
ALLITERATIVE TEXTS.— I. 

By S. a. Strong. 
(A.) 

Of the following texts, all composed in the alliterative style, and 
all acrostics, the first is well known. Originally published by 
Mr. Pinches {Texts, p. 15), it has been translated in full by Professor 
Sayce {Hibbert Lectures, p. 514); nevertheless, its obscurities are 
enough to explain and excuse the present application of the secunda 
7nanus. The text is a hymn of praise, composed by or for a king to 
celebrate the restoration of his city of Babylon and its temples, the 
renewal of the splendours of public worship, and the return of 
peace and prosperity. Unfortunately, the name of the king, with 
much else of interest and value, has been broken away, and there 
is nothing in the sonorous generalities that remain to point to one 
king more than to any other of those who, in the course of its long 
history, restored or may have restored, Babjlon. However, the 
fact that the tablet was brought, not from Babylonia but from 
Assyria, might lead us to identify the king either with Esarhaddon 
or with Assurbanipal. The former, at the close of his reign, saw 
that the only way to keep the empire together was to shift the 
centre of gravity to its old position in Babylon, and in one of the 
documents of this period and tendency {Cylinder, 81-6-7, 209) he 
describes himself in terms that might almost have been borrowed 

from our text, as epis Esagila u Babili musaklil esriti u 

mahazu vmkm sattukku. Assurbanipal followed, for a time at least, 
in the same path, and he repeats the same strain, so that, although, 
if we may judge by the event, he seems to have lacked either the 
will or the power to carry out the great political scheme of his 
father, it is perfectly possible that he may be the king referred to 
here. > 

In dealing with the remarkable text (K 1285) in which Assur- 
banipal cries to Nebo de profioidis, and is ansvvered and consoled 
by the god, we pointed out that certain marked peculiarities of style 

131 



April 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895- 



might be " explained as a rhythmical device of the composer."* 
But what in that case suggested itself as a bare possibility, in the 
present case declares itself almost as a certainty. The ending 
- o b£ I u - w I , as, to take the simplest examples, in Esagi \ la siri ; 
lissakin \ nigutu ; -taitala \ zimcsu ; viuddisu \ parakki, recurs far 
too frequently to be explained as the effect of chance ; that is to 
say, these lines have metrical endings, and if these, then doubtless 
also the rest, of which the cadence is to our ears — imperfectly attuned 
as yet to "Babylonian numbers" — less obviously metrical. The 
same holds good of the construction and scansion of the whole line. 
It is impossible not to recognise — in fact to hear — one and the 
same measure in the five following lines : — 

ar rubi-i Mardzik libittasu Uktarrab 
arba- kibrati littattala zi/nesu 
batliiti satiukkisu ukinnu ki mahrati 
ziriisu lirappisina lisa/?i'ida namiabsii 
kiriisu a ibbasi liksuda nismatsii^ 

so that without going beyond the evidence of the text itself, we 
should be justified in concluding that it was composed in a metre 
of which these lines show the simplest type. 

Now take the following lines from a text which we shall consider 
hereafter (K 3452) : — 



Itlala 


ibbatu 


itarrisu 


lali-l 


u iasi 


ittmsu 


bcl pani 


ridannu 


sarliis 


sa sari-i 


idibbiibu 


du?fikiSu 


sarrakis 


ilaninmnu 


dunnama 


am e lit 


sarkiisii 


nullatiun 


ikappuduSti 


7iirti 


rigmu 


vl issapii 


issapii 


atfnita 


risi-ia 


ul ullit 


kakkari 


anatfal. 



We have chosen them for their simplicity, which is such as to make 
it hardly necessary to point out that they are in the same metre as 
the other group ; but the division into four columns, made, as we 
shall see, throughout by the Babylonian scribe, adds certainty to 
what we should anyhow have inferred, viz., that the whole text was 
composed in metre, and that the basis of that metre is tetrameter. 
The hymn to Nana, quoted below (K 3600), is written in the same 



Transactions of the Ninth Oriental Congress, 11, p. 200. 



132 



Ai'Rii. 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

metre, and the composer of K 1285 makes occasional use of tetra- 
meters, e.g., in such cases as 

scpaka la issa7iamina la i?iarruda kdtaka* 
simtaka sa abnihii tattanahhararini 
addanika Nabu la tamassara?ini iasi. 

The acrostic might be restored conjecturally in the metre of the 
text, thus : — 

ina arba^ kibrati lusari-ihu zikirsu. 

DT. 83. 

Obverse. 
na . . . , 
na-ra-ru 
na-an-na-ri 
na-pa-hi-ru nu-ur sa-ma-mi 



5. ar-hu u sat-tu Uk-tar-ra-bu E-sag-ila si-i-ri 
ar ru-bi-i Marduk h-bit-ta-su Hk-tar-rab 
ar-ah sa ba-la-ti i-sin-ni a-ki-ti Us-sa-kin ni-gu-tu 
ar-ba-' kib-ra-a-ti lit-ta-at-ta-la zi-me-su 
ar ri-'-i za-ni-ni-su ba-lat tu-ub lib-bi lis-tar-rak 

10. ba-si-mu usurat es-ri-i-ti mu-ud-di-su pa-rak-ki 
Ba-bi-lu al kis-sii-ti u-sak-H-la ma-ha-za-su raba-a 
ba-sa-a-ti ud-di-sa e-kur (mes)-su rab-ba-a-ti 
ba-at-lu-ti sat-tuk-ki-su li-kin-nu ki-i mah-ra-a-ti 
ba-ru-ut sii-lum u purussu i-pu-lu us li-su 



15 Babilu ma-ha-za si-i-ru sa 

su-bat nam-ri-ir . 



Reverse. 

Marduk .... 

. . . pi-i karnati li-sa-as-kin 

zi-kir .... [ki]-ma lal-la-ri eU ab-ra-a-ti li-sa-lu 
Ziir-pa-ni-tum ru-ba-tum sir-turn lik-tar-ra-ba sarru-us-su 
5. zi-ru-su li-rap-pis-ma li-sam-'-i-da na an-nab-su 

kir-u-su a-a ib-ba-si li-ik-sii-da ni-is-mat-su 
* I hope to return to this question of metre on a subsequent occasion. 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1895. 

kir-ri-i dum-ki u tas-me-e li-tap-pa-lu-us u-mi-sam 

kir-rit su-lum u hu-ud lib-bi li-pu-sa ana ki-rib Babili (^| 

kir-bi e-kur(mes)-su sal-mes lit-tal-lak-ma li-sal-lim-ma par-si-su 
10. kir-bi Ba-bi-lim ta-a-bi el-si-is lis-tak-ka-na hi-du-tii 

sii-us-ku-us-su ina (is) zak-kal li-iz-za-mir-ma ta-nit-ta-su li-i-ni 
sii-pu-u-ti ma-ha-zi-su li-sa-az-ni-na saman (is) ris-ti 
sd-tuni-me e-kur-ri-su li-mal-la-a busii la ni-bi a-kar-tu 

su-ut ip-se-tu-su-nu us-su 

15. su-um sar-ru 

Translation. 
Obverse. 

5. Month and year may Esagila the lofty be blessed ! 

Mav the son of the great one, Mardiik, its brick-ivork bless ! 

In the mojith of life at the Neiv Year's feast may rejoicing be 
made ! 

May the four quarters look upon its fo7-m ! 

To the son of the shepherd, its supporter, may life, health of 
body be given ! 
10. Fashioning the carved work of the shrines, renewing the sanctu- 
aries, 

Babylon, the to7vn of strength, he completed as his great city : 

Those that {already) existed he restored, even its great temples ; 

Its lapsed daily sacrifices he established as before ; 

The decree of peace and judgment he shall render 



15 Babylon, the lofty city . . . . 

the garment of brilliance 

Reverse. 



3. {His) fame, like the lallaru, over the people may he cause to rise I 

May Zirpanit, the high princess, bless his royalty ! 
5. His seed may she increase, may she multiply his offspring ! 

His grief, it shall tiot be ; tnay he quench the thirst of his 

desire I 
With acclamations of goodivill and submissiofi may he be 

greeted daily 1 

134 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Rejoicings of peace and gladtiess of heart may he make within 

Babylon ! 
Within his temples peacefully may he walk, and cause his com- 
mands to be executed ! 
10. In the midst of Babyloti the good may joy be established zvith 
shouting / 

May its height be hymned with the zakkal, and may he sing oj 

its loftiness ! 
May he cause the vats of his city to flow zvith oilof primtwood ! 
The granaries of his temples may he fill with substance without 

number, precious I 



Notes. 

6. ar, construct from dm or alarum ; equivalent to maru, 
' child,' see Delitzsch, Woerterbuch, p. 362. With ar rubi cf the 
full title of Marduk, aplu ristu sa Ea, as well as the phrase apil 
Esarra applied to Ninib as, e.g., in the following invocation (K 3351, 
11. 12-20): — bc-lum ra-as-bu sa ina pu-hur ildfii rabuti sin-na-as-su 
la ib-ba-su-u \ i-na bu-ru-mi elliiti sa-ru-uh ta-lu-uk-su \ i-na c-kiir 
bit tak-fta-a-ti sa-ku-ii par-su-{i-su \ i-na im-hul-lu i-nam-bu-tu kakki- 
su I i-na nab-li-su ii-tab-ba-tu mdtati mar-su-ti j sd tam-tim gal-la-ti 
i-sa-am-bu- ru-ub-bu-sa \ apil E-sar-ra zi-kir-su kar-rad Hani ni-bit- 
su I ul-tu a-sur-rak-ka be-lum ihhii si'i-ut da-ad-mc \ i-na pa-an 
kas-ti-su iz-zi-ti im-me-du sa-ma-mi. Prof Sayce [Hibbert Lectures, 
p. 514) reads arsubbc, 'strongholds,' from rasabu. The word 
t:"J^ >^yy ^^ ■^>- arsubbu occurs (W.A.I. V, 26, 23/); but, in 
conjunction with pissu, sigusu, tinam7, etc., on a list of different 
kinds of wood or wooden objects. Delitzsch, on the contrary, 
suggests (JIandwoerterbuch, p. 124) that ar may be the construct of 
a word am, meaning ' abode.' 

9. ri'i, used of the king, as often. Cf, e.g., Sargon, K 3600,* 

* A hymn addressed to the goddess Ncana, hi-rai (ihi) Mu-u-a-ii. Cf. rcn. 
II. 12-28 : — mu-m-aS-ra-a-at ka-ti-t mu-7ia-Jii-Sa-at la-ab-7ii \ Si-ma-a kib-ra-a-ti 
da-lil Sar-ra-ti {ihi) Na-na-a \ Sur-ri-]ia ha-ni-i-tn Suf-ha-a ru-su-un-tu \ ul-la-a 
Sa-ru-uh-tii kit-ra-ha ga-Sir-tu \ l)a-a-luf?i nr-pi-tu irib (»^*^||) tavi-di ra-Si-ma \ 
mt-hi ma-rat [i/it) Sin ri-nd-i Sitb-tuk-ki \ kur-bi ana ^ar-gi-na sa-bit ka-ni-ki \ 
ri-''-il (inAtti) ASSur {ki) a-lik ar-ki-t-ki \ ba-lat tl-mt' arkiiti Si-i-tnc Si-ma-ki \ 
iS-di kussi-Stc ki-in-ni Sul-bi-ri pali-{Sti'] \ Sul-li-ine »iur-ni-is-ki si-in-da-al 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

rev., 1. 19. Delitzsch {I.e., p. 94) explains ar rVi as a case of 
assimilation, ar being for an, that is, the preposition ana. 

i^. barnf, 'decision,' from the root ban/, like, e.g., kamutu,{xom 
kamu. 

Reverse. 

2. Cf. K. 133, rev., 1. 21 (Haupt., A.S.K.T.,^. Si), ina birisunu 
kima rime rabi karnasu ittanassi. 

3. Cf. W.A.I. IV, 27, 5, 1 7, issuru ina abrisu uscllu. For lallaru as 
the name of a bird, see, e.g., W.A.I. IV, 54, 21a, with Zimmern's note 
{Biisspsalmen, pp. 94 and 95), and for the meaning oi abrati, cf. the 
following metrical fragment of a hymn to Istar(K. 11 15 2): — in-nin- 
na-at ildni su-tu-ka-at be-li-i-ti \ Istar sur-bu-tum e-til-lit ahi-sa \ 
tu-am-ti {ihi) Samsi da-i-na-ai kib-ra-a-ti \ m-ba-tum sd it-ti {ilu) 
Bell sit-lu-ia-at ta-ba-an | ga~bii-tuvi * sd sa-ru-rzi-sa iis-nam-ma-ni 
ik-li-ti I it-tum damik-tunt sa ka-lu ab-ra-a-ti \ el-li-tuni Istar 
kakkabdni nur sa-ma-nii \ se-c-ru sd ur-ha-ti u-pat-tu-ii ki-ma >— ^— \ 
hi-ti kib-rat ar-ba--i tc-til-li-ma \ sal-mat kakkadii te-ri--i kwia 
i-la-a-ti \ en-sd-ani a-na dan-ni tc-li--i i-ra-\_at'i\ t | si-mat la 
dum-ki du-mu-ku ba-a-si it-ti-ki j kas-da-a-ti sd mus-ba{7)-i-ki si'i-tii- 
rum sii-fne etc. 

Delitzsch {I.e., p. 10) reads li-sa-tib, and explains the whole line 
as follows : — seincn namen gleich Honig mache er den Meiisclien 
7uohlgefdllig. 

6. kirn from kirfi, like nibu from nabfi. Cf. Chald. ^^"^2 dolitit. 
That the character "^ in ni-is-V should be read mat and not sat 
is clear from the passage of Samsu-iluna, published by Winckler 
{Untersuchungen, p. 143, 11. 14 and 15): — ni-is-ma-at libbiia kima Hi 
kasadam. The root of the word seems to be ^?:2!i sitivit, to 
which it bears the same relation as nibretu, 'hunger,' to i^"12 
comedit. «//;;/(?/?<■ must theretore mean originally 'thirst,' and then 
' desire, aspiration,' as here and in the passage just quoted. The 
word kiiru in such phrases as iria kuri fiissati urra u nmsa anassus 

ni-ri-\sii\ \ lip-tu-nu Sur-ru-ii Sil-us-si-i zii-uiu-ru-Su \ si-in-nu e-ri-bji nm-hal-lik 
aS-na-latil \ lim-nu zi-ir-zi-ru mu-ub-bil sip-pa-a-li \ pa-ri-su sat-tuk-ki Sa Hi u 
(//«) U-ta-ri I Se-me-^-ki (ilu) Belti rna-gir-ki [ilu) Tit-tu \ i-na ki-bi-ti-ki 
li-im-ma-ni za-ki-ki-eS etc. 

* Cf. Heb. n3J, alius fuit. 

+ The last character is almost entirely obliterated, iru, of which wa/ would 
be the feminine, like Hat, occurs as an equivalent of gairu. 

136 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895- 

(Pinches, Texts, p. 18, ]. 12), and kiilu kfirii clisii ittaSkan (W.A.I. 
IV, 7, 4(7) appears to be connected not with our root kiru, but with 
a root corresponding to Heb. "^"I^ fodit, perfodit. On the other 
hand, see Zimmern, B.P., p. 92, 7wte. 

7. kirri. from «^p. Cf. Prov. xx, 6, XSCH IT-i^ «lp^ Dl^-nn. 

8. kirrit, probably from a root corresponding to Heb. "112 
saltavit, exiiltavit. Cf. Esarhaddon, Cylinder A, VI, 34. "The 
magnates and people of my country with feasting and rejoicing {ina 
takulte* u kinti) therein 1 caused to sit down," etc. 

11. Mention is made of zakkal'vcv a fragmentary list of woods 
or of wooden objects (W.A.I. II, 40, 54(7), as follows:— w znk-kal 

^yy ^y^ j t-sar A\'ith lizzamir compare Heb. 1?2T, cecinit 

ad cithara niodos. Zal'lal will therefore denote a musical instrument 
made of the wood so-called. 

Iini, from the root corresponding to Heb. n!3>^ ca?itavit, like /// 

from rhV- 

12. snputi, 'vats,' from a root seen in Heb. i?fjl!.\ affluxif, 
al'undavit. Cf. the phrase Q'^^Tii^Dl!? Job xxii, 11. The forms 
sappu, sappatiim, with a similar meaning (jd-^Zehnpfund in Delitzsch's 
Be it rage, I, 533), are perhaps related to supu as rablni to rubii. 

13. sutuinmc. For the meaning, see Zehnpfund, I.e., p. 531. 

(B.) 

The following text is numbered 8204 in the Kouyunjik Collection 
of the British Museum. It is in the same metre as that which we 
have just considered, except that in the third paragraph of the 
obverse the nnal long syllable gives a somewhat different ring to the 
lines. Of the first paragraph only a fragment has been preserved, 
as follows : — 

u 

u-ha-ak-kain ip-sit 

u-ta-sal ra-ma-ni lib-bi u-sa-as-7'a-ha 

n-jia-ha-as sur-ri sir-hi-is su-iim-u f 

* Not ta-Artt'. Cf. tah(ku from alaku and ii/atl/u, ' food.' 
t iltasal, II 2 from 7\*N, like ti/asar from "IDN- itiiaJjax, from a root 
iinh(Uu; cf. Aral). ^^^oji made covfccius fuit. 

w 

^37 L 



Aprii. 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLO( ;V. [1895. 

From the reverse everything has been obliterated except the first 
few syllables in each paragraph, as, e.g., in par. i, du-un-nu . . . . ] 
du-ub-bu u . . . . I du-u-ra . . . . | du-muk ab-ra-a-ti . . . . ; but these 
enable us to restore the acrostic, which, as the lines begin and end 
with the same syllable, runs along each side of the text,* thus : — 

I'c-sa-ab-du-du ma-ru-us-tu, "It shall cause him to pity the distress." 

It is needless to dwell upon the meaning of this remarkable 
fragment, for it strikes one of the most familiar, as it is one of the 
deepest, chords in the Hebrew lyre. It is a cry for help on the part 
of one who has been pierced by "the sting of death," whose affliction 
is felt to be the effect of sin. There can be nothing greater than 
the contrast between this and the preceding text. We pass im- 
mediately from one extreme to the other of the compass of sacred 
song, from the superb exultation of Domme, in virtiite tua to the 
bottomless humiliation of JDetis, deiis mens. Indeed it would seem 
as if the sweet singers of " the songs of the second temple " may 
have learnt more than has hitherto been suspected 7^3. m*^n2 ,i.'^) 
"by the waters of Babylon." 

6 ^U j£ITr ^^I - -1 W -B J^III A ^4 Vy Vy -hi 

7 ^u -t] m <m t] -Bii A -Vr V -t] ^t ^ -ffy^:: -w --r ^u 

8 ^u i^ni ^^ '^ir -T ]<« t] -^H ^ ^ uwy^hi 

' o j^T iin jt^i m ^t m -Ell -in ^4 -+ ^i -m ^ ^n j^i 
^ I ^i ^]]] m j^iii 4 1^ ]^ .4 -sl '^ii ^ t;^] 

- ^I IH t;:! j:^ ^ mET -^ ^- <W ^^ ^1 

* Cf. Bezokl, Catalogue, p. 905, where pars. 3 and 4 are transcribed. 

I -.8 



AcRiL 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895- 

Transcription. 

sa la-ka-a-ta ina ilani ul in-na-si [ri-sa] 

sa en-si u dun-na-mi-i tu-kan is-[du] 

sa dun-ha-a u mi-ik-ti ab-bak li-ka-a-ii ka-a-sa 
4. sa-ar-ka tabu li-zi-kam-ma nap-si-ra ia-a-sa 

al-si-ka Nabd mu-gur-an-ni al-la-al 
al-ta-pil ina sabi ak-ta-kur na-a-a-al 
al-la-pit ki-ma mah-hi-i sa la i-du-ii li-ba-al 
8. al-ta-na-si ilani-ma ka-lis ka-a-a-al 

du-un-na-mu-ii sa tak-lu-ka i-sib-bi duh-du 
du-ru-us ki-i-ni tu-dan-na-an-ma tu-kan is-du 
du-un-ki ta-ti-rak-ku na-as-si hi-du 
12. du-ur ab-ni as-tu tu-tar ti-id-du 

Translation. 

Whotn tlwti easiest down ajnong the gods, \_his head^ is not 

raised : 
Of the weak and the despised thou establishest the foundation : 
For hutnility and vileness I bring, I iv ait for thee : 
4. May thy good wind blow, make me to be released ! 

I cry to thee, Nebo I Have mercy upon me, thou mighty one I 
I am laid low among the people, on the ground I lie : 
I am compassed about like a sorcerer, who understands not to 
remove the spell : 
8. I call upon the gods, and with nothing but crying. 

The despised one who trusts in thee, the flood overwhelms \liinf\ : 
The sure base thou strengthenest, and thou establishest the 

foundation : 
With favour thou coverest me, do tlioti take atvay sin I 
12. A wall of stone ^ [though] strong, thou turncst to mire and clay. 

Notes. 

1. lakata. Cf. Arab. lC! as in ill!, 'he prostrated him.' 

2. dunnamfi. Cf the terms in which Sennacherib describes the 
Chaldean adventurer Suzubu {Cylinder V, 8 and 9) : dunuamu sa la 
isu birki, 'a man of low origin without fortune ' (Heb. n3"nil). For 

139 L 2 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895 

the root of dunnamu^ cf. Arab. *Ji-S which in the second form is said 
to have the meaning 'to be vile, contemptible,' and for the meaning 
cf. K. 331?, Col. Ill, 20, ana murri pisti dumiamu isassika, " for the 
food of his mouth {cf. Heb. t^"1?2) the weak cries to thee." 

3. diniM. Cf. Arab. *^J (II), 'to bend the neck, humble 
oneself.' 

mikii. From a root corresponding to Heb. TJIT^ confabescere, 
used metaphorically, e.g., in Lev. xxv, 25, "TTf^^ 'TJ^O^"''3, " If thy 
brother be waxen poor." With the whole phrase cf. W.A.I. IV, 10, 
44/^, hablatua (^ ^1 >ffT) ^iiadati kima subati si/hut, " tear 
asunder my many wickednesses like a garment." Zimniern (Buss- 
psa/men, p. 73) shows by a comparison of W.A.I. II, 36, 5^/^ with 
V, 21, 2i-2 2ab, that the group *^ ^y ^ y is equivalent to »^-/afu 
and tiissH, and we learn from W.A.I. II, 35, 47^//, that one of the 
equivalents oi ttissu is miktjim. 

4. sarka tabu. In the story of the creation, Marduk appears as 
ilu sari tabi bel tasme u 7nagari (Delitzsch, Lesestiicke, p. 95, d., 1. 6). 

5. allal. For this epithet as applied to various gods, see 
Delitzsch, Woerterbiic/i, p. 488, s.v, allallu ; and cf. the following 
incantation to the fire-god (K. 2455, Rev., 11. 11-23) : — 

siptu >->y- t:y >y- sar-lm bu-htr {ihi) A-nim 

i-lit-ti cllfi-tim la-hu-iiini (Jhi) Sa-la-as 

sar-hu id-di-su-i'i zik-ri Hani ka-a-a-n\j(] 

7ia-din nin-da-bi-i ana Hani {ilu) Igigi 

sa-kin na-mir-ti a-na {ilu) A-nun-fia-ki Hani rabiiti 

iz-zu >->^ 5^y >y- mus-har-mif a-pi 

»->y- J:y >y- al-la-ht-u nm-ab-bit isi {^ y-^) zi abni 

ka-mu-u lijn-nu-ti zer kassapi 21 kassapti 

mu-hal-lik rag-gi zer kassapi u kassapti 

ina tl-mi an-?ii-i itia di-fii-ia i-ziz-za-am-ma 

i-pis bar-ii tc-na-na-a ku-su-ud lim-nu 

kima salmaiiu {*^ |"^) an-nu-ti i-hu-lu i-zu-bu n it-ta-at-tu-ku* 

kassapu u kassaptu li-hu-lu li-zu-bu u lit-ta-at-tu-ku. 

6. aktakur. " I am on the ground," from the root of kakkaru. 

* These lines are important as showing that the melting of waxen images 
was practised by the Assyrians as a magical rite. 

140 



April 2] TROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

7. tnahhii occurs as the equivalent of essepii, ' sorcerer,' in 
W.A.I. II, 51, 48, and this furnishes the clue to the meaning of 
such passages as, e.g., W.A.I. Ill, 15, 21, col. i, tib tahaziia daunt 
emuruma emu niah-hu-fas, " the approach of my strong battle they 
saw, and became as if bewitched, under a spell." In the present 
case the difficulty lies in uM/, which is clearly the object of t'di/. 
The allusion seems to be to a sorcerer whose activity is confined 
and crippled by the effect of some incantation — as, for instance 
/:iu/a salmajiu annuti, etc. — and he does not know how to remove 
the spell. We might therefore connect iibdl with abdlu, " to carry 
away," as ubanu with abdtiu, and cf. W.A.I. IV, 59, 14/^, viiuima te-pu- 
sd tu-us-te-pi-sd lu-bil sdrii. 



(C.) 

Of the group that follows, I propose to resume the discussion 
in a future number of our Proceedings. Meanwhile, the readings 
I have proposed must in many cases be regarded as provisional. 
R 9290 and K 3452 agree closely, so far as they can be compared, 
and are probably duplicates ;* but the important tablet Sp II, 265, 
though it takes up and completes the burden of the other two, is 
apparently an independent, though a similar, document. t 

* A few lines have been restored from the fragments 81, 2- 1, 63 and 81, 
2-1, 90. 

t The obverse of Sp II, 265, has been much mutilated, but the acrostic 
began with a-na-ktt. The endings of a few of these lines in the a stanza can be 
restored from what remains of the first column of K. 8463. My thanks are due 
to Mr Pinches, who not only called my attention to this tablet in the first 
instance (in 1892), but most kindly placed at my disposal copies of parts of these 
texts made by himself several years ago. 



141 



April 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.F.OLOGV 



[1895- 



K. 9290.— Column I. 
81, 2-1, 63. 











UIET <&y^ 



w;w 



-4-11 



s^ ^- -^TT -^y --y V ^^/ n^yy -^yy i -yiy-^ ^4 i -yyyy ' ->^iii 

T5 -yy^ ^.^yy^^" iH™cL-^^-.iyN ^-i^yyy-SLn^yyr^'^j^ii 

-yy^ -y >f >^<y ^y^ -n ^ ^M V -m m ^' it^-Bm m 

-yy4 "^yy^ - -^y ^yyy -^y <y- ^y -<y< '\-t^] ^ h i^^ i ^y -uy m 

i8 ^yy4:^w->fv-^y^^yyy^-^iiy.iy^My?-^y--H^^^^/<y-^->yyy 

^yi4 j:^ty j:^ ^irKii! V ^>f HE<yy ^-yy y? i <r- ^y 4->f -y^r 



ttt]^ j^yyy -t^ ^^^y -ii 
^^yyiiu-/-^4<y>-^yy: 



^yyy-^ 



24 



27 



30 



33 



t] ^y ^y?]; y^- Byy 0M 

jr<^!y ^y -n ^<^ ^^yy -y<y^ ^^yyy -^idf ^.yif^ ^pSi 

i:^yy -^y iiy ^yyy- ^4->yyy j^ii <iiy -^y ^-yyy< ^y ^ -y< ^ y?gil 
jri^yy ^^ ^^ ^^ ^y -n jl ^-yyy< ^y <^^ ^1^^ ^yy -iai 
jr^^^yy -s^yy -yy^ <^^ ^^y? y? ^y j^^y ^4f ->f- <s >yy<iBS? 
jr<^yy ^^y -^y -4- -^Idf < ^y <^- <m ^Vr ^ ^->f ->f J^yy -^ ->h 
jr^^yy i^ iiyy -^y ^ y- -s^yi y? v ^^y ^^y v -t^ 
j-^yy j^yyy ^EE -+ <i^ -^ >f>yy<y5^y? --H-E^yj^yyy 
^>^yy ->^^m ^^-y<y t^^ j^y ^ .4 ->f j^ ^<X -^yy 
^>^yy i^yyy t^^i ^w a^ Vr< m ^w Vr ^^ -t] ih ^- y 

<:^ .^ ^^yy ^ ^-y<y m^^ m ^yyy -^y <y^ -t^ -t] a^ ^y 
m ^^y j^yyy ^yyy j^y ^y -yyy- <:: -<y< -4- j^yyy ^4 1^^ 
<iiy ^r <f:^ 5.1? .>f tr-^y .^y ^-y<y t^^ iiii ^^^^z <y- >y<y -tt] ^ it 



U<^ 



5<«. 


^'jr^. 






3^Ty. 


^::^y4y. 


u- 


•7^- 


« -J^^ 


^ 




«5- 


142 


n- 



Afril 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

K. 9290. — Column II. 
ii, 2-1, 90. 









9 ::: ^t ^TIT liU 
;n::-^ri nu <T!^ . _ . ^„___ 

12 - J.T? ^^rr m^^ -B <M M tz ^wSSMB-b hit 

c: sw j^Tir I^ <-K It! ^ 4S T? --K o y^ ^y; ^^y; 
:^ ty? ^tyy iiiy j^t^ ^y< o y? t^iipj ][in >f ^i^ 

ist^^Vi tt]] m <w tt]] c^ M'm j^ ^^- 4 

-&ijtz ^y< j^iy ^ i iiLf! ^t^^ ill! -^y hi j:?? 4-4- ^^- ^/- ^!< 
i8 :^ 5ry v^ <3<<:iy^ ^][{< :^ mi ^t^^mm " ■"" ^ "'''^^''' 

idi -III ^ immmm : 'ib^i^ 

2 1 HI m^ -?? ^ -II ^^ <i- m :mpm 

- I? i! -??^ilSP^i^ ^^*^ 

^I -11^ ^iTyllS ::M 

) I HI ^I ^ , 

M3 



•M^ 




Ai'Rii. 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1895. 



K. 9290. — Reverse.* 
Column I. 






9 ti <i^ Sir iin ^z . 

^r <MR-IIlH<<Kr: 



^y ^^>y_ -yyy- ^yyy '"^^^f^^^^^^^^^^i^^^ 

^T ^r -^H ^^Tei,: ^ ;: , .^, 3 

* K. 8491 is a fragment of an alliterative text bearing the remains of a stanza in //i(7, 
followed by those of another in as. Cf. 11. 5-8 : —/iia-'-dit a-iit-i'i cdimi Sa li . . . . \ tiia- 
an-mi i-na bi-ri-su-ini ir-ta-si \ ina-ra 11 viar-tiiin Iu-lia-'-[i/] . . . . | ma-la ttt-tit-u au 
t-zi-l>a III .... 



'44 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

K. 9290. — Reverse. Column II. 
K. 3452. 

m ^ <^^ ^Vy ^- m is?= I ?? -rr- ^^ — ih 
3 r<rT -^r -+ -r tr ^^- ^^rr <r- ^r -a m ^^ir 

r<ri -^y -m --y 4->f ^.m^ ^^^y a^ -^ <^^ -t^ ^yiy^ i^y e^h -t^r 
6 r<yy <i^ ^$^y ^^ ^ -+1111 ^yyi^ -'^y A^<]^m- y; ^yy? 1. 
r<yy y;; ^^yy Byy Vr --y v -+ y---- <y- x^y ^->f ^^y? ^y 
r<yy >^ ->f ^^ -E^y - - -^yr ^>^^ i^yyy ^:y yif ^4 -vjyi 

9""^^ .4 ^'^y .4 yr-<y< ^^y ^}i ^Vy t] m ^^ y^ ^t E?yy>T-Eii 
-^ M Vy ^4 j^H ^^yy t^ <^h^ ^ ^R ^y y;; m ^iiy 
5^^ "-" Byy ^^y -t .4 -^ ^^yy j^yyy Vy m m^ ^i ^yyy 

i-^ -^ ^4 <:^ ^Wy -^ <{^^ m tt]] <tt -^^ ^ M] 

^t m m ^m tVy< tt]] -VyA m^ im ^nyy jy 
-t -mn ^y ^y m \^- ^y ^iiy^ ^ tt]] Vy -t m <ys^ 

15 -^ .4 >i£yy <ia -yyx^ ^y^ i^t Vy Vy Vy -t] ^-y -^^ 
^t EiH ^^yy -B x^^{];?? <!< v^ yi; ^^ -^h -^y< -^ -<y< -yyy^ ^yyy 
^t .4 ^y ^^ >f <^^ V ^^y E?yy ^.< c-^ <^^ .4 y^ ^m^ ^t] — 

18 ^^ .4 V -^y^^ ^ -^y<^ -<y< ^^y? m >^ >w iiy y^4 iiy 
i^E .4 1][ Vy ^>f £^ n >yi-:ffl -yyy- v im -yyy^ < ^yyy^ >yi 

-s^yy 4-+ ^yyf^ -^y<^ m ^w .ly ^y? j^tii ^^ly -<y< 
-^ I -^yy B^y >^ ^irn ^i <;:: t^-n -^h ->f j^yiy ^n y? ii; -Sl 
-s^yy Hit^->h<m ti <m ^m -+ ^y? j^ "^yy ^y 
-£Myy j^yiry y; x^>yi n£yy -un ^y ^y ^y ^]^ h-- -^y <ryy Byy 
-M -^yy ^yyyy ^y ->f y? iin iiii ^ Vy< ^]W ^4 tVy< -y< 
^Myy jr<^iy -^yy t;^] « -^yy o ^^h ^ -^y ^^ >yyi 
-£^yy H^y -E^y x^- im ^y ^cyi^ -^^y ^yyy^ v jr^::y ^y 
-^7 -E^yi -yy^^ -^ v <y->yyiiiy ^.yyy:^ ^y ^^yy m <l< ^y 
►E^yy jr<:^yy m t] m ^ ^4 y? ^^ -x -" 
-E^yy A->f ^yyyj^ a E^yy ^y v v ^ff ^^^ j^ j^yyyy -^yy 

145 



AiRiL 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY 



O 
On 



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aTV A ^ V. 

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T46 



April 2] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1S95. 



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A k'^'='t->t-n-'^^t-'^'^ 



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cc a -z, 



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'47 



April 2J SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.EOLOGV. [1895. 

Transliteration. 

ti i-bak-ki ilu u-zu-un-sii ib-si (?) 

ki-bu sa i-tak-ka-lu du-muk si 

3 ki (?)-is-ti ilu ti-i-ru lu-ri li-bil mas-pa-su (?) 

ti belu pa-an sa us-su-pu-su na-ha-su 

a sa-ri-ri i-hi-ta a-na (ilu) Ma-mi 

6 ka |-la-ma-a minima [ra?]-ba-a i-lis u-sab-[su] 

i]-ru-ub di e il-tim-ma ki-bi-ti 

gi-sim-ma-ru (is) mas'-ri-i a-hi ak-mu (?) 
9. gi-mil (?) na-kab ne-me-ki iP-lu uk-tas-(sad ?) 

gi ta-ma ma-lik ni-si^ mi-lik 

gi ri-nm sam-tu ul i-na 

12. gi-mil kar-ba-tim ir-hi-su i-has-su kakkabu 

gi-ir bu-li la ba-sa tah-su-su ekil (ga-na) bit* Beli 

gi-il-lat nesi i-pu-su pi-ta-as-su has'-tum 
15. gi-is mas-ri-i bel pa-ni® sa gur^-ru-nu ma-ak-ku-ru 

gi-ris ina u-um la si-ma-ti"" i-ka^-am-me-su ma-al-ku 

gi-ir-ri an-nu-tu-ii i-ku-su a-la-ka"* tah-si-ih 
18. gi-mil du-um-ki sa ili da-ra-a si-te-'-e 

il-ta-nu te-en-ga ma-nil nisi da 

il-lu nu-us-su-ku mi-lik-ka 

21. il-te-en zik-ra mut-ta-ka duk 

il-la-ku u-ru-uh dum-ki la mus-te-hi-ti ni 

il-tab-ni i-te-en-su mus-te-mi-ku sa 

24. il-li gi-mi-ia-a-ma te-im ili as-ri-[ih ?] 

il la-ba-an-ka u te-mi-ki-i se-' (ilu) Is-tar-ti 

il-ku sa la ni-me-li a-sa-at ap-sa-nu 
27. il-ta-kan ilu ki-i mas-ri-i ka-tu-ta 

il-an-nu ku-us-su-du pa-na-an-ni lil-li 

il-ta-ku-u har-ha-vu-ii a-na at-tas-pil 

30. ki-n.i ra-as uz-ni sa-ku ta-ad-di-nu la har-ka 
ki-it-ta ta-du-ma u-sur-ti ili ta-na-su* 
ki-du-di-i ili minima sii-us-su-ru tali-si-hu ka-battuk 

^ mcs. - i. 3 j2^_ 4 i,i.jt, 5 la-a^. 

'' tut. '' gH-)ii-un. ** ti'i. ' kam-niH. '" kit. 

* A few more lines of this stanza have been preserved on the fragment 
K. 8463 (Col. 11), as follows : — ki-it-tu ta-at-ta-dti-ii . . . . | ki-du-di-i il&iii la 

Hum-'iu-ri | ki-nu te-ine-si (i/u) IS-ta-ri &e | ki-i ki-7'ib Sanii-i 

sip-ki Hani . . . . | ki-hit pi-i *-A^ H-ti til ii-kitr . . . . | ki-nis lit-niu-da-ma 
sa . . . . \ ki-pi-du-Si-iia-ma ana niSi . . . . | ki-tl>-si il-li &i't-hu-za . . . . | ki-rii-ub 
tc-en-Si-na .... 

148 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [iSgj 

ub-na 

up-te iz-za-bil 

3. ub-bat li 

ub-te-en-ni li-gi 

up-te si-it nisi 

6. up-te-ih-hir lib 

up-te-ik an 

ub-te-'-i hi-sih-[ti] 



9. bi-i-ta lu-ud-di-lu 

bi-sa-a a-a ah-si-ih 

bi-il-lu-di-i ilu seni tam-har is 

12. bi-i-ra lu-na-ak-kis lu-bil ak-lu 

bi-ir-ta lu-ul-lik ni-sa-a-ti lu-hu-uz 

bi-i-ra lu-up-ti a lu-mas-sir 

15. bi-i-ra ki-di ra-kis lu-tib tap-pu-tu 

bi-it-bi-tiis' lu-tir ru-ba lu-ni-' bu-bu-ti 

bi-ri-is lu'-ut-te-' lu-sib su-li-i lu-sa-a 
18. bi-is nu-kis ana'' kir-bi lu-tir 

bi-i-su turn 



ib-ri ub-lam 

21. ip-sit nisi la tah-si-hu 
ib-sii-ii ina sur-ri . . . , 
ib-ru pir-hu ka-ka . . . 



sa har-ha-ri sa tah-si-hu bu-na-sii 

sa am-mi e-bu-ri di-su za-mar i-hal-lik 

3. sa la ilu gishabbu ra-si ma-ak-ku-ra 

sa-ga-sii (makkursu?) kak-ka-su i-sid-di-sii 
sa la tu-ba-'-ii te-im ili mi-nu-ii tus-sar-ka 

6. sa-di-id ni-ir ili lu-ii-ba-ti sa-di-ir a-dan-su 
sa-a-ra ta-a-ba sa ilani si-te-'-e-ma 
sa sattu tu-hal-li-ku ta-rab a-na sur-ri 



9. i-na ad-na-a-ti ab-ri-i-ma sit-na-a i-da-a-tu 
i-lu a-na hir-ra-bi ul pa-ri-is a-lak-ta 
i-sad-da-ad i-na mit-ra-ta za-ru-ii elippi 
12. i-na ki-rib (is) dun-ni ra-rni bu-kur-su 

' Sh. ' hit. 

149 



AiRii. 2] SOCIETY OF BIBI,ICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

i-lak-kit hb-bis ra-bi a-hi u-ru-uh-su 

i-li-is ma-lak bu-su-ii pa-ra-a i-rid-di 
15. i-na su-ki zi-lul-su i-sa-a-a-ad ab-lum 

i-sar-ra-ak tir-din-nu a-na ka-ti-i ti sam-ta 

i-na ma-har kat-mi sa ad-da mu-su mi-na-a li-at-tar 
i8. i-na sa-pal as-bal-ti-ia (arra-ti-ia ?) kit-mu-sa-ku a-na-ku 

i-na a-za-an-ni a-hu-ru-ii sa-ru-ii u u-hu 

li-'-ii pal-ku-ii su-e ta-sim-ti 
21. li-it-mu um-ma sur-ra-ka ilu ta-da-a-a-as 

li-ib-bi ili ki-ma ki-rib sami-i ni-si-ma 

li-pit-a us-su-ru-su sii-ma nisi la lam-da 
24. li-pit-sii (ilu) A-ru-ru mit-ha-ris na-pis-ti 

li-il-li-du nis-su ka-lis la mur-ri 

li-it-tu bu-ur-su ris-tu-ii sa-pil-ma 
27. li-gi-mu^ sa ar-ku-u ma-si sid-din-sii 

li-il-lu ma-ru pa-na-a i-al-lad 

li-'-ii kar-ra-du sa sa-ni i ni-bit-su 
30. li-'-it-ma^ mi-na a-bak-ki-^ ilu-ma nisi la lam-da 

li-tag-gam-ma ib-ri li-mad sip-ki-ia 

li-sur nu-us-su-ka sum-kar at-mi-i-a 
33. li-saas-ku-u a-mat kab-ti* sa lit-mu-da busi-[sa? 

li-sap-pa-lu^ du-un'^-na-ma-a sa la i'-pu-su hi-bil-[ta 

li-kan^-nu rag-ga sa ilu rubu (Ea) abi-su 

3. li-ta-ra-du ki-na® sa ana'" te-im ili bu 

li-ma'^-al-lu-ii pa-sal-la'- sa ha''^-bi-la'^ ni 

li-sal-ku" is-sik-ki'" sa-pi is-nu-ku te''-'-t[a'* 
6. li-dan-na-nu'® sal-tu sa pu-hur-su an 

li-la-la ib-ba-tu i-tar-ri-su-" la-li-i 

li ia-a-si it-nu-su be^'-el pa-ni ri-dan-nu 

9. sar kat-mi-'^ na-^-an-na'^^-ru ba-nu-u a-pa-a-ti-^ 
sar-hu (ilu) Zu-lum mar-^-ka ri-su" ti-it-ti--*sin 
sar-ra-tu'-^ pa-ti-ik-ta-si-na sii-e-tum'^" (ilu) Ma-ma^' 
12. sar-ku a''--na a-me-lu'-'-ti id-gu-ra-'^ da-ba-ba 



' IIIU-U. 




2 decsf. 


^ kii. 


' III. 


^ nab-hal. 


« sik. 


' i-sii-ii. 




** ka-an. 


'■' i-nu. 


'" deest 


1' mal. 


'- In. 


'•' hab. 




» In. 


1'^ kit. 


i« kii. 


'' ti. 


'•"' ///. 


''' da-na- 


an. 


-" is-su. 


=> hcl. 


22 silli (?). 


"' dcest. 


•"* tiar 


'-'" f[um]. 




-'• ma-ar. 


"'> is. 


2* ta-Si-na. 


"J lu,n. 


•«' ///. 


•" mi. 




•'- ana. 


=" ltd. 


^' m. 







April 2] TROCEEDINGS. 

sar-ra-a-ti^* la^" ki-na-a-ti^' is-ru-ku-su ina^" sa-'-at-tak 

sar-l)i-is sa sa-ri-i i-dib-bu-bu dum-ki-su 
15. sar-ma mas*"-ru-su*' il-la-ku i-da-a-su 

sar-ra-kis i*Mam-ma-nu du'*'-un-na-ma-a a-me-lu 

sar-ku-su** nu-ul-la-tum i-kap-pu-du-su nir-ti 
18. sar-ri-es^^ ka-la lum-nu sii-hu um-me as-su la i-sii-u i-ri-tu 

sar-ba-bi-is us-ha-ram-mu-su li-bal-lu-su ki-ma la-a-nii 

ri-mi-na-a-tii ib-ri ni-is-sa-tum si-te-'-me 
21. ri-sa-am-ma*" nam-ra-su a-mur lu-u ti-i-du 

ri-i-su pal-ku-ii mut-nin-nu-u a-na a-di 

ri-sa u tuk-la-tum za-mar ul a-mur 
24. ri-bit ali-ia li-ba-'-u ni-hi-is 

ri-ig-mu ul is-sa-pu is-sa-pil at-mu-ii-a 

ri-si-ia ul ul-lu kak-ka-ri a-na-at-t[al 
27. ri-sis ul a-dal-lal ina puhur it 

ri-sa lis-ku-nu Ninip sa it 

ri-ma li-ir-sa-a Is-tar sa 

30. ri-e-um Sam-si ni-si i-lis 

ba 



[1895. 



•'■■' /;/. 



*■ u la. 



im-ti(. 


3« decst. 


;iii 


sa-an-tuk-ku. 


'" „i?s. 


dun. 


^^ us. 


4.^ 


is. 


■*" aecst. 




151 



April 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895. 



INSCRIPTIONS OF THE TIME OF AMENOPHIS IV. 
By Dr. A. Wiedemann. 



The short reign of King Amenophis IV was of such importance 
to the history of Egyptian reh'gion and art. that each text of this 
period must have a particular vaUie. From this point of view I give 
a description of the following monuments : — 

I. Stela, calcarious stone, rounded at the top. Geneva Uni- 
versity Museum, D. 49. 63cm. high, 33cm. large, the figures filled 
in with red, the hieroglyphics with blue colour. Below the signs 
^^ Q. ^^ > ^ ^^" "^^''^h the lotus-flower and the tie in his hands, 
and a woman who embraces him, are sitting ; before them, an altar 
and a standing man in the position of speaking. Behind the last 

^^ n M?i ; above the altar, 
; before the sitting persons. 



man, 



flU^-PfE^! 



(sic) •■ 



>\m' 



Below, a man and a woman are sitting before 

an altar with gifts, on the other side of which two women cower. 
Above them, in horizontal lines : 



(sic) 



Q 



P 



^^ 



(3) 



=_ ^ I 



nM<^^\^ 



Below, written from right to left, the inscription : 



o 



nn 



(2) 



"^S<3)|f^i 



^<£y 



(sic) 

■ — rn^ 
1 1 1 



W^ 



l^?iMll 



0^11 = 



* For the name and word ad-ab, cf. Rec. de trav. rel., etc., XIV, p. 120, S(j<]. ; 
XV, p. 46, 1. 7 ; Lieblein, Diet, des noins, pass. ; Rec. de trav., XIII, p. 1 16, is 

found the woman-name ^ ' 






152 



April 2 PROCEEDIXr.s. [1895. 

(6 vertical) ^ T J W © . 

Side by side witli the two last lines, six persons are cowering : 

^'^ ^^fP^ "'''"' ^~^ ^<=>\ ^ ^ "'''"' ^^^ ^|g^ 
2^-0,(4) ^^£f.^man,(5)^^^°f| 

woman, (6) <^^ j ^.^ T O y)^ Mr m-'^n. 

The name of the last person has been written below him, the space 
above being already filled by the other texts. The beginning of the 
third name has been destroyed on purpose, but enough is left to 

This erasure of the 



name of the god Amon shows that the monument belongs to the 
time before the reformation of Chu-en-aten. On the other hand 

the determinative © instead of O behind [I in line 4 proves, 

that at that time the town of Aten was already spoken of, and that 
the thought of this place induced the scribe to err.* We may thus 
date this stela of a man of Abydos with great certainty in the years 
4-6 of Amenophis IV. 

2. Slab of calcareous stone in the Museum at Berlin, No. 2070 
(Lepsius, 199; new catalogue, p. 102) with a representation running 
from right to left. A standing man brings in the right hand [3 ; in 

* A similar mistake is found in Papyrus Louvre 3283 (ed. Wiedemann, 
Hierat. Texte). In this text, written for a woman of Thebes, the divinity is 

ca,,ea,,.,.I,,.6, e^ S III ,1J°^".®„®' ••«■"— 
the words of the men with the level" [cf. Renouf, /■Religion der altcn Aeqyptc-r, 
p. 195). The writer has given to the word ret-tt I \\ \\ \\ I > '^ ^ , 
etc. ; for the reading,^. Naville, Aes^. Z., 1882, p. 188, sqcj.) the determinative 
©, because he had in mind in writing A\ at the end of the word, the 

name of l-'°~>j (f^J a\ ' ''^^ ^^^"^^ '^^ Thebes, wliich had a particular con- 
nection with the treatment of the dead. 

153 M 



April 2] 



SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCILKOLOC.V 



[1895- 



the left five rectangular, flat parcels lying one on the other ; the 
scene is accompanied by this inscription, in vertical lines : 



(0 



n I 



w 

(vertical) * t 



'^^ 

O^ 



f J II n I 



w 



(-^) 



(3) 



,-JU. 



^^ 



(4 horizontal) V^ 

HI 



ni 

J,* 



Behind, a man brings two ties ; inscription in vertical lines : 



(0 



AAAAAA n I V 1 Cl) 



q:JoiQIT<^>t 






w 



r^^^^ 



r^^^^ 



(3 horizontal) 



D X 



(sic) 



^ I 



The text itself contains some formulae of the Libro dei fiinerali^ which 
was discovered and excellenty treated by Schiaparelli. The bringing 
of the vases abut is found in the text of this publication, I, p. 
144 sqq. {cf. II, 362, under the word), and the bringing of the 
feather, I, p. 143 {cf. II, 275) and the bringing of the ties 
occurs II, p. 15 sqq., in a much more developed form. For the 
general sense of the formula, we may refer to the book of Schiaparelli ; 
here we will speak only about a curious variant found in the first 
text. The feather brought by the man is that of an ostrich. The 

(2 [wwvvv] [I "^^ I or I) '^^ 

, and here nend, 7ienu are forms of the word nnii, ntidu, etc., 



ostrich. "§ Our text gives instead the word 



PJ-* 



t Instead of * the original has the standing bird (^^ . The leg l | 
is in the original more similar to that of an ostrich than in the hieroglyphic 
type used here. 

X Cf. for the writing of the text, Kec. de trav. rel., etc., XV, p. 37, from the 
time of Chu-en-aten. 

r^ 

§ The writing, -I / — 7, in Diimichen, Rtx., IV, pi. 14, 1. 84, for the 

feather, which was accepted by Goodwin, Aeg. Z. , 1874, p. 37, is faulty; the 
right form is \\ , given in the publication of the same text by Mariette, 

Dend., IV, 37, 1. 84 (</. Loret, /wv. dc Irm'. rd., etc., 1\', p. 30). 



April 2] I'KOCEEDINGS. [1895. 

which is new in this sense ; its determinatives are two well-drawn 
images of a standing ostrich with its long legs and short wings — 

(C^^ is therefore the picture of a sitting ostrich, not, as is usually 

believed (e.g., Rouge, C/ir. eg., I, 60) of a newly born bird,- — and the 
leg of the animal. The word itself explains the origin of the 
reading via for p . Md-f is the old name of the bird, which was 
supplanted afterwards by fum, but remained in the syllabic sign 
n . This is another example of the fact, that the syllabic reading 
of a sign gives us sometimes an old designation of the represented 
thing, a designation which may often be older than the word used 
for the same object by the current language. 

The owner of the slab is called the first time Meriti-Neith ; in 
the other places, Meriti, with a circle at the end which will represent 
the sun. On three other fragments out of his tomb, found in the 
south of the great pyramid of Saqqarah (published by Marielte, 
ATastnbas, p. 449), he appears also as Meriti without Neith, but with 
the sign O- In reality, the name will have been Meriti-Neith, but 
as the cult of Neith was proscribed by the Aten-religion, her name 
had here to disappear, and was changed to the name of the sun-god. 
That this was really the case, is shown by the slab itself, on which 
we may yet observe, that at the two places, where Meriti-Ra is 
found, the O has been written over an erased >=<. The monu- 
ment belongs, therefore, to the moment in which the Aten-cult 
became conqueror also at Memphis. 

3. In these Proceedings, VII, p. 200, sqq., I published an Usebti 
of the time of Chu-en-aten, which showed instead of Chapter VI of 

the Todtenbuch the formula I A A5\ [ ^^^^ •¥" , etc. The same 

TLiAo a//>T^1 O 1 

formula in a somewhat more developed form is found on a heart 
scarab of greenish stone in the Museum at Turin, No. 5993, which 

belonged to a functionary of the insnl (1 m1^ (1(1 • A man of the name 

Apii is known in the time of Chu-en-aten from his tomb at Tell-el- 
Amarna, whose texts were published by Bouriant, Mem. de la Miss, 
du Caire, I, p. i r, xr/./., and Piehl, Inscr., I, pi. 19 1-2), but as he 
bears other titles than our Apii,* he is not to be identified with him. 

* This fnct is possible to ascertain, if also the exact title of the owner ol ilie 
scarab cannot he made out from the publication of its inscription in the Catalogue 
of the Museum, II, p. 209. 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILLOLOGY. [1S95. 

Under any circumstances the name is not the more interesting part 
of the monument at Turin, it is the fact, that it shows, that in the 
time when the Aten-cult flourished, the custom of giving to the dead 
a heart-scarab was kept up as well as the custom of the Usebtis, but 
that in the two cases the ordinary formula referring to the Osiris- 
religion were changed in favour of the worship of Aten. 

4. Nearly at the same period, but, as the mention of the god 
Thoth shows, not during the ascendancy of the Aten-cult, a curious 
monument found in Italy (now at Florence, Cat. Schiaparelli, p. 314, 
No. 1588; Photogr., Petrie, No. 165), was worked out. Itisarelief 
calling to mind from the manner of its carvings the plans found in 
the tombs of Tell-el-Amarna. It shows an Egyptian court-yard, at 
the left of which is the poultry-yard, at the right, above, four 
magazines, of which three are full of wine-pots, below some rooms, 
the contents of which have disappeared. Between these two rows 
of m.agazines a door leads into an emplacement, probably a court, 
in which a small table with different objects on it stands, as well as 
a scale with its weights in the form of animals. Backwards three 
naos are to be seen ; above the one in the middle a stela is drawn, 
which, following the rules of Egyptian perspective means that the 
stela was placed in the naos. Above the naos on the right and the 
one on the left is the picture of a coffin, similar to the coffins of 
queen Ahmes-nefer-ateri and queen Ah-hetep found at Der-el-bahari. 

We know from the Greek authors, that in Egypt the custom 
existed of preserving in one room of the house mummy-formed 
coffins containing the corpses of dead relatives. The excavations of 
Petrie at Hawara speak to the correctness of these notices for the 
later time,"'^ but documents of older periods relating to this custom 
were wanting till now. I believe this bas-relief fills this gasp, the 
naos with the mummies reproduce each a oiKrjjiia OrjKaiou, as 
Herodotus, II, 86, calls these rooms ; the naos in the middle would 
contain a stela with an inscription in memory of the deceased 
persons. 

5. We are accustomed to take Tii as the mother of Amenophis 
IV, but this is not at all certain. The text generally refered to in 

this connexion is Leps. I)., Ill, looc, where is written ,, ^ 1 



■^^^ i=^[ I fjf] W f't' I ' ''^''"^^ •'"' '•'^^ same way we shall have to write Leps. 
"* cy. Wiedemann, //-: rod'o/s Zwcilcs Junh, p. 360 sq. 

1^6 



April 2J I'KOCEKDIXGS. [1895. 

1)., Ill, rood, instead of "^ 1l^ 1 in the middle I ^ . Yet 

Lepsius {Al>A. der Berl. Akad. 185 1, p. 199) has shown, that at the 
time of Chu-en-aten the word mut, " mother," was written not with 

YN ) but with ¥\ or / , surely to avoid a confusion in ortho- 
graphy between it and the name of the Theban divinity Mut. These 
texts call, therefore, Tii the mother of the queen, she must have 
been, in consequence, the mother-in-law of Amenophis IV. If she 

is called in another place (Leps. I)., Ill, loi)! I ^^^ ^, 

this would show only that the king gave her the title Royal Mother, 
because a part of his rights to the throne was founded on his re- 
lationship with her. Another daughter of Tii was, then, the sister 
of Chu-en-aten's wife Net'em-t-Mut, which appears Leps. D., Ill, 
109, and is in all likelihood identical with the wife, whom Hor-em- 
heb married in order to legitimize his position as Pharaoh. The 
reasons of the high position of Tii, to whom even her husband 
Amenophis III paid tribute in quoting her so many times on his 
monuments, will only be understood, when we know something 
certain about her parents Tuaa and luaa.* The effort has been 
made to identify Tii with Kirkipa, the daughter of the prince Satarna 
of Neharina ; but, as the scarab f relating the arrival of Kirkipa in 
Egypt, is dated from the time of Amenophis III and Tii, the 
daughter of Tuaa and luaa, this idea must be thoroughly 
abandoned. 

* In the inscription found by Pctrieat (jurob (Petrie, ///a/ut/!,p\. 24), by which 

the great royal wife Tii consecrates an aUar to 11 ^^ I *~~"' ] I ( O i^ V_y I , 

sen cannot be translated "brother," as the two have different parents ; also the 
idea, that sen is here the masculine of sen-i, " consort," is not plausible, as Tii is 

named just before I ^^=5^ _ jj ^^ju j^^^g ^q j^g taken not in the sense of 

Too 
designation of relationship, but only as meaning " beloved," the word being so 
used in the love-songs of Pap. Harris, 500. In the same sense, it may be trans- 
lated, Leps., Ausw., pi, II, wrhere Thutmosis III is called the x of Ram.nkn, 



the king being probably, not brother, but nephew to this queen. 

+ Publ. by Brugsch, Aef;. Z., 1880, p. 81, sqq., and Thes., p. 1413 ; in fac- 
simile l)y Maspero, Jicc. de trav. rel., etc., XV, p. 200 ; a duplicate by Legrain, 
l.t. XVI, p. 62. 



157 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCIL-EOLOGV. [1895. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be holden at 37, 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C, on Tuesday, the 
7th May, 1895. 



The following Paper will be read : — 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A., Oxon.— "The Testament of Jacob" 
(Genesis xlix). 




iqS 



April 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having duplicate copies, luill confer a favour by presenting them to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologie der Bucher der Konige iind Paralipomenon im 
Einklang mit der Chronologie der Aegypter, Assyrer, Ba'hylonier und Medei. 

Amklixeau, Histoire du Fatriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes de I'l^gypte Chretienne. 

• ■ La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Bahyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 



Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religiongeshichte. Der Gott Israels unJ 

die Gotter der Heiden. 
Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aeg}'ptiaca superest. 
BOTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847- 1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publics par 

H. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by DUmichen 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
Budinger, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primiirdiis cum 

Heljraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
Burckhardt, Eastern Travels. 

Cassei., Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Aegyptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 
DQmichen, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., fulio. 



Earle's Philology of the English Tongue. 

Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. 

Erman, Papyrus Weslcar. 

^Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Gavet, E., Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 

GOLENISCHEFK, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-qualre Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Colleciion de. 

IIaupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Hess, Der Gnostische Papyrus von London. 

HOMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 

Jastrow, M., a Fragment of the Babylonian " Dii)barra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmnlogie der ISabylonier. 



April 2] SOCIETY OF BIIILICAL ARCILKOl.OnV. [1895. 

Jeremias, Tyrus l)is zur Zeit Nubukaclnezar's (lescliichlliclie Skizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der Keilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H. , Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch iiber Heilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, p., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Berichsichtignung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments ^figyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
LEFfeBURE, Le Mythe Osirien. 2"i« partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G. , Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 vehr, p. xiv, 173, 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c., 1880. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
MuLLER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Arabien. 
NooRDTZiG, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptische out 

dekkingen. 
Place, Ninive et I'Assyrie, 1866-1869. 3 vols., folio. 
PoGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
ROBIOU, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Schaeffer, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

SCHOUW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani \'elitris. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Altagyptishe Gotterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptien. 
Visser, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1S91. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
WiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
Wiltzke, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
WiNCKLER, Hugo, Der Thontafelflind von EI Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

Wesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. I, 1847 ; Vols. IV to XII, 

1850 to 1858, inclusive; Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 to 1878. 
ZiMMERX, H., Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft fur das Studium des Altcn 

Testaments. 



160 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS, 

In 8 Parts. Price 5s. each. With full Illustrations of the Vignettes. 
Parts cannot be sold separately. 



^be Eowtian IBooh of the 2)eab, 



Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes, 

By P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ Series of ^Slates of tf)c Fignettes of tf)c iJifferent OTfjaptcrs. 



The first Three Parts have already been issued. 

The request having been made by a number of friends that this 
translation, &c., should be issued in a different form, so as to be a 
separate book, and Mr. Renouf having kindly consented, it is proposed 
to issue a limited number of copies upon large paper, in numbers, at 5.\. 
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Woe Bronse ©niameitts of tbe 
lp)alace Gates from Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to jQx \os. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) ^1 \s. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President. 
P, LE Page Renouf. 

Viee- Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop ok Canterbury, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

The Right Hon. VV. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 

Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, Dean of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Arthur Gates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 
Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Rev. James Marshall. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Walter L. Nash, F.S.A., &c. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 
J. Pollard. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S , 

&c. 
E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 



Hoiiorajy Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secreta7y — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Forei\;)i Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S, 



llANKISON AND SONS, TRINTEHS IN OHDINAKV TO HICK MAJKSTV, S'l'. MARTIN S I.ANIi. 



VOL. XVII. Part 5. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



^c# 

VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 

Fi/t/i Meeting, May yth, 1895. 

^j^^ 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A. — The Testament of Jacob (Gen. xlix) ... 164-191 
P. Le Page Renouf {President). — Note on Length and Breadth 

in Egyptian 191 

P. Le Page Rrnouf {President). — The Book of the Dead, 

Chapter CXXIV 192-194 

Dr. a. Wiedemann. — Two Monuments with a \'otive Formula 

for a Living Person 195-198 

Walter L. Nash. — Letter. {Plate) 198 

Prof. Dr. Fritz Hommel. — Assyriological Notes 199-207 

Prof. A. H. Sayce.— Note to the Paper on the Karian and 

Lydian Inscriptions 207 

M. Paul Pierret.— La Coudee Royale du Musce Egyptien du 

Louvre 208-209 

^^ 

published at 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

n. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1895. 
[No. cxxx ] 



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37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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2 ... lO 


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jj 


VI, 




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o 


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99 


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PROCEI 


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ID 


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ID 


6 


XII, 


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7, 


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2 


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1S89-90 




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6 





XIII, 


Parts I to 


7, 


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XVI, 


Parts I to lo 


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XVII, 


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2 


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A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may be 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



NOTICE. 



The Library and Office of the Society will 
be closed for vacation during the month of 
August 

W. H. RYLANDS. 

Secretary. 



The President referred to the loss tne :bociety naa 
recently suffered by the death of the Very Rev. 
Robert Payne Smith, D.D., Dean of Canterbury. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author: — Prof. Paul Haupt, Ph.D. Wo lag das 
Paradies? from Ueber Land und Mecr. 1894-95, No. 15, 
Stuttgart. 

[No. cxxx.] i6i N 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



Vol. 



TRANSACTIONS. 









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A few complete sets of the Transactions still remain for sale, which may be 
obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION, 1895. 



Fifth Meeting, 7th May, 1895. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



-^oe- 



Thc President referred to the loss the Society had 
recently suffered by the death of the VERY Rev. 
Robert Payne Smith, D.D., Dean of Canterbury. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author: — Prof. Paul Haupt, Ph.D. Wo lag das 
Paradies? from Ueber Land und Meer. 1894-95, No. 15, 
Stuttgart. 

[No. cxxx.] 161 N 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1895. 

From the Author : — Prof. Paul Haupt, Ph.D. Excavations 
in Assyria and Babylonia. Smithsonian Report, 1887-88. 
Washington, 8vo. 

From E. Towry Whyte, M.A., F.S.A. : — Burlington Fine Art 
Club. Catalogue of Exhibition of the Art of Ancient Egypt, etc. 
1895. 

From Edward S. M. Perowne : — W. M. Flinders Petrie. A 
History of Egypt. Vol. I. From the Earliest Times to the 
XVIth Dynasty. 

From the Author : — W. Scott Watson. Historical and Critical 
Notes. The References in the Pentateuch to Jair and 
Havvoth Jair. 8vo. 1895. 

From the Author : — J. Lieblein. 1-e Livre Egyptien Que mon 
Nom Fleurisse. Public et traduit, Leipzic, 1895. 

From Rev. Canon S. W. Allen : — D. G. Lyon. An Assyrian 
Manual. For the use of Beginners in the Study of the 
Assyrian Language. Chicago, 1886. 

From the Union of American Hebrew Congregations : — Judaism 
at the World's Parliament of Religions. Comprising the 
Papers on Judaism read at the Parliament, at the Denomi- 
national Congress, and the Jewish Presentation. Cincinnati, 
1894. 

From the Author: — Rev. John P. Peters, Ph.D. Notes on the 
Pilgrim Psalter. 8vo. 1S95. From the Journal of Biblical 
Literafiire. 

Some recent results of the University of Pennsylvania ex- 
cavations at Nippur, especially of the Temple Hill. March 
1895. 8vo. 

From the Publishers :— H. Grevel and Co. Manual of Egyptian 
Archaeology. By G. Maspero, D.C.L. Oxon. Translated by 
Amelia B. Edwards. New Edition. 8vo. 1895. 

The Ancient Egyptian Doctrine of the Liimortality of the 
Soul. By Alfred Wiedemann, D.Ph. London. 8vo. 1895. 

162 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

The following Candidate was elected a Member of the 
Society, having been nominated at the last Meeting, 2nd 
April :— 

M. I'Abbe Poels, Lie. en Theol, Rue des Dominicains, Louvain. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

The General Theological Seminary, E. H. Jewett, Librarian, 
Chelsea Square, New York, U.S.A. 

The following Candidates were nominated, and by special 
order of the Council were submitted for election, and elected 
Members of the Society : — 

Dr. Wm. Chapman Grigg, 27, Curzon Street, Mayfair, W. 

Frank Wilkinson, Hawkley Lodge, Sutton, Surrey. 

R. Brede Kristensen, Christiania. 

Frederick William Read, 4, Clarendon Gardens, Maida Vale, \V. 

Captain Granville Smith, 131, Queen's Gate, S.W. 

George H. Whittaker, Rush Bank, Middleton Road, Oldham. 

A Paper was read by the Rev. C. J. Ball, on "The 
Testament of Jacob." (Gen. xlix.) 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 




163 N 2 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S95. 



THE TESTAMENT OF JACOB (Gen. xlix). 
By the Rev. C. J. Ball. 

Note. — G. = Greek version (LXX). *** ~ Samaritan Text. S. = Syriac 
(Peshitta). T. = Targum (Onkelos). J. = Jerome (Vulgate). 

This ancient text has exercised a kind of fascination upon the 
minds of many scholars of the most varied gifts and acquirements. 
After all the pains, however, that have been lavished upon its 
interpretation, it still remains in many respects obscure and unin- 
telligible. The dying patriarch who is the mouthpiece of the 
unknown poet, like the fabled Sphinx, propounds his ancient riddles 
anew to each succeeding generation of students. Yet there is no 
valid reason for assuming beforehand that the thoughtful labours 
of the competent will not eventually clear up the remaining 
obscurities, and produce out of materials, gathered from every 
possible source, a trustworthy text, and a self coherent and harmo- 
nious interpretation which will carry conviction to the general 
apprehension. 

We need not be afraid of emending a text which cries aloud for 
emendation. The general laws of Hebrew syntax — apart from that 
extraordinary mass of ingenious speculations by which it is sought 
to palliate improbable, and justify impossible constructions — must 
be steadily borne in mind. Continuity of thought must be expected, 
and, where not apparent, must be made the object of careful search 
in each distinct portion of the text. The light thrown upon our 
subject by the finished course of Israel's history is not to be 
disregarded from any legitimate fears we may entertain of reading 
into the text a meaning which is not there. Above all, it must 
never be forgotten that we are dealing with poetry, not prose ; and 
that, consequently, poetic style and phraseology, poetic form, 
exhibiting the vital principle of parallelism in thought and expression, 
as well as a certain degree of syllabic ecjuipoise, will naturally be 

164 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

present throughout the piece, though in some cases they may be 
concealed under the mask of time-honoured corruptions. 

The insertion of poems and poetical citations in historical 
prose is a familiar phenomenon of Oriental literature. It is not, 
therefore, at all surprising to meet with sporadic instances of the 
same practice in the Book of Genesis. That the piece before us is 
a poem, and not merely elevated prose, appears plainly enough from 
the matter and manner of it ; a fact which I hope will become even 
more apparent in the course of our examination. That it is, more- 
over, one of the oldest sections of the book is generally recognized 
by Hebrew scholars ; whether it be assigned with Dillmann to the 
period of the Judges, or, as seems more probable, to the age of the 
Judean monarchy. A first glance reveals the fact that the praise 
of Judah (vv. 8-10) and the praise of Joseph (vv. 22-26) are the 
principal themes of the singer. The other tribes are simply the 
background, or the foil to these. To Judah no less than seventeen 
stichi are devoted ; to Joseph nineteen. This clearly reflects the 
historical fact that Judah and Joseph-Ephraim were the two leading 
tribes around which the others clustered — the two kingdoms of the 
House of Israel. But more than this. The writer makes a marked 
distinction between these two leading tribes. While heaping 
blessings on the head of Joseph, and even designating him " the 
Nazirite of his brothers " (v. 26), he is in full sympathy with the 
later feeling of the literary prophets, who saw the only legitimate 
rule in the House of Judah and the line of David. Nothing that 
he says of Joseph can fairly be made a reference to the separate 
kingdom which had its seat in Samaria. And this silence becomes 
all the more significant when we recollect Joseph's dreams, with 
their apparent promise of sovereignty over all Israel. It is as if the 
writer regarded these as exhausted of their import by Joseph's 
exaltation in Egypt, and the consequent submission of his brethren. 
But of Judah he speaks in a tone which really leaves little doubt as 
to his meaning. After clearing the way by a sentence of disinheri- 
tance upon Reuben, the first-born son and natural heir of the 
hegemony in Israel, and by the ban pronounced on Simeon and 
Eevi, the two succeeding sons of Eeah ; he expressly assigns to 
Judah the homage of all his brethren, in the very terms in which 
Joseph's brothers had seen a reference to royal supremacy — the 
terms also in which Isaac had promised Israel the dominion over 
Edom and other peoples (v. 8 ; cf. ch. xxvii, 29; xxxvii, 7, 8); he 

165 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, [1S95. 

compares him to the Hon, the king of beasts {cf. Prov. xix, 12; 
XX, 2 ; XXX, 30 ; Rev. iv, 5 ; Num. xxiii, 24 ; Ezek. xix, 3, 5, 6 ; 
2 Sam. i, 23) ; he gives him wine^ — the royal beverage — in abundance, 
as Isaac had given to Jacob (ch. xxvii, 28, 37) ; and finally, in a 
verse, which, however difficult, cannot be treated as an interpolation 
without destroying the connection of thought, he endows Judah 
with a "sceptre" and the "obedience of peoples" {cf. ch. xxvii, 29).. 
Of Judah, as of Joseph, the goodly land is a chief blessing : 

He shall bind his foal to the vine, 
His ass colt to the choice vine ; 
He shall wash his apparel in wine, 
His clothing in blood of grapes ; 
Dull of the eyes from wine. 
And white of the teeth from milk. 

For Judah, too, as for Joseph {vide infra), fighting is in store. But 
Judah is praised for his own native valour. He is not a timid hart 
like Joseph {cf. Ps. Ixxviii, 9) ; he is a lion who preys on his enemies, 
and his father's sons do him the homage due to their champion — 
not an obscure intimation of the prowess of David, and his elevation 
to the throne of all Israel. The sceptre and the staff of rule, the 
insignia of leadership in war and of sovereignty in peace, will not 
depart from Judah {cf. the apparently imitative phrase, Zech. x, 1 1 : 
IID"^ D'^l!^^ t^lU?"))- As in Balaam's prophecy (Num. xxiv, 17*), 
the "sceptre" is the mace that crushes the foe {cf also Isa. x, 5, 15, 
24) ; and here, as there, the victories of David are hinted at, as well 
as the first successes which established this tribe in its permanent 
domain west of the Jordan (Judges i). 

We have to find, as we have said, a meaning in agreement wath 
the context and with the data of history. As a matter of fact, 
Judah was the royal tribe ; and David, the great founder of Israel's 
monarchy and of the only permanent dynasty, was of this tribe. 
Historically, in this respect, Judah stands alone among all the tribes : 
for the House of Joseph, after the separation, never achieved a 
stable dynasty. 

All this indicates that the piece belongs to the period of the Davidic 
monarchy. It might even be thought to date from the palmy days 

* The "star" of this passage is probably a lance or pike, as the parallel 
expression indicates. Cf. the Accadian mul-mui, (written 5/a;- + jr/rt;-), Assyrian. 
inulmuUii, lance, spear. 

t66 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

of Solomon, to which we might see a reference in what is said about 
Asher (v. 20) : — 

Asher — his food shall be fat ; 

And he shall yield the king's dainties. 

The word \772 here is certainly not without bearing on the 
question of age. Asher is expressly named among the districts 
which had to provide the monthly supplies of Solomon's household 
(i Kings iv, 16). 

The curse upon Levi — for it is nothing else — and the silence 
about his priesthood (the principal element in postexilic conceptions 
of him), seems to exclude the last period of the monarchy, while it 
agrees very well with the earlier date. 

Nor is there anything fatal to this view in what is said of the 
other tribes. Zebulun and Issachar, which figure as warlike com- 
munities in the ancient song of Deborah (Judges v, 14, 15, 18), are 
here presented in a different light. What is said of Zebulun (v. 13) 
evidently contemplates the tribe as long settled in its locality, and 
as having exchanged its ancient military prowess for the hazards 
and profits of a seafaring life, such as might naturally be suggested 
by neighbourhood with the Phoenicians, the great seafaring race 
of antiquity. Perhaps Solomon's "Navy of Tarshish," which ac- 
companied the navy of Hiram, king of Tyre, in trading voyages 
(i Kings X, 22), was manned by Zebulunites. In the probably 
later poem, known as the Blessing of Moses, it is said of both 
Zebulun and Issachar (Deut. xxxiii, 19) : — 

They shall suck the abundance of seas. 
And treasures hid in the sand. 

The "treasures of the sand" may well denote the murex, or 
purple fish, from which was obtained the famous dye. The eldest 
son or chief clan of Issachar was named Tola, " purple fish " (Gen. 
xlvi, 13: see also Judges x, i); an indirect confirmation of the 
tribe's contiguity to the coast. The existing text of Gen. xlix 
presents us with three lines about Zebulun :— 

js^'' a^^^ ^^rh ]Sint 
n"^2t^ flinS t^im 

The third line looks like an explanatory gloss or interpolation, 
specifying Zebulun's point of contact with the coast. As a local 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1895. 

determination it is without parallel in the entire piece, and is, 
besides, thoroughly prosaic. Rejecting this, we are still dissatisfied 
with the remaining couplet, as both tautologous and pointless. The 
phrase Q''?^"^ ^Ml recurs (Judges v, 17), but ]lV2i^ ^^Tl, strand of 
ships, never. The term f1"in, in fact, is always joined, either with 
Q^Tf (prose ; e.g., Deut. i, 7), or with the anarthrous plural X^l^ 
(poetry ; here and Judges I.e., only). A slight change would get rid 
of this doubtful expression, and what is more important, restore an 
adequate sense to the couplet. rjinS might be an accidental in- 
version of the rare SD.in, pilot (Ezek. xxvii, 8, 27-29; Jonah i, 6 
only). But the parallel passage, Judges v, 17, almost demonstrates 
that the repeated PlinS has displaced "^1J^. And now the second 
line tells us something more about Zebulun, instead of simply 
repeating the first : — 

Zebulun by the strand of seas will dwell ; 
And he will sojourn in ships. 

The result is interesting in the paucity of information about this 
ancient tribe. And the whole statement suits the settled times of 
the monarchy, from Solomon onwards, better than the stormy period 
of the Judges. The expressions, "will dwell," "will sojourn," seem 
to connect Zehuliui with zelnd, dwelling {scil. of Jahvah ; cf. 
Shechaniah). 

The sneer at Issachar, again (vv. 14, 15 ; cf. Judges v, 16), does 
not well agree with the times of the Judges, when Issachar was 
represented by the hero Barak ben Abinoam (Judges iv, 5) and Tola 
ben Puah, who judged Israel twenty-three years (Judges x, i, 2). 
Baasha of Issachar appears . as a strong king of the northern 
kingdom (i Kings xv, 27); and the tribe is decidedly warlike 
according to i Chron. vii, 1-5, upon which, however, not too 
much stress can be laid, as we know nothing of its date or source. 
The hexasyllabic hexastich upon Issachar certainly resembles a 
retrospect rather than a prophecy : — 

Issachar was a sturdy ass, 

Couching" amid the stalls : 

And he marked that his resting-place was goodly, 

And that the land was rich ; 

So he bowed his shoulder to burden-bearing, 

And became a toiling serf. 

It is possible that the strong cities of the Great Plain — e.g., 
Bethshan, Taanach, and Megiddo — in whose territory this tribe had 

168 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

obtained some sort of footing, gradually encroached on Issachar's 
liberties, until they had, for a time at least, reduced it to the position 
of a sort of villeinage. It is strange that the tribe is not even 
mentioned in Judges i, 27 sqq. What is said of the Canaanites, 
Josh, xvi, 10, may in some cases have been true of the intruding 
Israelites. Hiram of Tyre may have acquired and exercised authority 
over the tribe, which tamely submitted to the foreign yoke for the 
sake of peace and quietness. Among the fragmentary traditions 
of Kings, we find that Solomon ceded " twenty cities in the land of 
Galilee" to Tyre (i Kings ix, 11). The attitude of Issachar may 
have had something to do with the fact ; though in the meagreness 
of the records, we cannot determine precisely what it was. In any 
case, Issachar's service is forced, like that of a beast of burden, or 
it would not be called "I^i^ D72 ', (f- i Kings v, 13, 15 (=v, 27, 
29 Heb.). Riehin's view, that it was voluntary wage-earning service 
to the foreign traders passing through the tribal territory, can only 
be right if the poet meant no more than a mere sarcasm by his 
strong language, which seems unlikely. 

The phrase Q"^^ "^lOn, (^ss of bone, demands a word of comment. 
It occurs nowhere else ; but is essentially similar to Ezekiel's ^7 
11IM, hem-t of flesh ; pi^il 17, the heart of s to fie (Ezek. xi, 19 ; 
xxxvi, 26). But the supposed Arabic phrases ^.j=- U.r>-, a strong 

ass, . -s- u^j^ ' ^ strong horse, cited by Gesenius, Thesaurus, s.r. 

D'^i, from Schultens, and repeated in all the manual editions of his 
lexicon, appear to find no support in the native Arabic lexicographers. 
But we do find the adjective .j -^ , targe-bodied, applied to camels ; 

e.g., in the phrase , '^y^^ {see Lane) ; and wc may fairly 

assume the identity of this term with the D'^'^^ of -«* (Gesen., Thes., 
p. 303), though Geiger and others prefer to follow the Targum of 
***■ in pointing Q^^n^ "^I^H, <fn ass of sojourners, or resident aliens 
(D'^imn)- J-j correctly, asinus fortis ; but G., strangely enough, 
TO KuXhv iirvOvj.u](ni>, which secms to imply a reading "l^H I^H 
{cf. Isa. xxvii, 2 ; where 1^11 has the double rendering KaXh^ 
eTTiOvfirjiiLa; and Num. xvi, 15, where M., "TlT^n, ass = G., eTnOi'/mjfia). 
S. Ir^^A 'r^\\ (— ]''"'^ tl^'^t^, 2 Sam. xxi, 20); perhaps reading or 

correcting 'Xl^ for Q^;). At all events, S. renders Dlt^ i^"\Q (ch. 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

xvi, 12) quite literally. In line 3 we have pointed pfn-P (ITI^TS)? 

because of 211:3 ; and in line 4 we read n^^lZ^ with G. and Targ. 
Sam. {cf. Onk.). Rich pasture would be more attractive to an ass 
than a lovely landscape. 

The hexastich on Dan seems to refer chiefly to the past 
traditions of the tribe. The opening couplet — 

Dan shall wreak doom for his people, 
Like one of the tribes of Israel, 

at first sight does little more than play on the name Dan, which 
means doomster, judge. But the words promise Dan equality of 
rank with his brother tribes, though his families were few and his 
territory small, because of his martial qualities, which are suggested 
by the figure of the following lines : — 

Be Dan a serpent on the way, 

A crested snake on the highroad ; 

That biteth the horse's heels. 

So that lie throwcth his rider backward. 

The Targums interpret the entire oracle as a direct reference to 
the Danite judge and hero Samson, and his exploits against the 
Philistines. In the tantalizing glimpses afforded by the book of 
Judges, we find the tribe of Dan settled at Zorah and Eshtaol on 
the outer verge of the Judean hills, commanding the approaches 
from the plain of Philistia ; but we are told that no domain had 
"fallen unto them among the tribes of Israel" (Judges xviii, i). 
Samson, the great hero of the tribe, who avenges his people upon 
their Philistine oppressors, is of Zorah (Judges xiii, 2) ; and Jahvah's 
Spirit " urges him in Mahaneh-Dan (Dan's Camp), between Zorah 
and Eshtaol " {id. xiii, 25). Here the tribe lay as an advanced 
guard on the hills overhanging the highroad from the sea and the 
plain inland ; and doubtless harried the rear of any companies of 
marauding horsemen passing that way (cf. v. 19). The image of 
the serpent suggests the cunning of ambushes and surprise attacks 
{cf. also ch. iii, 15, l^pj^ ; >^xv, 26, ^.pi^'^ : xxvii, 36 ; and xlix, 19, 

D2pi^)- We point ^Q*)"!, with T., instead of ^e^l. 

The same attitude of watchers on the highway suits also the 
position of the tribe in its new settlement of Lesham (Daish, Dan), 
which they wrested from the Canaanites by a sudden and unsuspected 
assault ; thus again exhibiting the supposed craft of the serpent 

170 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

(Judges xviii, 27). Laish — the name is identical with U^'^"', "Hon," 
the Assyrian nesu, and therefore accounts for the oracle relating to 
Dan in the Blessing of Moses (Deut. xxxiii, 22) — was situate on the 
great northern highway from Damascus past the sources of the 
Jordan to the seaboard {cf. Jer. viii, 16): "The snorting of his 
horses was heard from Dan," said of enemies approaching by the 
northern route to the invasion of Palestine. 

The seventh stichus, rnn"^ 'TT'lp *7ni?1t:7"^7 , For thy salvation 
have I waited, O Jahvah ! is probably the aspiration of some marginal 
annotator, writing after the fall of the northern kingdom, and sighing 
for the fulfilment of this prophecy, which would make of Dan a true 
bulwark of Israel. The name of Jahvah does not occur anywhere 
else in the entire poem ; and the line is besides out of rhythm and 
asymmetrical, the utterance about Dan forming a hexasyllabic 
hexastich, like that about Issachar. G., t?}// awTi]plav ■iTCj>i^dvwv 
Kvpiou, which refers the line to Dan himself, as if mp72 stood in 
the original, shows that the exclamation was felt as an interruption. 
Similarly, Saadiah introduces it with J JL- , he {Dan) ivill say. 

Of Gad, it is said (v. 19) : — 

Gad — raiders will raid upon him ; 
But he will raid upon t/teir rear. 

This, again, simply tells us of the perpetual liability of this border 
tribe of East Jordan land to the freebooting attacks of marauding 
tribes and hostile peoples : such as it suffered in the ninth 
century b.c. from the Arameans, in the course of their long and 
relentless struggle with the northern kingdom {cf. 2 Kings v, 2) ; 
and doubtless from the earliest period of its settlement, on the part 
of the lawless tribes of the desert : see the account of the wars of the 
East Jordan tribes with the nomades of northern Arabia (i Chron. 
V, 10-22). In Num. xxxii. Gad figures as a pastoral tribe, choosing 
its portion on the east of Jordan as a "suitable place for cattle." 
The Bene Gad, therefore, were not essentially dissimilar in life, 
character and pursuits, from the roving tribes which from time to 
time tried to oust them from the rich pastures which they had 
themselves occupied by force. Their warlike temper is attested by 
a poetical fragment embedded in i Chron. xii, 8. The tribe was 
carried away by Tiglath-pileser, B.C. 734 {see 2 Kings xv, 29 ; 
I Chron. v, 26), and the Ammonites were in occupation of its 
territory about B.C. 600 (Jer. xlix, i). It is self-evident that the 

171 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCH.liOLOGY. [1S95. 

couplet about Gad must belong to an earlier period than these 
events ; but beyond this it would apply equally well to the times 
of the Judges, or to those of Solomon {sec i Kings xi, 24, 25), or to 
almost any period previous to the year 734. 

Of Asher we have already spoken. The fertility of his land is 
again alluded to (Deut. xxxiii, 24) : "Let him dip his foot in oil !" 
The names of Ahlab and Helbah among his cities (Judges i, 31), 
both meaning fatness, i.e., rich fertility, indicate the same thing. 
We see him living at peace with his Phoenician neighbours (Judges 
V, 17): 

Asher sat still by the strand of seas, 
And on his beaches would abide. 

No judge or national saviour sprang from Asher; and his name is 
absent from the list of tribes (i Chron. xxvii, 16-22). 

It is generally admitted that the utterance concerning Naphtali 
is corrupt as it stands in M. : 

:^Dtir "'•^^N jn^n 

but the extent to which corruption has gone is not so generally 

perceived. Following G, most critics point nS^^^ ^s nT''^t^=n7i^ 

terebinth, and '^'^^^i^ ^•S '^"1^b^_ cacumina, in the sense of tree-tops ; 

but G. does not necessitate this, although it certainly figures the 
tribe as a tree, not an animal. The words are : — 

l^eCpdaXel aTeXe^09 dveijuej^ov 
EiTTif'trov^ (zv riL' '^jevjjfuni K(t\\o9. 

On this we observe that, (i) o-TtXcxo?, trunk or stump, is used for 
i^W (Job xiv, 8), and for Tlhv, foliage (Jer. xvii, 8), but nowhere ior 
Tv7^ ', (2) in some ten places, e.g., Deut. xxvi, 10, 7€V»/y«a=''lS, fruit ; 
so that eV 7ty rievljfA.ciTi may represent a reading ^"^DiHj (3) o'Te'A.e;^'©* 
occurs twice as the rendering of Hl^^Q, branch (Ezek. xxxi, 12, 13; 
M., Vn«"^D=1''n"lQ=Vni«D ; c/. the proper name niD^Hn^^Q 
in Judges vii, 10, 11). This may indicate r\'^D = n''"^D) a fruiting 
tree, e.g., an olive or a vine (Isa. xvii, 6 ; Ps. cxxviii, 3), confused 
by G. with niLi^lDj branch. As the true reading in the first stichus, 
we thus restore : 

Naphtali is a spreading vhie. 
172 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

We next remark that jl^^Q, being feminine, requires ri^nin in the 
second stichus ; and that, whereas ^IQ 1TM, to yield fruit, is a 
common phrase, 11^2 is "ot used of putting forth branches, while 
nblZ^ is so used, especially in the case of the vine (Ps. Ixxx, i r ; 
Ezek. xvii, 6 ; fT^^^D n712?m, (^"^^ ^hot forth sprigs). This is a 
further objection to "'l^^Dh^j even if that term could mean branches, 
■^'^Q^, in fact, does not occur in the plural; and, as it means top, 
peak, crest, whether of a tree or of a mountain (Isa. xvii, 6, 9 only), 
the plural is plainly inappropriate in the case of a single tree. 
Finally, common corruptions of letters will account for the meta- 
morphosis of an original, "'"^Q jl^n^rT, that yieldeth fruity into 
G. "i-iQl IXy':!^^ on the one hand, and M. i-^'^t^ "iTsl'n, on the 
other. The second stichus, therefore, becomes : 

That yieldeth beauteous _/>■;///. 

The Targum preserves a trace of the true text, for it renders : 
" Naphtali in a good land shall his lot be cast, And his domain shall 
yield fruits " (p"^^Q ^^TUV^)- Viticulture, moreover, would be 
natural to a tribe like Naphtali, living " on fertile mountain slopes " 
(Ewald, Hist.., II, 290, E.T.). His very name may have suggested 
vine tendrils to the poet, as being derived from ^riD, to twist and 
twine* ((/the somewhat analogous uses of J.I(i', iLili). At all 
events, the sole allusion, as in the case of Asher, is to the richness 
of Naphtali's land, which agrees with his blessing in Deut. xxxiii, 23. 
The tribe is expressly mentioned by name among those that supplied 
Solomon's table ; and its importance in the matter is perhaps 
reflected in the fact that the deputy in charge there for this purpose 
was the king's son-in-law. But the couplet would plainly suit any 
period between the Occupation and 734 b.c. 

But how did nS'^h^, hind, get substituted for the rare H'^G, 
fruiting vine, in the blessing of Naphtali ? The answer to this 
question brings light to the problem that next awaits us. Others 
have perceived the incongruity of the stntements (vv. 22 sqq.). 

Joseph is a fruitful bough (fruiting tree) The archers have 

sorely grieved him, etc. ; and Dr. C. H. H. Wright long ago suggested 
the rendering, Joseph is a stag .... And the archers harass him ; 

* The true meaning is perhaps "The Shifty" or "Wily;" cf. ^n3J> 
I'rov. viii, 8, and the name Jacob. 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILILOLOGY. [1895. 

justifying it, however, by the assertion that Jl'^D is " here equivalent 
to Tl^tl, ^ heifer, a hind, for antelopes are called by the Arabs 
, i.5^Jl Ji.', wild oxen." The difficulty is that there is no other 
trace of the supposed use in Hebrew. The A?>%yY\an parratu, again, 
which in Hebrew would take the form r7")D, means ewe; and 
pl'^n 'J3,, S071 of a e-cce, would apply very well to Joseph ben Rachel 
(7n"l) ewe). This, however, does not suit the context. Archers 
would not shoot at a sheep : nor would a sheep be standing alone 
by a spring, though a hart (7^^^) might. Clearly, the term nS^^^? 
which we now find applied to Naphtali, belonged originally to 
Joseph's blessing. This is far from being the only instance of such 
unhappy transpositions of words by transcribers of the O.T. text. 
G. vlo's j/i'fj//(eVos- 'l(vfT)'j(p (= J. filius accrescens Joseph) shows 
that the text was already corrupt ; for av^avcrreai is the usual 
equivalent of PT^C to increase (i, 22 ; cf. xlvii, 27). T. "^^D"^"T "^IH 
HDV implies the same reading, viz., ri"^S- Possibly the word was 

repeated here by some copyist whose eye fell on the Jl*^C or "^"^Q 
of the preceding couplet, and someone afterwards wrote nS^h^ as 
a correction in the margin. The latter term may then have been 
substituted for TT^D in Naphtali's couplet by some later transcriber 
from that copy. However it happened, it seems clear that such 
an interchange was effected. People do not shoot at vines ; at 
harts they do. It is perhaps worth notice that a town pT'^i^ per- 
tained to the ''house of Joseph " (Judges i, 35). The expression 
nb'^h^ 13.) ^ ^^'^ ^f ^ //I'/id = a young hart, is like D'^^i^l \2. 
(Ps. xxix, 6). For the next line G. gives vio>f jyr^/^/jeVo? ^lov ^ifKivrds 
= V^V '^7 rnb \'2' G. remembered how Joseph's brothers envied 
him (chap, xxxvii, 11) ; and so T^^ was strangely referred to the de- 
nominative verb p'i^, to eye, look askance at (i Sam. xviii, 9). 
J.'s ef decorus aspedu = p^ "^"T^j is interesting as an attempt at 
textual correction C^IJ^, Ezek. xvi, 7). S. partly agrees with G. and J., 
and then points )^'^ "^7^^) S^^ ^'P-> O fountain! a reminiscence of 
Num. xxi, 17, "It^l ''Ti^. The next line of the Hebrew text, 
■^lU? "^V rni^!i ni^i, starts with a grammatical anomaly, besides 
being discordant with what precedes and follows. Daughters march 
(Judges v, 4; 2 Sam. vi, 13), or, according to the Arabic use, go 

174 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

up on the wall, makes no sense at all. G. has w/o'v n<jv vcu^tuto^' 7r/jo<} 
/te uvaaTficylrov- implying the Hebrew lltl? """ly ""^i^!^ "'il, my son, 
my little one, return to me! {cf. ^, "^Y^ *0^ '^"^'^^'J "'21, where we 
should probably restore 11'tl?, the letters 1 and 1 being very similar 
in the Samaritan script. We have here one of the many indications 
of the influence of G. on the editor of *«*). But this irrelevant 
reference to Jacob's yearning after his lost favourite does not help 
us much towards a good consecutive sense. What is wanted is 
something to connect the hart standing by the spring with his 
enemies the archers. Now ^Itl) may mean insidiari (Jer. v, 26 ; 
Hos. xiii, 7 ; ^h^ is an easy corruption of t^^, ascenderunt ; and 
tliey went up to lie in ivnit supplies the link of connection we 
desiderate. 

The two preceding terms must in some way qualify this state- 
ment ; and the reading of G. (-«*) "^"IJ^I^ ^21 suggests the correction 
"TTi-^ii^l) i^i his tracks (Ps. xxxvii, 23 ; Prov. xx, 24 ; Dan. xi, 43). 

A broken »2 might easily be read ^2, and "T is constantly confused 
with •^. Perhaps M. should rather be corrected rili'!it2l (pf— = T) 
The meaning of the whole is that the hunters follow the trail of 
their prey to the mountain spring, and lie in wait to shoot him 
when he comes to drink. The restored text of the verse (22) is : 

which we render : 

A young hart is Joseph, 

A young hart beside a spring ; 

In his track they go up to lie in wait. 

The verbs of the next verse (23) are grammatically consecutive 
to 17^ ; and IHI is clearly impossible between two imperfects 
with strong waw : ■in!lL'^''1 would be necessary to grammar, sense, 

and symmetry. But HI, to .j//^^/ seems doubtful (Ps. xviii, \'^; cf. 
Ps. cxliv, 6, p"H ; 2 Sam. xxii, 15 ; see Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., June, 
1SS6, p. 166); and G., i\olc6^)ovl> (Ex. xvii, 2) = ** IHl"'')'^'!, 

]. Jurgati su?if, is perhaps preferable. We may then translate : 

They harass him, they contend with him, — 
The lords of the shaft beset {or, assail) him : 

175 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1895. 

With what result ? The Hebrew text states it thus : 

in^p jn^^i ntrrni 

v-T^ ^y-]'^ itD^i 

ipv^ y^i^ ^n^72 

the strangeness of which, in view of the context, is undeniable. The 
hart (or the fruiting tree) appears as defending itself with a bow 
against hostile bowmen, and as endowed with arms and hands ! 
The poets of the Old Testament do not deal in such confusions 
of metaphor ; and it would be vain to seek for a parallel to this 
extraordinary transition from tree or animal to man. Fortunately 
G. has preserved traces of a text which is much more consonant to 
the requirements of poetical expression as well as of common sense. 
So far as 1 can see, lllll^p lil^h^^ Itl^m, which is formally con- 
secutive to the statement of the previous line, could only mean, Bui 
his bow dwelt in a rock (Num. xxiv, 21, "T^Xt^l^ Til'^i^)- G., how- 
ever, gives Ka\ avvQTfiifit] /ncja Kjxnovv t« To'fa uvtwv, I.e. "^^tl^Jn") 

UrW\) ]n"'b^l (^ I Sam. ii, 3; Ps. xxxvii, 15, xlvi, 9; Hos. i, 5), 
But tJicir how was shivered with might. 

The next line is represented in G. by Kal e^c\v0ii -rd vcopn 
iSpu^idi'wu xf^'P°^ avTwv. The enigmatical -ra vcupa, which lacks a 
corresponding word in the Hebrew, may be due to a marginal 
|S|gYPA, i-^; vevpd, bowstring; intended as a correction of /tura 
Kpiijov?. This suggests a reading "IJI'^O, string, instead of IJl^^^l. 
Kat e^eXvO)] implies 1Q"^^1 (2 Sam. iv, i) instead of ITQil ; but nD"1 
is always joined with Ti, hand, never with i^l'^t, arm, and we want a 
closer parallel to 'llU^nV The root IfD (2 Sam. vi, 16) therefore 
being inappropriate, the question is whether any synonym of ^3,^ 
resembles IICI and "IQ"^*''! sufficiently to account for both ? Such a 
term we find in "^fQ, which originally meant to split, shatter, like the 

Arabic ,]£',(/■ the imprecation *JSi,4^,lj ^^\ y\:, Allah break their 
backs ! This sense of l^D also suits Ps. Ixxxix, 10, 11, Thou hast 
broken Rahab in pieces (ri^^!3T ; (/ Job xxii, 9), With thine arm of 
might thou hast shattered (il'lTD) thy enemies ! and Ps. liii, 5, where 
illT^H^i^ "Its is synonymous with m^!^i^ '11117' (Ps. xxxiv, 20; 
Isa. xxxviii, 13), and with m?21^i? b^Dl (Ps. li, 9): see also Ps. 
cxli, 7. The Syriac OJpZ*)o may indicate that the translators 
conjectured ll'PC'^1 ; see Jer. iii, 13, and the Peshitta. The restored 

176 



May 7] PROCEKDIN'GS. [1895. 

stichus, □1'^ ^^^"t Tl'PD'^l, And the arms of their nm:^htivere shattered, 
is octosyllabic like its fellow. Otherwise, y^Vy {—'W^VT'S) would 
be a good parallel to 11X17^1, and might easily have been misread 

The next line is good Hebrew and good sense : By the hajids 
of the Hero of Jacob. But the closing stichus, n^ TW^ D11^?2 
St^'^ll?'' is formally disjointed and doubtful Hebrew ; and, more- 
over, violates parallelism, however it be pointed and translated. 
S. pointing QtIJ?3 , renders : And by the name of the shepherd of the 

stone of Israel., which is certainly preferable to M. The Greek 
has simply iKe76ev o Kx-rta-^vaa'^ "IfTjxnjX., which might represent 

a reading or conjecture 7i>^'Tlt^"' "^Ti^n DU^?2- Kmiaxi'^^^ stands 
for "^ti^ in 2 Chron. xiv, 11, and at least four other places. 
Restoring J?Tt?2 in place of DII?^, on the ground of parallelism, 
and treating the superfluous n as an early corruption of "» (^, \), 
we get the line — 

By the arms of the Helper of Israel ; 

which, at all events, is an adequate parallel to the second line of the 
quatrain. The ^iTi^*^ of the next verse, regarded as a natural 
repetition, slightly confirms "s'^y in this one. As for 73,^, it was 
perhaps originally written in the margin by some reader who 
remembered ")ti?n "(l^ (i Sam. iv, r ; v, i ; vii, 12). 
Thus we have recovered the verse — 

But the string (?) of their bow is broken, 
And the arms of their might are shattered. 
By the hands of the Hero of Jacob, 
By the arms of the Helper of Israel. 

The construction is continued in what follows (verse 25) : — 

By thy father's God — may he help thee ! 

And by El Shaddai — may He bless thee 

With the blessings of heaven above. 

With the blessings of the Deep that coucheth underground. 

With the blessings of the breasts and the womb ! 

The continuity of the thought and expression makes it evident 
that the last clause of verse 24, whatever its original wording, 
cannot have been a parenthesis, as it now appears in M. In the 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

second line we read 7t^1 vvith some Hebrew codices, and *»*, G., S., J., 
instead of i~li<^1, which violates the construction. Its occurrence 
here would seem to prove that ^"ltl?7i^ was really an ancient title of 
God (Ex. vi, 3), and perhaps as the source of fertility, both of the 
soil and of men and animals — the chief blessing in the eyes of 
pastoral and agricultural communities. At all events, the terms of 
the text agree with this view. The blessings of heaven above are the 
rains and dews (see the paraphrase of the passage in Deut. xxxiii, 
13, sqq.) and sunshine, to which the soil owes its productiveness ; 
the blesshigs of the Deep that coucheth underground are the springs 
and streams, so important in the hot East, supposed by Israel as by 
the old Babylonians to issue from the great subterranean ocean of 
"the waters under the earth" (Ex. xx, 4); while the blessings of 
breasts and womb need no further explanation {cf Gen. xx, 1 7, 
18). The well-known representation of the Ephesian Artemis even 
suggests a possible connection of "'TU? with Q^T;!^. 

In verse 26 the text is again unsound. The first line ri3l3, 
T^^^ "T^ni^, Thy father's blessings toiver or rise high (ch. vii, 19), is 
apparently correct ; for the "TT^i^l, (i^id thy mother's, inserted by ***. 
and G., spoils the rhythm and weakens the sense. It perhaps 
originated in the Ka\ ^uppa^i of the previous line ; and in that case 
has passed from G, into ***-. But in the next line "Ii^'^"l'in is 
generally recognized as corrupt. The parallel phrase, Q7l^ Hi^Hl, 
justifies the Greek ope.ixiv /.iovii^iivv = "JJ^ ^"^"^n {see Hab. iii, 6, where 
both phrases occur); as does also the imitation, Deut. xxxiii, 15, 
where a^Tp "il"in is the phrase parallel to uh^V ili^l^- Moreover, 
riDin, can hardly be right in this line ; for 7i^ l"^!!;] requires the 
specification of some high object of comparison, corresponding to 
rTlt^n? apices, cacuniina, in the parallel stichus, and Deut. xxxiii, 
13, has 11^^^"^, top. We therefore restore Q'1")D (Isa. xxxvii, 24), 
thus getting the satisfactory line — 

which is closely parallel to its fellow member. The letters 12, ?3, H' 
are often confused with each other. 

The closing lines present no great difficulty, until in the last Joseph 
is called VHi^ "^"'Wj the Nazirite of his brothers. G. read ^"^y^ prince 
(wu y'li'jamo circ\(pu'u' cf 2 Sam. v, 2) ; but M. is preferable to this, as 
Joseph is not promised crown and kingdom, but might perhaps be 

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May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

spoken of metaphorically as a Nazirite, as beirg a youth devoted to 
Jahvah and the flower and choice of his brothers (Amos ii, 11; 
Lam. iv, 7). But see Addendum 2, p. 191. 
The whole verse may be rendered : 

Thy father's blessings shall rise 
Above the height of the eternal mountains, 
The summits of the everlasting hills : 
They shall fall to the head of Joseph, 
To the crown of the hated oi\ns brothers ! 

Reviewing his entire blessing, we see that Joseph is contemplated, 
not for the most part as the youth whom envy sold into Egypt — for 
the archers can hardly be the ten elder brothers of the story — but 
as a tribe already established in his richly fruitful land, the central hill 
country of Palestine {cf. the play on the name of Ephraim, Gen. 
xli, 52; xlvi, 20; and the allusion to it in the word maphreca, 
xlviii, 4). It was a land of many fountains and streams, as well as 
of fertile pastures and cornlands ; so that the image of the first line, 
Joseph is a hart beside a spring, is peculiarly appropriate {cf. Ps. xlii, i). 
It is there that he is harassed by the archers ; who, however, do 
not succeed in dislodging him, because the God of Israel will not 
have it so. The whole gist of the blessing is that Joseph shall have 
a fruitful land, indeed the choicest portion of the Lord's heritage, and 
a numerous offspring ; and that the assaults of external enemies will 
be broken by the Hero of Israel. The "lords of the shaft go up" 
to the attack from the deep valley of the Jordan on the east, or from 
the maritime plains on the west, or through the narrow passes 
leading up from the Great Plain on the north (Judith iv, 6, 7). 

But it is not possible to connect what is here said of Joseph 
with any particular occasion. We seem to have before us a long 
history summarised ; in the course of which, at varying intervals, 
the archers of Philistia, of Syiia, and finally of Assyria, came up 
against him. But though it is difficult to find any direct reference 
to a particular historical crisis or period in this generalized survey 
of Joseph's experience, we may infer something from the fact that 
it is thus generalized, and from the remarkalile omission of all 
reference to the original predominance of the House of Joseph, and 
the subsequent rise and continuance of the separated kingdom of 
Ephraim. In the age of the Judges, and in fact from Joshua to 
Samuel, both of whom were Ephraimites, the tribe of Joseph- 
Ephraim is more prominent than Judah. Shiloh in Ephraim is the 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

religious centre, and Shechem the capital of the nation (Judges ix, 2 ; 
Josh, xxiv, i). Ephraim claimed the hegemony in war (Judges viii, i ; 
xii, i). Gideon the Manassite, who resided in Ephraim, was offered 
the crown after his defeat of Midian ; and his bastard son, Abime- 
lech, actually reigned three years in Shechem. But of all this we 
find no hint in the passage before us, which would be strange 
indeed if the poem belonged to the time of the Judges. And when 
we remember that the sceptre and the final sovereignty are promised 
to Judah, it seems difficult to avoid the following inferences : (i) The 
piece was written by a Judean author under prophetic influence, 
(2) not earlier than the disruption of the Davidic monarchy; (3) but 
not later than the invasion of Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings xv, 29). 

The hexasyllabic triplet about Benjamin simply characterises 
the tribe as warlike and predatory : — ■ 

Benjamin will be a ravening wolf ; 
At dawn he will devour prey. 
And at eve will divide spoil. 

This, so far as we know, was always the case, and the prowess 
of the tribe may be illustrated by reference to the story of Ehud 
ben Gera (Judges iii, 12-30) ; to the prominent mention of Benjamin 
and his clans in the Song of Deborah (Judges v, 14) ; to the strange 
narrative of the last three chapters of Judges, and to the Homeric 
exploits of Saul and Jonathan. The tribe occupied a highland 
district, approachable only by deep ravines from the Ghor on the 
east and the lowlands on the west. Hytenas and foxes gave their 
names to the Benjaminite towns of Zeboim and Shual (i Sam. xiii, 
17, 18); and doubtless wolves also haunted these rocky winding 
glens. That the tribe was given to marauding expeditions and 
predatory exploits appears incidentally from the fact that the mur- 
derers of Ishbosheth (Eshbaal) are called captains of □"'Tnil, i.e., 
robber bands (2 Sam. iv, 2 ; cf. v, 19). This again shows that we 
are not confined to the times of the Judges. 

If now we go back to the beginning of the piece, we may find 
that careful criticism enables us at least to signalize corruptions and 
suggest more or less probable emendations of the text, even if it 
should fail to bring us appreciably nearer to the solution of the 
problem of date. Indeed this preliminary work of textual correction, 
by help of internal evidence such as the implications of context, the 
mutual coherence and dependence of statement, parallel expressions, 

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May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

references and reminiscences in other parts of the Old Testament, as 
well as by consideration of the data of the old versions, is the 
principal object of this paper. The opening words (verse i) And he 
said, Gather yourselves together, that I may declare unto you what will 
betide you in the after times ! are most naturally taken as the author's 
or perhaps the Jahvist's (prose) introduction of the poem. The 
historian reveals at the outset his reason for embodying the piece in 
his work : he regards it or presents it as a prophecy or inspired 
forecast of the fortunes of the Twelve Tribes. In this respect, the 
use of the terms I^^H (Isa. xli, 26; xlii, 9; xliii, 9; xlvi, 10) and 
□"^^■^n rT'int^l (Num. xxiv, 14 ; Hos. iii,5 ; Isa. ii, 2 ; Jer. xxiii, 20) 
is characteristic. About the source of the poem thus introduced, 
nothing can be said with certainty. It may, of course, have been 
current at the time when the Jahvist wrote, in a popular collection 
of national lyrics, like the Book of the Wars of Jahvah, cited in 
Num. xxi, 14, or the Book of the Upright, Josh, x, 13, or some other 
lost anthology of which the very name has perished. I see no reason, 
however, for ignoring the possibility that the Jahvist himself may 
have been the author of the piece. He may have thought it appro- 
priate to represent the Father of the nation as thus endued at the 
end of his eventful career with a divine foresight of the future of his 
progeny. The details would naturally be taken in each case from 
the known traditions and circumstances of the tribe. In fact, as we 
have already seen, most of the utterances of the patriarch plainly 
concern not persons but tribal communities. The literary usage 
involved in such a proceeding hardly requires justification to readers 
familiar with the pages of Thucydides and Livy. In neither case 
was there the faintest intention to deceive. Our author's design 
rather was, in the absence of particular historical records, to suggest 
a conceivable and suitable conclusion to the patriarch's career, 
according to the ideas of his own time. It was believed, and 
rightly believed, that the vicissitudes of national and tribal existence 
were not the result of chance, but were intimately connected with 
moral and spiritual causes. From first to last the God of Israel 
held in his hands the destiny of Israel ; and that destiny was always 
the outcome of the character and conduct of Israel, as overruled by 
divine grace and love. As then Jahvah foreknew the entire course 
of things from the beginning, it was a natural assumption that he 
revealed that part of it which affected the Chosen People to their 
ideal ancestor. The history of the Twelve Tribes is supposed to 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

correspond to what Jacob, speaking at once with the august authority 
of the First Father and with the unerring knowledge of one directly 
inspired by Jahvah, pronounced about their fortunes "in the after 
times." 

The poem itself begins with verse 2 : 

Come together and listen, ye sons of Jacob ! 
And liearkcii unto Israel your father. 

Instead of the repeated ly^li?, we should have expected "^I'^tl^pn 
or I^^T^^n in the second line. The Targum and Saadiah vary the 
verb. 

The hexastich addressed to Reuben shows at once how inappro- 
priate it is to dub the whole piece the "Blessing" of Tacob. 

Reuben ! thou wast my firstborn, 
My might and the firstfruits of my manhood ; 
Precedent in rank, and precedent in power 1 
Lawless as a flood, keep not thy precedence ! 
For thou didst climb thy father's couch : 
Then didst thou sully the bed of tJiy sire. 

It is a sentence of disinheritance. Reuben is deprived of the rights 
of primogeniture, on account of the crime briefly chronicled in 
ch. xx.xv. 22 (a passage which cannot have ended so abruptly in its 
original context). What historical facts may underlie this possibly 
metaphorical indication of intertribal transactions, we will not stop 
to inquire. The most plausible view is that of Wellhausen, which 
is probably familiar to most of us. Our textual uncertainties begin 
with the second triplet. Instead of fllQ » *«* reads riTHQ 5 ^iid 

Cr., S., and J- likewise render by the past tense of a verb. We have 
simply pointed 'XP^^ (Judges ix, 4; Zeph. iii, 4 ; Jer. xxiii, 32). The 

extension D"'Q3, like waters^ follows more naturally after a verbal 
form. We also point "^nin, instead of "^nijl {cf. Dan. x, 13). 

The hiphil of "WC^ is always transitive, occurring some twenty- 
three times besides, and always in the sense of letting rei!iai?i over, 
e.g., leaving food after eating, letting men survive, and twice only 
of cmisiug to abound in goods (Deut. xxviii, 11 ; xx.x, 9). The 
present text of the last line, Ty7V ^Vy^ Tyy^X^ th^, is certainly 

wrong; for (i) it lacks coherence; (2) the poetical word i^'l!^'' is 
always plural in the four places where it occurs again, and the 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [i«95- 

paraphrase of the Chronicler is Vl^^ ''Vl^^ •|':'^nm ; (3) hkn 
is always transitive, and '^^^T is most naturally its object; and 
(4) instead of Tlh^ ^>*1!i^, "'y ^^^ ^^^ climbed, we should expect a 
phrase parallel to -["^nh^ ""23^70, thy father's couch, just as n77n 
is parallel to ^"'^>^ Accordingly, we restore *]"tSv ''3^1!^'^) ^^'^ 
bed of him that begot thee. The letters V, when run together, 
resemble JT ; and "Tl for the same reason might be misread as 
n. Thus J., et maciilasti stratum ejus, is practically right. G., toVg 
i/jiMfWi rijf mi)w^ivijv ov uvdjiip, is also nearer the mark than M. My 
bed he climbed I as a sort of sotto voce, or an aside to the other sons 
supposed to be present, is prosaic, feebly tautologous, and without 
parallel in the rest of the poem. 

In the strophe relating to Simeon and Levi — who alone of all 
the tribes are coupled together — the curse is not only implied by the 
general sense but formally expressed : 

Accurst be their anger, for it was fierce. 
And their fury for it was fell ! 
I will disperse them in Jacob, 
And scatter them in Israel. 

The disfavour here so strongly indicated again depends upon certain 
events recorded in the prose narrative of Genesis, and this time 
at greater length (ch. xxxiv ; rf especially Jacob's remonstrance, 
V- 30, J.). The subtle treachery and coldblooded cruelty of the 
two tribes in the massacre of Shechem seems to be the sole ground 
of the curse. They, therefore, are to lose their independent tribal 
identity, and to be scattered promiscuously among the other tribes 
of the Bene Israel. This would be the condition of things at the 
time of the composition of the poem. 

In rendering the final quatrain we have only diverged from 
A. V. to the extent of marking the alliteration of the original ; 
□Dh^ ^1"!^^ • • • □nili^l ^V- The internal use of the same poetic 
device is noticeable in lpi?''2 Dpbnb^, ^s elsewhere. 

The preceding lines may be restored as follows : — 

Simeon and Levi are very brothers : 
Tlicy fulfilled the violence 0/ their schemiiigs. 
Into their council let my soul not come ; 
Into their meeting let not tny heart go down ! 
For in their anger they slew the man, 
And in their humour they houghed the ox. 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.KOLOGV. [1895. 

The second line gives the reason why Simeon and Levi are 
called "brothers," i.e.^ cognate in temper and disposition as well as 
in blood. But INL nnTT^pp D?2n '^^3 is more than doubtful. 

Even if r\Tl3?;D could mean swords or daggers, the statement 
Instruments of violence are their swords is open to the objection that 
'swords and daggers always were instruments of violence (court 
swords were hardly in fashion in those days) ; and if we adopt the 
rendering compacts or nuptial agreements (xx\-iv, 13, sqq.), it may 
be questioned whether a marriage-contract could be called a "^73, 
in spite of our own legal use of the term instrument. The word 
always denotes a material object ; and, though it occurs some three 
hundred and twenty times besides, is not once found in such a 
sense. On the other hand, the reading of **i^ ^73? ^^^O' (accomplished^ 
is also that of G {(rwc-rcXcam^, and T (ll^i?) ; and the idea of plots 
and stratagems, with reference to the crafty ruse by which the two 
brothers fatally deceived the Canaanite chiefs, is almost demanded 
by the context. Simeon and Levi are brothers in guile ; their 
schemes are lawless and cruel ; the patriarch washes his hands of 
their nefarious conspiracies — this is what the first four lines seem to 
declare. Now the desired sense may be gained quite naturally by 
deriving the isolated JIT^^^ either from TTS^i t<> d^Si ^^ore (Ps. xl, 
7), and pointing, Jlil^^ ' Dn^S^ > ^s the rhythm requires; or 
from a synonym ^3 (Ps. xxii, 17; G wpv^ai'), if we must needs 
point rm^^ • The verb ^^'^^ is used in the required metaphorical 
sense, Ps. vii, 16; Prov. xvi, 27, "The man of Belial digs," i.e., 
devises "mischief: " cf. toCJli DCn, ^<' dig, search, and then devise 
(Ps. Ixiv, 6). Otherwise we might accept De Dieu's reference to 
the Arabic -C-c , to practise deceit, guile, lay plots, etc. {see Lane ; and cf. 
Ethiop. cK)(^/J : exploravit, dolum struxit, tentavit), and still point 
m"l3p- The stichus Qiin^^ D^H 'h'2 is heptasyllabic, like that 
which precedes it. 

In the fourth line we restore '^113 rUl"' .^^, ^t'/ not my liver go 
down! for "^Tl^ *inn Tt^- G has -ra i]iTn-rA fwv, and T S read 
rsUPi or Jin'' for the uncertain "[TW^ (Isa. xiv, 20 only), which am. 
replaces by -^rf = G iliuaat. ("Ti::, liver, should also be restored in 
Ps. xvi, 9 ; Ivii, 9, and elsewhere, as being, like the Assyrian 
habattu, a synonym of terms denoting mind, heart, disposition.) 

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May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

r\n2, as a verb of motion, is a better parallel to b^lD, than in"', to be 
united ; and the construction is different in Isa. xiv, 20. 

Judah, the royal tribe of the house of David, is the first to be 
addressed in terms of entire approval. 

Judah ! thee— let thy brothers laud thee 1 
Thy hand dutch the nape of thy foes ! 
Thy fathers sons bow down to thee ! 

The fine assonance of ryV\XV • • • "[IfV • • • fl"' f^^n hardly 
be preserved in a translation. We suggest tnt^il as predicate to 
ITV^; cf. Job xvi, 12. This restores the metrical balance of the 
triplet. 

The triplet is followed by two quatrains and a sextet or hexastich. 
The first quatrain is thus rendered in R.V. : — 

Judah is a lion's whelp ; 
From the prey, my son, thou art gone up : 
He stooped down, he couched as a lion, 
And as a lioness ; who shall rouse him up ? 

A question arises as to the meaning of the second line, M. 
rr^Si? '^JD, r|"1t3?2- it is generally assumed that the figure is that 
of a lion descending from the mountains (Cant, iv, 8) to seek prey 
in the valleys, and then "going up" again to his lair, where he is 
secure from molestation. Such, no doubt, was Judah's safe position 
in the hill country which he had won for himself so early in the 
period of the conquest (Judges i, 19). And we might suppose an 
intentional contrast between the sensual behaviour of Reuben and 
the martial vigour of Judah, in the use of the same word TT'T^i^j 
tho2i we/itest up, as addressed to each in turn. But if the above 
were the writer's real meaning, the w^ord inouiitalns would probably 
have been expressed either in the line itself or at least in the 
context, neither of which is the case. The G. tV- [iXutnod, vie 
/i(ov, ai'djii^v, from a shoot, my son, thou grezvest up {cf. ch. viii, 11, 
where Pl'^t^ is rendered k/ijXpu^, /tcw\'- ; and for ^7i,^ ch. xli, 5), 

hardly suits the context, Judah being compared to a lion imme- 
diately before and after. Coherence of thought is restored if we 
render, On prey, my son, thou grewest up, i.e., wast nurtured {cf. 
Ezek. xix, 2, 3; Job iv, 11); or we might correct nhLp7, and 

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May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S95. 

translate, To ravin, my %on, thou wentest up (Judges i, i, sqq.). But 
the palpable imitation, Deut. xxxiii, 22, Dan is a Hoii^s whelp ; He 
springeth from Bashan, suggests that ?]1I3?2 ^^Iso covers a local 
determinative, perhaps H'^i^^, fro>n the desert (cf. Hab. i, 8 ; Zeph. 
iii, 3 ; Jer. 5. 6). In the ancient writing y and "^ (O ®) might 
have been confused, as indeed they are in Deut. xxxiii, 13 {^1272 
for vi,^^)- ^^'^ thus get the stanza : — 

A lion's whelp is Judah ; 
From the waste, my son, thou wentest up ! 
He crouched, he couched, as a lion. 
And as a lioness — who durst rouse him ? 

See Judges i, 4, 16, 19. The use of TlhV in that chapter seems to 
illustrate its meaning here. The perfects may be prophetic. 

We have reached the great crux of the oracle about Judah, and 
indeed of the entire poem. The Hebrew text is : — 

The first two lines are fairly clear. They appear to say : — 

Sceptre shall not depart from Judah, 
Nor staff of rule from befoi^e him ; 

that is, Judah shall enjoy in his mountain land the independent 
sovereignty already foreshadowed in the opening triplet. Zech. 
x, II, cited above, presents a parallel to the first line. G. Ovk- 
eKXei^frei dpxi^v i^ 'lot'Pii may indicate the false readings rilD^ foi' 
'^^D'^ {cf. ntZ^ for -nu?, v. 22 ; and Ps. Ixxiii, 19, IDD = ^^eXiirov) 

and t^i^ty' (ch. xlii, 6 = 'v^x'"") fo'' tOlti^, but in the same general 
sense. For the next line G gives Ka\ i^^iov^icvo^ c« twv j.uipwv avTod, 
J. et dux de fem.ore ejus ; cf. ch. xlvi, 26, where 12*^"^ "^^^15"^ = ol 

i^cXOoineM gk -twv /nrjpwv ainoa. This indicates in what sense G 
understood the text, but hardly a different reading, as r\t^!J^n 
n''T'J!11 T^'2,72 is rendered -o e^cXOor ria twi> ^u^pwi' nwT/yv, Deut. xxviii, 
57. The Chronicler seems to have understood the line in the 
same way ; see i Chron. v, 2, where the brief 120?2 1^J^71 is as 

clearly a paraphrase of rhT\ \^yCi p\)rV2r\, as in:i HIIH^ ^^2 

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May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

vnt^?D is of -[-"i^ in f ^ Tinn*^rv But evidently ^'h:l^^ p^*:, 

which is parallel to niin^^ in the former stichus, depends on "nz:^; 
and ppn^ is not kadt-r or marshal (Judges v, 14 ; Isa. xxxiii, 22), 
but synonymous with 123,1!?, as the parallelism requires (Num. xxi, 18; 
cf. Ps. xxiii, 4). As PTiS^l VI means before her, at her feet (Judges 
V, 27), V7^"1 riQ here will similarly denote yr^;// before him; 
referring to the actual position of the long staff, grasped in the right 
hand, as the chief walks or stands still ; and yhT\ 'pll^ is said 
rather than Vl^ p3D {f- Arab, a.-^; ^^^-vj, bettveen his hands, i.e., 
before him), because it is not a short sceptre that is really meant, 
but a long staff reaching to the ground \ cff^, the common Egyptian 



hieroglyph for ii7-a, great man, chief, and the long staff held by 
Bedawi sheikhs and headmen of villages in the East at this day. 

The difficulty of the following couplet centres in the enigmatical 
nbiU?, for which some MSS. and -«* read, and the versions imply, 
Th'^- The ordinary text n^^l!? bil'' ''^ 1^ can only mean Until 
he (Judah) come to Shiloh (i Sam. iv, 12), which is unsatisfactory, if 
only on the ground that Shiloh was an Ephraimite, never the Judean 
sanctuary. It would be better to emend DT'II?, to Salem, i.e. 
Jerusalem (ch. xiv, 8; Ps. Ixxvi, 2). David's reign over all Israel is 
dated from his entry into Jerusalem (2 Sam. v, 5, sqq.), which then 
became the capital of the united kingdom (cf. also 2 Sam. vii, 10). 
There are other instances of confusion between ^ and H J^t the end 
of words. In Jer. xli, 5 (G. xlviii, 5) M. 'l^'C*, Shiloh, is '^nXi^ii, 
Salem, in the Greek ; an instance of the reverse confusion. Ijut a 
local proper name is suspicious, standing thus alone in strange 
contrast to the vague indefiniteness of the rest of the poem. QT^tt." 
or □T'tr might therefore be regarded as a secondary predicate, 
and the line might be rendered, Until he come home unscathed ; 
Judah being personified — like Benjamin m Judges v, 14 — as a 
warrior who goes forth to battle in the common cause (Judges i, 
I, 2); cf the phrase ^h"^ IpV ^^n^l, ch. xxxiii, 18, and Ahab's 
words DI7UM 1^^^ IV (i Kings xxii, 27); also Amos i, 6, 9; 
Nahum i, 12. Moreover, the term ^3,1 reminds us of 12b^3n in 
Deut. xxxiii, 7 : — 

Hear, Jahvah, the cry of Judah ; 
And unto his people bring him home ! 
187 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCH.EOLOGY. [1895. 

(I2i^!ir> 1?2i^ 7^1) ; where the expression ')72'^ may very well 
denote the folk left at home, and anxiously awaiting the return 
of their warriors from the field. At all events, the striking simi- 
larity between rh'C)' ^^l"" ^^ IV and I^J? ^b^l lit^m can 
hardly be accidental. Indeed n/tl? (or nSlTb), ^^ ^/^«^ 7ciktc/i 
belongs to him (= 1^^ T't^), niay, after all, be right ; in which 
case we might render, Utitil he come to his own. The Song of 
Deborah, which, in other respects, has served the author as a model, 
sufficiently authenticates the ancient poetical use of the relative 
particle "^ (Judges v, 7). Is it possible that John i, 11, cU -rk ihia 
?j\Oe, depends on this view of the passage ? 

The versions, however, make n/IL* the subject of i<^2L^. Thus 

the Targum renders, ^^mi:^^ ^''H Tl^h^ll i^^Tl^^^ ^TV^l IV, 
Until the Messiah come whose is the kingdom, and the Peshitta, Until 
he come whose it is (so also Saadiah) ; as if the Hebrew were 
t^lil n^ty t^l"^ "^i: IV) Until he come to whom it (the sceptre) 
belotigeth. The Latin, Donee veniat qui mittendus est, conjectures 
mT'lI^ iTv7^) instead of n /tT- The Greek ew<^ tw eXOij ra uTroKcl^ieva 
avTiv, with the variants w or o ATroKfiTai, need not imply any difference 
from M., except the pointing rh'^ (= 1/ nlTt^). Ta a-okci/neva 

avTtc = o (i-oKcnat (^ainw) r= "y^ Tll^i*^) that whicli is, OX shall be, 
his. The correction i? cW6Kcnai involves the interpretation of the 
oriental versions, and requires the addition of the demonstrative 
^^in to the received text. 

On the other hand, Kclfuu and its compounds are somewhat rare 
in G. For cnroKenai, see Deut. xxxii, 34; Job xxxviii, 23; where 
the words it represents are quite different. And elsewhere ^12?^^ 
17 is simply t« av-To?> (e.g., ch. xxiv, 2). Possibly therefore, (i7r6Ketiitai 
in our passage indicates a various reading, as Professor Cheyne 
has suggested. In 2 Sam. xiii, 32, HfiD'^ti? nrT^n = G. i/i' Kc/ficvov, 
and Symmachus gives h-c?Tfii for Q'^U?^ in Job xxxiv, 23. This 
suggests that G. may have had Q"lI7 Tr? before it ; and as tT, 72 
resemble each other in the ancient writing (^^'^), H^ QU? was 
perhaps a pre-Septuagintal corruption of n'^XI?^ ■ The omission 
of one of the similar letters would account for the reading n^tt^ • 
All this, however, is very precarious, inasmuch as G. may be only 

188 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

paraphrastic of M., and 71712? (^^^^) m^y almost equally well 
represent the remains of an original n!37^ (^^^^)- I" either 
case, the passage strongly reminds us of Zech. ix, 9, *^37^ TllTl 
\7 ^5^3.^J Behold, thy king 7cn7/ come to thee ! and the suggestion 
of relation is strengthened by the context of both passages : cf. the 
expressions ^T:i^ i:n^^ "^ri (v. u) with -y^^ hv^ ■^I^H hv 
m:nt^ ]1 (Zech. I.e.) ; and our next line, D"'r2ir nnp"" lS^ with 
Zechariah's, D''1J7 ^v>Xy "111") , which is followed by a definition 
of the extent of the king's dominion 0712??2)- It is worth while 
also to compare Jer. xxx, 21, inip'D l^lirr^TlI^n T^^kS H^m 
t^Ji'i; Micah V, i ; and iv, 8, n:irr«in nSn^^O^n n^m, as well 
as the suffrage, " Thy kingdom come !" 

That the Greek translators, like those of the other versions, 
understood the passage in a Messianic sense, is evident from their 
peculiar rendering of the last line of the quatrain. They in fact 
seem to substitute 3i;2i^ npn t^im for 3i»2i,» nn,T l^l (G., Ka\ 

(ivrb^ TTiwacoKia eOi'u'i', cf. Job xiv, 7, nipil, Symmachus, -pusroKia- 

Lam. ii, 16). J. follows, with Et ipse erii exfectatio ge/itii//>i. 

Keeping the Hebrew text of this line, we might render the 
coui:)let — 

Until he come home unscathed {or, to his own), 
Having the submission of peoples. 

But a verb w^ould seem more natural in place of rinp^, which is 
only vouched for by the phrase Q^ iinp'', obedience to a mother, 
Prov. xxx, 17. Accordingly, ^ alters to inHp'', a vox nihili, for 
which the Sam. Targum gives |'n:i::ri'', ^c/// be drmcn or led. The 
Targum of Onkelos has pi^I^ri'O^"', will obey ; cf. Kautzsch and 
Socin's und die Volker sich ihtn nnteriverfen. Saadiah's Atid unto 
him the peoples gather, suggests the highly interesting reading ^"jpi . 
see Jer. iii, 17, where the Arabic renders ^^'py\ by the same verb 
which it uses here {^,^v>-\). As the Greek version elsewhere 
confuses TV\y>, to wait or hope for, with mp2, to gather together, e.g., 
in Jer. viii, 15, and Micah, v, 6 (7), it is quite possible that Km 
avToi 7r/,onroK('a cOi'Ccr here is a paraphrase of an original ^Ip"' 1^") 
□''J^i^. This is confirmed by the Syriac iSDLoi .QOCOJ Oll^O, and 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-EOLOGY. [1895. 

for him the peoples wait (pointing ^^p"! for ^^jp"i_ cf. y. \% Syr.). 
Tlie whole quatrain might thus be a direct prophecy of the Messiah- 
king : 

The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, 
Nor the rod of rule from before him, 
Until his Ki7ig shall come, 
And to Him the peoples gather ! 

Such perhaps was the way in which the text was read and 
understood by the author of the beautiful prophecy, Zech. I.e. It 
is obvious that if it be substantially or approximately correct, the 
poem must be assigned to the period of the literary prophets. On 
the other hand — 

The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, 
Nor the rod of rule from before him, 
Until he come home unscathed (cr, to his own) 
Having the submission of peoples ! 

seems to agree better with the context. It is only after Judah's 
warfare has ended in victory that he can " tether his ass colt to 
the vine. The foal of his she ass to the choice vine," and enjoy the 
profuse plenty of his fair land of vineyards and pastures. It also 
also agrees better with Judah's blessing in Deut. xxxiii, 7, which is 
simply a prayer for victory and conquest (the third line may be thus 
restored — 

in 2,nn T"l^ L^*- thine hand contend for him ! or 
V7 Q"^n 11"^ His hand lift up for him ! 

cf. Ps. Ixxxix, 13, 43; Micah v, 8; Deut. xxxii, 27; Exod. xvii, 
II, sqq>i. 

Little remains to be said of the closing hexastich (vv. 11, 12), 
which m striking metaphor deincts the tribe as a happy prodigal, in 
careless enjoyment of the good gifts of the soil. In verse 2 we read 
nr\1D3 with ***, instead of the mutilated nmO of M., which is 
found nowhere else. G. confirms the correction with tj};/ TrtpijioXijv 
avTou {cf. Exod. xxii, 26, nniDD = T7-(/>ij3d\aiot' alnod) ; and S. has 
il'^DlDn hi both places. 

Addendum i (p. 176). 'IV) r^opo, perhaps =^li:i, a corruption of 
r^'yi. In that case, {ipuyiovicv x^'p"^- """mi' is a conflate reading. 

190 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Addeiidum 2 (p. 179). A learned friend's objection that even a 
metaphorical reference to the peculiar institution of Naziritism is 
surprising in this context, has led me to reconsider the closing line 
of Joseph's blessing. I would now suggest the correction mt^, in 
the sense "hated of," or "estranged from:" cf. the term "^t, and 
the Assyrian zdru, izir, to hate. The form, no doubt, would be a 
semel dictum in this sense ; but so is the hophal "^t")Q in Ps. Ixix, 9, 
which may be regarded as a parallel and perhaps imitative 
passage. The same correction would, of course, have to be made 
in Deut. xxxiii, 16. Perhaps, however, it may be thought safer to 
retain ^^f2 in both passages, as a nominal formation from the 
same root "^TT? 1'^T, to hate, and in much the same sense: cf. 1^72 
from lit. 

Addendum 3 (p. 183). As Judah is a lion, Benjamin a wolf, Dan 
a serpent, Joseph a hart, Issachar an ass, it is possible that Simeon 
and Levi are not □Tli^ , brothers, but □"^Ht^, hyenas (Isa. xiii, 21). 
It is but the difference of a point ; and the title agrees with the 
actual meaning of Simeon (pi??:2tl? ; C/- ll^O^i ; ^nd Arab, 
a hybrid between wolf and hyena). 



NOTE ON LENGTH AND BREADTH IN EGYPTIAN. 

By p. le Page Renouf. 

In a short review which appeared in the Academy, 4 May, 1895, 
I introduced a paradox about the Egyptian words for length and 
breadth, in the hope of eliciting a contradiction. But by the omission 
(which I only recognised after publication) of a couple of words, my 
paradox will I fear have had the appearance of an error. I might 
easily have supported my criticism by the authority of the book 
reviewed, but I purposely quoted authorities which seemed to 
contradict me, though they do not really do so. The fact is that 

both /'^ and y^\ signify length in the geometrical sense. But 
in what direction ? I conceive r^^ to apply to what lies straight 

before the spectator, in a picture or plan, and f^H" to what runs at 

right angles to that. 

191 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.'EOLOGY. [1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 
By p. le Page Renouf. 



CHAPTER CXXIV. 

Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of Osiris. 

My soul buildeth for me a Hall (i) in Tattu and I flourish in Pu. 

My fields are ploughed by those who belong to me : therefore is 
my palm tree like Amsu. 

Abominations, abominations, I eat them not. I abominate filth, 
I eat it not. 

[Peace offerings are my food, by which I am not upset.] 

I approach it not with my hands ; I tread not upon it with my 
sandals ; for my bread is of the white corn and my beer of the red 
corn of the Nile. 

It is the Sektit boat, or it is the Atit boat, which bringeth them 
to me, and I feed upon them under the foliage of the Tamarisk. (2) 

I know how beautiful are the arms which announce Glory for 
me (3) and the white crown which is lifted up by the divine Urasi. 

O thou Gate-keeper of him who pacifieth the world, let that be 
brought to me of which oblations are made, and grant that the floors 
may be a support for me, and that the glorious god may open to me 
his arms, and that the company of gods be silent whilst the 
Hammemit (4) converse with me. 

O thou who guidest the hearts of the gods, protect me and let 
me have power in heaven among the starry ones. 

And every divinity who presenteth himself to me, be he reckoned 
to the forerunners of Ra : be he reckoned to the forerunners of 
Light and to the Bright ones who deck the sky amid the Mighty 
ones. 

192 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Let me have my will there of the Bread and Beer with the gods ; 
that I enter through the Sun-disk and come forth through the Divine 
Pair, that the gods who follow may speak to me, and that Darkness 
and Night may be terrified before me in Mehit-urit, by the side of 
him "Who is in his Sanctuary." 

And lo I am here with Osiris. My measure is his measure (5) 
among the mighty ones. I .speak to him the words of men and 
I repeat to him the words of gods. 

There cometh a glorified one, equipped, who bringeth Maat to 
those who love her. 

I am the Glorified one and the Equipped. And better equipped 
am I than any of the Glorified. 



Notes. 

I. ^«//^, ^' fflVn' °' ^ ^ M./. the .,oWo., 
7rp6co^o9, 'Vorsaal,' first room of a temple or palace. The sense of 
harim which has been ascribed to it in certain texts is entirely 
erroneous. The temple inscriptions (see Brugsch, Zeitschr., 1875, 
p. 118, and fol., and Mariette, Denderah, I, 6) leave no doubt on 
the subject. If there were " ladies of the royal antechamber," it 
by no means follows that they were wives or concubines of the 
king, and hall or antechamber convey a very different idea from 
that of the most reserved portion of the house.* 

Pictures and inscriptions on mummy cases identify the term 
mythologically with that portion of the sky whence the first rays of 
the rising sun are visible. 

The mention of the word in the Pyramid Texts {Fepi, I, 672) 

is in connection with the notion of food, )| V\ . 

* The X\ I mentioned in the tablet of Pa-shere-en-Ptah are not 

concubines, as Brugsch and others have thought, but female children, as Birch 
rightly asserted. Cf. my Hibbert Lectures, p. 79, note. It is the feminine 



There is also another word, ^ , applied on the walls of tombs to 



form of D 



persons {male as well as female) executing certain gymnastic movements. 

193 P 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895 

2. We have here a repetition of passages to the same effect as in 
Chapters 53 (A and B) and others. The Pyramid Texts {Teta, 
344) have a section nearly identical. 

3. The arms which announce Glory for me. The clue to the 

meaning of this passage is to be found in , which is a relative 

form implying an antecedent, which can only be " the arms." 

The arms which announce Glory for ?ne are to be explained by 
the usages of the ancient ritual, which prescribed certain postures 



or attitudes in the ceremony of -c2>- 1 'Is^ , as in other forms 

wherein the arms played a great part. These religious ceremonies, 
it must always be remembered, were considered as dramatic repre- 
sentations of what was done in the invisible world. 

4. The Hammemit, || ^^ ^ ^^ | ' ^"^ fP '^ f^^ ^ 

' ' nH ^w ^v ^^ V ^ Jl ' ' ^^^ generations of human 
beings yet unborn. 



I 



5. My measure is his measttre. The meaning of L, ^s. ^^ JT 



^'' ^ ^^ ^c^ V C3 ^'^^ ^^^ ^^ inferred from the form 



z, ^W ^^ "ft ^^'hich occurs repeatedly in the great Harris 

Papyrus and some other documents. 

The scribe of the Turin Todienbuch carelessly omitted the second 
part of the phrase, and therefore altered the grammatical construc- 
tion. This is how M. Pierret came to conjecture the sense 
'proclaim,' which is not suggested by any of the ancient authorities, 
or even by the later ones. The reading of the Leyden Papyrus 
T, 16 is identical with that of the oldest papyrus. 




194 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



TWO MONUMENTS WITH A VOTIVE FORMULA 
FOR A LIVING PERSON. 

Dr. a. Wiedemann. 

So little notice is taken of the fact, that of the so-called funeral 
monuments, especially the stelae, many are found, the inscriptions 
of which prove that they were votive objects not for the dead but 
for living persons, even although the formula is composed for the 
Ka of the person. As on the objects of offering for the dead, the 
inscriptions on these pieces are composed after fixed formulae, of 
which one is found on the two following monuments — a third 
example of the same formula was published by myself, Rec. de trav. 
rel., etc., XVII, p. 13. 

1. Fragment of a stela, rounded at the top, calcarious stone. 
Geneva, Musee Fol. 1305. A man incenses before an altar, behind 
which sits a goddess, the 5Q between the cow-horns on the head and 

^ and "Y" in the hands. Above, in four vertical lines : (i) I A 

U I (4) MWi^ "^^j ''Royal offering to Hathor, the lady of 

Hetep (?), the lady of the heaven ; may she give life, welfare, health, 
insight, praise, love, an agreeable old age, an agreeable life to the 
Ka of [Amen ?]-hat." 

2. Water basin, calcarious stone, diameter 27 '" Geneva Uni- 
versity Museum, D. 59. Inscription at the upper edge, to the left : 

^=:r|Ro^^[l(]^ niT, "Royal offering to Anuki, the lady of 

Sati (?) ; may she give a good lifetime without evil to the Ka of 
the setem Maa in the place of Truth Hui." To the right : 

Anuki, the lady of the heaven, the mistress of the two lands ; may 
she give life, welfare, health, insight to the Ka of Hui." The sign 

195 P 2 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

lis written on the original only once, the two inscriptions join in it. 

It is curious how differently the word sept her is written in these 

texts, the first sign having the forms A , Ml or I . 

As no designation of relationship is given, it is impossible to 
decide to whom of the ast Maa functionaries with the name Hui 
{cf. Maspero, Rec. de trav. rel., etc., II, 187, sq.) this basin be- 
longed. A hitherto unknown man with the same title appears on a 
small rudely worked stela in the same Museum at Geneva, D. 54, 
rounded at the top, 27 "' high, 19""' large. Here a standing man 

(i) ^ Q7\ (2) ^ v_^ (3) M^ adores the standing 

divinities r| ^ 'vl^ Q ® Q ^^"^ fl ^^ I * ^^ ^'^^ name of Isis 

the writing for A\ , which brings to mind the time of Chu- 
en-aten, is remarkable. Below a man and a woman are sitting before 
an altar. They are called ^ ^ ^z'vt; Mr ^^^ 

I J- Q ^ J- ^^^-■^•^ Jj , but the reading of these signs is 

very difficult from the circumstance that the stone had been used 
at an earlier time for another representation, which was not quite 
erased when the actual text was inscribed. 

The style of the last monument calls to mind the style of stela 
D. 55 of the same Museum (26"'" high, 19''"' large), though the 
workmanship of the latter is better. Near an altar is seated a god- 
dess, behind her stands a large nosegay ; the inscription above has 

been destroyed, only n ?^^" (?) J\ remains of the first vertical line 

Below two women, of which the first sacrifices a vase, are kneeling ; 

, ' O c:^ v y t /"^ ^^^AA/^ .<;;2>. v y 

a vertical inscription says : (i) , ^ , }^ i 1 'Lf I 

L ^ J III <Ci ^ ' C^ ^ /www Ol 

Horus of Edfu, which forms a part of the name of the first woman, 
has changed several times in these last years. The older reading 
was Hut, it is retained by Lanzone {^Diz. di f/iit., p. 668), and 
Maspero {Hist, anc, p. 100). Renouf {Froc, VIII, p. 144; cf. XIII. 
p. 316 ; not Erman, who proposed only {Aeg. Z., 1882, p. 8) to read 

196 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Bhdti instead of Bhdt), pronounces on the authority of a demotic 
variant Behutet.* Erman (Aeg. Z., 29, p. 63) thought that the name 
was to be spelt Dbhti, because some inscriptions of the old empire gave 

for the word diSii 1 8 the variant ) and similar forms.! 

These variants, refered to by Erman, are very well known, J and they 
will have induced Birch {Egypt. Galleries of the Brit. Mtis., I (1874), 
p. 23) to give as a name of the winged disk side by side with Hut 
Tebhut, § but for the right spelling of the god-name they are not 

decisive: ^ -is apolyphone sign ; it is therefore necessary to prove 

for each word, in which it is found, the specially suited reading, and 
it is of no importance whether in other words it was spelled thus or 
otherwise. As Mr. Renouf has shown, that Horus of Edfu was 
called Her behutet ; we have to retain this reading as certain, and 
have no reason to introduce another name for the god or for his town. 
As regards the origin of the name, I think, we must remember, 
that in a magical papyrus at Leyden || is found the bird-name 

J \ "w^ wl ' ^^"^^^^ ''s related to the radical 1 | i ;:^ /] , " to cut, 

kill, hunt," and denotes a bird of prey. Brugsch thought, perhaps, 
"the vulture"; a more exact translation would be "hawk," in re- 
membrance of the reference of Horapollo, I, 7, that jidiijS^ {cf. Copt. 
^<i.n-, accipiter) is a designation of the hawk, and that this word 

is formed of ftai, "soul" (^^t ^c), and 7/,5, "heart" f '=^, |^ 
hdti, heti)^ which would give a form (*^^ Q /^\ for the Egyptian 

word. Horus was therefore called Behudet, in consequence of his 
incarnation as a hawk, and his town Edfu received its name as the 
town belonging to the hawk-god. 

* Cf. Tequier, Note sitr queli]ues rois <fe la I2« dytt., p. 2. Mr. Piehl has 
found, as he stated at the Congress of Orientalists at Geneva, some hieroglyphic 
variants giving the same reading. 

t It is curious to note, that already before the appearance of the article of 
Erman, Mr. Krebs {Wochenschr. Jiir Klass. PhiloL, VIII, p. 149), writes: 
" already a long time it is known, that the right name is not Hor behudet, 
but Hor debehti." 

+ Cf. p. ex., Levi, Diz., V, 23, and specially the name \ 9 ^^^^^ 

in Leps. D., II, 35-7, and de Rouge, Six preiii. dyn., p. 64. 

§ Aet;. Z., 1874, p. 65. Birch gave on the authority of other variants the 
reading Tebat. 

II PI. II, 1. 4 ; cf. Pleyte, Pltmies egypt., p. 25. 

197 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL^OLOGY. [1895. 

It appears to me, that the same bird is quoted also in Todtenbuchy 
cap. 55,* where it is said : " I convey breezes in presence of the 
Glorious One to the ends of the sky, to the ends of the earth, 

'==>B^V^^[^'^Tl" '^ (the text of Naville gives at the 
end ij V^ I) % ^\ ; 1 [1 ^v\ in Pa is only an error in copying, for 

1 \ vl* ^ think that we have to take heret su-t in its most 

usual sense as "wing," 71 as a sign of the genitive, behu{f)z.% "hawk," 
translating the passage, "till to the wings of the (Horus) hawk." 
" The wings of the sun," Horus of Edfu being a sun-god, are used 
in these words to mean " the utmost ends of the world " {cf. for the 
idea. Psalm cxxxix, 9), and the whole is in parallelism with the ends 
of the sky, or of the earth, spoken of just before. 



The Grange, 

northwood, 

Middlesex. 
Dear Mr. Rylands, April 2nd, 1894. 

The bronze figure described by Mr. F. L. Griffith in the January 
No. of the " Proceedings " reminds me of a bronze figure of Isis (?) 
which I possess. The figure is 7 inches high from the feet to the 
top of the head, and the horns and disc add another inch. Below 
the feet is a " tang " about an inch long. The whole of the front 
of the head, face, neck, and ears, are covered with a thin plate of 
silver. At the back of the head the silver is worn away, and the 
elaborate wig, which descends to the shoulders, is visible. 

The position of the hands : the right raised in deprecation, and 
the left with the fingers clenched and the thumb extended, is very 
unlike that of any other figure of Isis 1 have seen. I send you a 
photograph, which you may like to re-produce. 

Yours truly, 

Walter L. Nash. 

* Goodwin {Aeg. Z. , 1866, p. 54) found the Chapter LV in a more developed 
form in the Todtenbuch of Queen Mentuhetep ; a fact proving it to be a very- 
ancient text. 

t For other explanations of the passage, cf. Birch in Bunsen, Egypfs Place, 
V, p. 203, 377 ; Renouf, Proceedings, XV, p. 289, scq. ; Pierret left the words, 
untranslated ; Budge, The Papyrus of Ani, p. 96. 

198 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch. May, 1805 




BRONZE FIGURE OF ISIS. THE HEAD COVERED WITH SILVER. 

IN THE COLLECTION OF WALTER L. NASH, ESQ. 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



ASSYRIOLOGICAL NOTES. 
By Professor Dr. Fritz Hommel. 

§ 6. ScHEiL in his excellent "Notes d'Epigraphie et d'Archeologie 
Assyriennes," § XXI {Reaieil, XVII, p. 81), communicates an 
Aramaic inscription of a Perso- Aramaic cylinder ("au centre, une 
porte cintr^e, grillee en losanges, et aux rebords rayonnants — 
peut-etre la porte du Soleil levant"), consisting only in these 
words : 

"oil la premiere lettre est bien la preposition d'attribution, Malki, 
d'autre part, n'offrant pas de difficuites ; il n'en est pas de meme de 
'alonsah, qui n'offre aucun sens." 

Who would not think here of the Cosssean town BU-Kilajnsah, 
well known from the inscriptions of Sennacherib ? Kilam-sah seems 
to be the founder of this town, and the name is composed of an 
element kilam, ghilam (Q7i^, which before the dental sibilant 
becomes i~>J^, ghilan), with which may be compared ulam-, in Ulam- 
burias, etc.,* the name of the Elamitic god Sah, or the Sungod 
(compare above, "la porte du Soleil levant"). I translate therefore : 
"to Ghilan-sah, my king." The mere fact that we here find a 
Cossa;an king with a name of pure Cossrean-Elamitic origin in the 
Persian time, is of the highest historical value. 

§ 7. In the contract-tablets of the later kings of Ur we read : 
mu Gaf/iil-Sin lugal-i ma-da Za-ab-sa-li{-ki) 7nu-gitl, " in the year 
when Gamil-Sin, the king, the land Zabshali attacked," and : fiiu dur- 

* A similar name is Ilinzash, the name of a fortress in the Median country 
Bit-Barru, which Sennacherib conquered, and to which he gave the new name 
Kar-Sinacherib. I would have compared this name with WDIpV, but it seems 
originally a local name, whilst Kilamsah (in Bit-K. ) is evidently the name of a 
king, as is the case with nDJ?y. 

199 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

sal liigalla pa-t'i-si Za-ah-sa-li-ki ba-hik, "in the year when the daughter 
of the king became vice-queen of Zabshah " (Scheil, " Notes 
d'Epigraphie at d'Archeologie Assyriennes," Recueil, XVII, p. 37 f.). 
Now we meet in the Gudea-inscription statue B, 6, 3 ff., the 
phrase : 

Sha-ma-nuni ghar-sag Me-fiu-a-fa, »-q Jgf | - j'^?/-/^ g/tar-sag Mar-tu-ia 
tag na-gal im-ta-dul-du, na-ric-a-kii imt-gim 

i.e., from Shamanu in the mountains of Menua {}i\ivva^ in Armenia, 
see Nic. Damasc. in Joseph. Antiq., i, 3, 6), from Sub-sal-la in the 
mountains of Martu, nagal stones he has caused to be brought, in 
slabs he has caused them to be cut. 

This Sub-salla must be the same region as Zabsali in the contract 
tablets of the time of the later kings of Ur. 

Concerning the sign >-qlHj|, it is known that it has the two 

values stib and mu. The same sign seems to be found in an in- 
scription of Sargon of Agadi, Hilprecht, pi. 2, col. i, 7 : iub-u-la-ti 
Belt, "the subjects (otherwise ba-u-la-ii) of the god Bel" (compare 
nsbil, usp'il, shafel of ba'alu). 

§8. The etymology of the words D^*'^^, ob^b^, DT'li^, and 
Babyl. illamu. The Babylonian illaviu signifies, " what is in front 
of" (locally), as also temporally "before"; e.g., illamiTa, "in front 
of me," " opposite to me," but also "before me." As a substantive, 
it must have had the sense of " entrance hall " ; in this meaning the 
Hebrews borrowed the word as lH**'^ (such is the better reading, 
instead of 07^^^? compare LXX alkali). An abbreviation of illafu 
is lam, e.g. lam abubi, " before the flood." Etymologically the 
Hebrew dS"!!^ " time of old," " eternity," corresponds to this Babyl. 
illamu. We have quite the same development in the word kudmu 
(in Babyl. also a synonym of God, " the primeval "), Hebr. Dip 
(opposite "^ili^, "what is behind," and then, "what is coming," 
" future," compare Arab, al-akhiratu). 

Also Elamtu, Hebr. XyTV, seems to me originally " the land in 
front of (Babylonia)," the East land, as opposed to Atmirru, "the 
West land" (Synon. Martu, the land of the Amorites, for Amartu). It 
is true, that the ideograph for Elamtu, Nim-ki, is generally explained 
by the Babylonians themselves as " Highland " {nim = ili2 and 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

saki7) ; but for the Babylonians the conceptions, " in front of" and 
"above" were ahnost identical; compare 3 R. 43, ////"« t/u sadii, 
opposite pidu saplil amurru. 

Quite another origin must be ascribed to the Hebr. particle 
□T^lt^j D >'fc^ "notwithstanding," "but," oh fu]v aWa. which I think 
a secondary derivation of '^71^^ (Babyl. nlai), "perhaps," "or,'' 
" or when " ; it has nothing to do with the Babyl. loanword □7''^<1, 

■" entrance hall." 

Paul de Lagarde, in his " Uebersicht," p. 115, compared with 

obii^ the Arabic \j^ "the water upon which is the earth," "the 

sea," " water covered in the earth, beneath layers of the earth." 
Here the Arabs preserved a " primeval " mythological remembrance 
of the oldest times of the earth, the chaos ; " time of old " (Q7ii^), 
and " chaos " are synonyma. 

§ 9. An overlooked Palaestinian letter of the Amarna period. 

One of the most interesting historical texts is 4 R. 34, No. 2.* 
I give in the following a transcription, not venturing to add a 
translation, in sight of so many obscure expressions. The text 
runs : A-na-ku 21I ak-ru-bak-kam-ma (or akrubakamma ?) sa gur-ru- 
bi-ia (or hirrubia ?) ug-tar-ri-bak-kam-ina (or uktarribakaiiumi ?) a-na 
sii-hi-i-ri sa sarrani sa li-mi-ti-ka il-tak-mi-ka-ma 

(2 = 41) ic a-ini-ni dib-bu-ku-nu a-na sd-sar-ra-bi-i mas-hi su-ma 
sa at-ta tas-pu-i'a uiii [-ma ?] : istu istin itmi ina alit Zak-ka-lu-u 
tu-ki-i-a7i-Jii 

(3 ^ 42) im-ma-ti sa-pa-a-ru sa mun-tal-ku-tu u li-i-ii-ti su-jiia u 
ku-U7i-nu-tu (or : ku-un-7iic as-su ?, or kiMin-mi ifia kat}) arad Assur- 
suma-ustisir 

(4 = 43) sa it-ti bi-li-su ii-ru-du-uis-sum-nia a-na vidti an-ni-ii 
il-li-kam-nia abji-ii-a n-sa-ta i-pu-sa-as-su in-nia 

(5 =: 44) a-tia viati-sic u-tir-rn-su nl-tu at-ta Har-bi-si-pak Ha- 
bir-ai ti-ma ta-sak-ka-nu su-u ina pa-ni-ka u sii-us (from sasu^ to 
speak ?) u ip-pa-lani a-gan-na 

(6 = 45) [/-] kab-bi (or ta-kab-bi}) um-nia a-kit-tani-ina (adverb? 
written ^^ f^yff ^\ ^|) is-tin ihna ina alu Zak-ka-lu-u u-ki-ia-an-na-si 
ina lib-bi-ku-nu nian-nu ki-i sarri ma ti-ma i-sak-\Jia-an ?] 

* Compare my " Geschichte," p. 156, and 432 f. ; Tiele, " Geschichte," 
p. 145. Halevy, " Journ. Asiat.," 1891, November to December, p. 547. 

201 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.'F.OLOGY. [1S95. 

(7 = 46) Bel-tnatdii lim-ku-tajn-ma dib-bu sa mat Assur 

a-na $a-sar-ra-bi-i lii-u ftias-lu u I'na pi-i a-ha-mis dib-bi li- (or 

lu-bi-li ) 

(8 = 47) di-ba-ni u ina mati-su lu-tc a-sib td-tu a-Jia 

mat Akkad-ki il-li-ka i-?ia bii-ni su-ii ih-hi- 

(9 = 48) -lik-ma Ni)idar-tuklat- Assur bilii-su ina mati 

ati-ni'ti ik-ka-li Nindar-tuklat- Assur sa a-?ia bi-lu-ti-sti 

(10 =: 49) u a-sib Nindar-tuklat- Assur i-?ia la bi-lu-ti-su 

sa Ashir-suma-ustisir Bil Jiiatdti {coxw^dixe line 7) im-via-ti u-ka- 

(11 := 50) -u ul-tu abu-Ji-a ana mati-su ii-tir-ru-su ib-ni- 

ma dib-bi s a tas-ri-ih-ti i-dib-bu-bi sa tas-pu-ra um-ma a-na-ku ki-i 

(12 = 51) h( u-pak-hi-u ta-ab-tam-ma sa mat Akkad{-kiy 

u mat Aihir >-*-^ Ir-sagga at-ta ki-i lib-bi-ka i-p7c-us ayia (?) >-*: -tu-^i 
ta-sap-pa-ra 

(131=52) -an-7ii jfia a-/ja-mis lu-u 7ii-mur ti sa-nii-ti- 

ik-ka ia-sap-pa-ra twi-tna ta-ab-tam-ma sa mat Akkad{-ki) u mat 
Assur i-ir >^ 

(14 = 53) -bu sa sarrdtii ma-a m-7i sa a-na Har-bi- 

si-pak tak-bu-u um-ma a-ki-i ana-ku ak- ma Nindar-\tuklat- 

Assicr\ . . . 

(15 = 54) u a-sib (or u-a-sib) ma lu-bir ma a-ha-}?iis 

i ni-mur-su-nu Nindar-tuklat- Assur it-ti ana mat Ki-\iia- 

ah-hi}'] 

(16 = 55) Nindar-tuklat- Assur ul hi-bi (/>., deletum) 

ir-mu an-na i-na ikli ul-li-ia-mi u -as-sar- 

(17=5 6) -ka-ta-ku kat-tak-tti-2is (or su tak-tu-us) 

ul-tu tak- 

(18 = 57) am (?) -mi-7ii la ti-bi-ratn-ma 

mi-nu-u sa 

(19 = 5 8) \Nindar^tukldt- Assur it-ti-ia 

a-na tnat I-ri-ka-at-ta su- 

(20 = 59) \_Nindar-'\tuklat-Assur ki-i pi-i 

dib-bi-ma 

(21 =60) \_Nindar-'\tuklat-Assur sa tak- 
bu-u um-7na ku-hi-u-u la zi-ka-ru su-ic 

(22 = 61) -za-tu-nu u ba-na-tu-nu 

Nindar-tukldt-Assur 

(23 = 62) u i-7ia bu-7ii ki-i pl-su-nu 

am-77ii-7ii la ga-7nir 

202 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

(24 := 63) sa tas-pu-ra zim-ma . . . 

(25 = 64) 7nat Assur-ki sal-viis- 

ma mat Akkad-ki la ih-ba-\tu~\ 

The peculiar proper names of this text are Assur-suma-2(stisir, 
line 3 and 10, Nindar-tukldt-Assur 9, 10, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
Harbisipak the Khahirite 5, 14, the names of countries and towns : 
Akkad and Assur 12, 13, 25, Zakkalu 2, 6, Irikatta 19, and 
perhaps Kinahhl 1 5. The title bel-matCxti, otherwise of the kings of 
Babylonia, is found 7 and 10, and is written »->-y ^^^kiir-kur, as it 
seems, in near connection with the name Assur-suvia-tistisir (perhaps 
the name of a still unknown king of Assyria). Or is Bel-matati here 
a title of the god Nebo? Concerning Irikatta, we have here a 
variant of the well known Phoenician town 'Arka, Assyrian Ar-ka-a 
(Delitzsch, " Paradies," p. 282), but in the Amarna letters Ir-ka-ta 
(compare Bezold, " Tell el-Amarna Tablets," p. Ixxii) ; our text 
gives a new instance for this Irkata, and proves thereby and 
by the mention of a Khabirite, its close affinity with the Amarna 
letters. The name of the Khabirite, Kharbisipak, is Cassitic^ 
which is of the greatest importance for the problem of the origin 
of the Khabirites. This people gave to the town Kiryat-Arba 
(Rubuti in the Amarna tablets) the new name Khebron ; one of 
them was a certain Kudurra son of Basish, who is mentioned in a 
new-found boundary stone * close after Kharbi-Bel, perhaps the 
same as our Kharbi-Shipak, since Shipak is the Cosssean name of 
Bel-Merodakh.f It is now clear that the Khabiri cannot be the 
Hebrews, as some Assyriologists have supposed. The town Zakkalu 
I should like to identify with " Dor ("^b^^ of the Bible), the town of 
the Zakkar," which is mentioned in an Egyptian inscription c, 1050 
B.C. (W. Max Muller, " Asien und Europa," p. 3S8). 

Concluding this paragraph, I may be allowed to add some few 
philological remarks to this difficult text. Line i, akrubakkamma for 
akruba-ka-ma, ist sing, with the suffix pronoun of the 2nd sing. 
Line 2 : " Since one day thou hast looked (or waited) for me in 
the Zakkalite town " (compare line 6, " he waited for us in the Z 

* SCHEIL, " Uecueil," XVI, p. 32; IIii.precut, " Assyiiaca," p. n, note 
(time of the king Marduk-akhi-irba). 

t In this latter case — which is of course possible, but not yet to be exactly 
proved — our letter would be written in the time of the king Marduk-akhi-iiba, 
c. 1065 B.C., and not in the so-called Amarna period (c. 1450). 

203 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S95. 

town"). Line 3, mwa/'/ (compare line 10), perhaps for ina mati, 
"when." Line 4, "the servant of Assur-suma-ustisir, whom with his 
lord they expelled (or drove away), came to this country, and my 
father did help him, and brought him back to his land, since thou 
didst make report to Kharbisipak, the Khabirite " (Tiele : since 
thou, O Kharbisipak, didst give advice), etc. Line 5, ii sus u 
ippalam ; it ... . u perhaps " either ... or " (either speaking or 
answering?). Line 6, akittainma, "truly"? compare appitunma^ 
"henceforth." Line 7, dihbic sa mat Assur, etc., compare line 2, 
aminl (why) dibbn-kunu, etc. ; the letter seems to be written by a 
Babylonian high official to the Assyrians. Line 9, ikkali, nifal of 
t^T'D) to retain, hold back; compare ka-Iii- 11-21, line 21 (Pi'el). 
Line 11, u/tu abini, compare line 4, abila tisaia ipusd-su ; his father 
perhaps is the king of Babylonia. Line 12, ^^\ I^-^<^St a later 
form for *~*-\ Ur-sag (= Nin-ib, viz. Nindar) ; perhaps here for 
karradii atta. The expression tabtanuna sa mat Akkad 11 mat 
Assur, means "the good mutual understanding (or agreement) 
between Akkad and Assur." Line 13,/-//', 3 sing, of '^''Ij^ (Delitzsch, 
Handworterb., p. 50), to go, to come to. Line 14, perhaps aki 
(when) anakji ak\j'iibakam^^ina, compare line i. Line 16, ;;// in 
uUia-mi, the same particle (for ma) as in the Amarna tablets. 
Line 22, baiiaiiinu, 2nd plur. perf. (or so-called permansive) oi banu ; 
compare kakhi rigma nasatuim ana dakhi, K. 9875, 3, 10 (Bezold, 
Catalogue, Vol. Ill, p. 1045 ; Strong, Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XVI, 
p. 279); the fern. 2nd pi., must have been banatina, because of the 
analogy oi siaiu, sina, and of kuniisi, kinasi (4 R., 2nd ed., 29, ^c ; 
rev. I, 13, al-si-ki-na-si). Line 23, ina biiiii, compare line 8. 

.§ 10. In the inscription of Agu-kak-rimi (5 R. 2)Z) ^^ read, 
col. 2, line 36 ff — 

36. ab}ia za-gi?i-kur-ra (or Jiknu sadi, lapis lazuli) 
abiia sii (written ka) ATar-ha-si arku 

37. abna htdal ini (written scz-TTTty ^y>-, i.e., za-diin-igi) 
abna liiildl sir-gir (viz. sirgarri or inusgat'ri) 

38. abna za-diin ^us-simid (-^J >— ) 

abna za-diai -^j >->- (otherwise za-ditfi •^J *— »— ) 

39. abjia mat Mi-luh-ha (otherwise ab7m za-sun Mi-li/Jj-ba or 

Sdndu of Melukh) 

40. abna paruti (written gis-sir-ga/) 

204 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

41. abna sal-la (otherwise = illd) ak-ra u abfia Ula 

42. sa >T»> (read ►tJS, sum })-su ?ia-as-hi 

43. a-}ia as-rat Mardiik 

44. u Sar-pa-ni-tiini 

45. lii-u ad-di-mi-ma 

46. mu-uh-hi lii-bu-us-ti 

47. i-lu-ti-su-nu 

48. ra-bi-tim 

49. lu-za-i-i-nu 

i.e., "the lapis lazuli of the mountains, the green tooth of Markhasi, 
etc., etc., I presented to the temples of Merodach and his wife, 
and adorned with it the garments of their grand divinity." In 
another text (4 R. 18, No. 3) we meet instead of these ten precious 
stones the nine following : hulal ini, niiisgarru, huldlu, sandii, tiknii, 
dusii, aban nisikti (or subu), ilmisii (tl^''^>'n), and abtm sa />i* 

in-gu-su hurasa uhluizu, " for the adornment of the breast of the 
king " {ana irti illiti sa sarri ana siniati sakdnu), to which may be 
compared the nine precious stones of Ezekiel xxviii, 13 (for the 
covering of the king of Tyre), whilst the twelve stones of the breast- 
plate belonged to the ponrifiF, and not to a king. 

In the above given list of Agukakrimi, two names are exceedingly 
remarkable. Line 38 we read, abna hulal (or za-di)n) -^y »— ; this 

1 read ^us-simid, and compare the " khesbed of Babel" (a kind of 
lapis lazuli) of the Egyptian inscriptions. The other name is " the 
green ka (or su, i.e., sinnii, "tooth") of Markhashi," or emerald 
(smaragd), perhaps the same as the " green aban nisikti" 5 R. 30, 
No. 5, line 67. Since the north Syrian town Markhasi (the modern 
Mar'ash) is otherwise written Markasi, it seems to me very probable 
that the etymology of "smaragd," Arabic zabargad and zumurrud, 
Hebrew barkat, Greek fT/Lu'ipd^/Po^, //rJ/ja'/fo?, Indian inarakata and 
masaraka, lies in the Babylonian sic-Markhas of Agu-kak-rimi. 

§ \\a. Dr. Bruno Melssner identifies in his paper "Lexicalische 
Studien "(Z.A., VIII, 1893), p. 82-85, the Babylonian word sutapi/, 
"consort," "companion," with Syr. h^Qjn'llp' saiitaphd, " socius," 

* Sumerian ^^y '^ \^-bi iag-tag-ga gitSgin-ta garra ; compare -J^ '^'f"! 
(read sal-la) =/?} "mouth," Brunnow, No. 10,958, and tyjlt: tag = ingii, 

2 R. 41, Tc. The abnu SAL-LA of Agukakrimi seems to be the same stone as the 
abnu Sa pi ingtiiu Jturdsa ulj^uztt of 4 R. 18, No. 3. 

205 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

and derives it from a root apu ("^Ql), "to be united, joined" (other- 
wise Jensen, Z.A., VIII, 85, note i : borrowed from Sumerian 
sii-tab, compare tappu from Sumer. tab). I am able to add to these 
corresponding words a third, viz., the Ethiopic iV"t^<:j!^;, sutufy 
" socius, consort," i'l^'t'dil, " societatem inire," which belong to 
the oldest stock of Ethiopic words. Therefore, the word must have 
been carried in very ancient times by Arab tradesmen from Babylonia 
to the eastern and southern Arabs, from whom it passed to the 
Ethiopians. 

b. Another old borrowing from Babylonia seems to me the 
well-known Arabic word for "colour," "form," "exterior habit," 

^ly 1 laun ; it comes from the Babylonian word Idnii, " form," 
^'appearance," "shape," "statue," which latter itself is borrowed 
from the Sumerian alan (Neo-Sumerian alam)^ "statue," "image." 

In the other Semitic languages lanu, ^^' has no correspondents, 
■which is the best confirmation of its character as a borrowed word. 

§ 12a. In several Babylonian texts of the oldest period we find 
a town y| tf^-^][-/7, e.g., in an inscription of Ur-Ghanna, published 
by E. DE Sarzec ("Revue d'Assyr.," II, 4. p. 147), col. 37: 
|j^|^<^Xr^ wu-ri), "the town A-idinna he has built." Since 
a-idinna ("water for the desert") is explained by the Assyrian 
lexicographical tablets with the Semitic word nadu, " leather bag " 
(Heb. *lt^2), I read the name of this town, which reminds us of the 
name of Sippar, Ud-kib-nun-Idinna (Ward, " Hebraica," II, 85, 
Lehmann, " Samas-sum-ukin " II, 38), simply Nddu^ the Heb. "I'J 
of Gen. iv, 16, "Cain dwelt in the land of Nod, in the east of (or 
better : before) Eden (Idinna !)" I think it not impossible too, 

that the writing of Agadi (Akkad), || ^Il> ^jj^\^, is only a later 

variant of an older ||^|I>\V<^ A-ga-di{-k\), which resembles 

so much the above given |[MJ>><^>\^ A-idinna-ki or Nadu of 
the south Babylonian inscriptions. Indeed, Agadi was nearly the 
same as Sippar (the one Sippar of Anunit and the other Sippar of 
the Sun-god). 

206 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS, [1895. 

h. In Gen. iv, 17, we read the name of another town, Khanok, 
as built by Cain for his son Khanok (" and he builded a city and 
called the name of the city after the name of his son, Khanok "). 
If I am right in reading the name tjKT ^lU' (the old ideograph 
of Ninu'a) as Ghanna-ki* it seems very plausible to identify this 
name with the name of the Biblical town in Gen. iv, 17. 



NOTE TO THE PAPER ON THE KARIAN AND 
LYDIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 

By a. H. Sayce. 

In my Paper on the Karian and Lydian inscriptions, which was 
published in the Proceedings for January 8, 1895, I stated that I had 
been unable to revise my copy of the text I discovered three years 
ago north of Silsilis, the boulder upon which it was scratched having 
been utilised for the support of a telegraph-post. Last winter, how- 
ever, I found that the post had been moved to another piece of 
rock, and though the bed of stones in which it had been planted 
had done some injury to the Karian text underneath them, it was 
still very legible in the morning light. Accordingly I now give a 
facsimile of it, which corrects my first copy in one or two points. 
The alphabet employed in the inscription is not the usual Karian 
one, but some local variety of it, of which we have no other example. 
On that account I refrain from giving a transliteration of it. 

* XX\i ("house,") with inscribed ^]^{ (= gan), as phonetic indicator ; GuDEA, 
Cyl. A, 4. 4, we read »: J^t< \ ^JEJ-wa, i.e., gan-na. A later form of the name 
of the goddess »-»-y £:*;;< J (Istar of Niniveh) is >->|- -J*^.^ »-^y, i.e., ghul-la. 

207 



May 7] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1895. 



LA COUDEE ROYALE DU MUSEE EGYPTIEN DU 
LOUVRE. 

Par M. Paul Pierret. 

Le Musee egyptien du Louvre possede (Salle civile, vitrine I) 
une coudee royale de 525 millimetres portant les designations hiero- 
glyphiques de ses dififerentes parties, avec les seize subdivisions du 
doigt. Ce petit monument a plusieurs fois attire I'attention des 
savants, et la partie metrologique en a ete publiee notamment par 
M. C. Rodenbach dans un memoire special sur la coudee (Bruxelles, 
1883). Les autres legendes concernant le personnage a qui elle 
appartenait sont inedites. Les voici : 



I I I I (g 



I I 1 (^ 111 



j] 



i^^f\^^m\-YMA 



A'VAAAA \\ AVSAAA 



I AAAAAA /WVNAA 



7\ 111 K^ 






I 



"Le porte-chasse-mouches du roi a (sa) droite, scribe royal, 
intendant du tresor du maitre de la terre, Maia. II dit : O prophbtes, 

208 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

pretres, Kher-heb de ce temple ! Les dieux de votre ville ecouteront* 
toutes vos prieres, vous transmettrez vos dignites apres la vieillesse 
accomplie selon que vous proclamerez mon nom en me traitant 
comma un favori de son maitre, porte-chasse-mouches du roi a (sa) 
droite, compagnon des jambes du maitre de la terre, qui ne s'est 
eloigne du Pharaon en aucun lieu oli il est alle, apparaissant derriere 
le groupe des Smerf pour entendre ce qui sort de la bouche du roi, 
(cela etant-) par la grandeur de la bienveillance du roi pour la 
personne du royal scribe, ami de la Verite, intendant du tresor du 
maitre de la terre, Maia dont la parole est verite." 




I I I /WWV\ I .Miv ^^^^AA I— —I i ^y-~. I l£| A V 



" . . . . pour qu'il accorde que mon existence soit prospere pour 
servir sa personne, que mon nom soit affermi dans I'interieur de sa 
demeure, (cela) pour la personne du grand favori du Pharaon qui 
marche sur les pas du roi et comble les desirs^ de ceux de I'interieur 
de son palais, le royal scribe, intendant du tresor du maitre de la 
terre, Maia." 



* K>V *^ /wwv.-. • L'emploi de ^^\ pour introduire une proposition a ete 

depuis longtemps signale par M. Erman {Neiiaegypt. grainniatik, p, 215). 
t Litteralement derriere les Siner rhmis. 
X Cette lacune cache I'invocation a un dieu. 

n 0^ ^ ^ _ 

% Le sens de I'expression [I '^^^^ a ete parfaitement etalili par M. A. Moret 

dans le Recneil des Travaux, XIV, 120. 



209 



May 7] PROCEEDINGS. ^ [1895. 

THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having duplicate copies, zuill confer a favour by presenting them to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologle der Bucher der Konige und Paralipomenon im 

Einklang mit der Chronologic der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonier und Meder. 
Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes dc I'Egypte Chretiennc. 

La Morale Egypticnne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque dc Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

• A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babylonicnnes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 

Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religiongeshichtc. Der Gott Israels und 

die Gotter der Heidcn. 
Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charfa Aegj'ptiaca superest. 
BoTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altacgyptische Denkmaeler. Vols. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publics par 

H. Brugsch et J. Diimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Dumichcn 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
BuDiNGER, M.. De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primordiis cum 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BuRCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnct Paneach Aeg}'ptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1S62-1873. 
DiJMiCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1S69. 

Altacgyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 18S6. 
— • Tempcl-Inschriftcn, 1S62. 2 vols., folio. 



Earle's Philolog}^ of the English Tongue. 

Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. 

Erman, Papyrus Westcar. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1S80. 

Gavet, E., Steles de la XII dynastic an Musee du Louvre. 

GoLENiscHEFF, Die Metternichstclc. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-qualre Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Collection de. 

Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 

Mess, Der Gnostische Papyrus von London. 

HoMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyricns. 1892. 

Jastrow, M., a Fragment of the Babylonian " Dibbarra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 

2 10 



May 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1S95. 

Teremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nubukadnezar's Geschichtliche Skizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der Kcilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch liber Heilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gcfan^enschaft mit Berichsichtignung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aeg}'ptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Egyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
LEFfeBURE, Le Mythe Osirien. 2"'e partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G., Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 vehr, p. xiv, 173. 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, Sec, 1S80. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
MuLLER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Arabien. 
NOORDTZIG, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptische out- 

dekkingen. 
Place, Ninive et I'Assyrie, 1866-1S69. 3 vols., folio. 
PoGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
ROBIOU, Croyances de rEg)'pte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

SCHAEFFER, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

SCHOUW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris. 

Schroeder, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Alfagyptishe Gotterglaube. 

Virey, p., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptien. 
VissER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1S91. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1 890. 
Wilcken, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
Wiltzke, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
Wxnckler, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

Wesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. I, 1847 ; Vols. IV to XII, 

1850 to 1858, inclusive ; Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 to 1878. 
Zi.MMEKN, H., Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft fiir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



211 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price 5s. each. With full Illustrations of the Vignettes. 
Parts cannot be sold separately. 



^be l£9)2ptian Book of the S)ea6, 

BEING A 

Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes, 

By p. LE page RENOUF, Esq. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ Series of pat£S of ttic Fipettes of tf)e iiifferent (2rf)npters. 



The first Three Parts have already been issued. 

The request having been made by a number of friends that this 
translation, &c., should be issued in a different form, so as to be a 
separate book, and Mr. Renouf having kindly consented, it is proposed 
to issue a limited number of copies upon large paper, in numbers, at ^s. 
each. Members desirous of obtaining copies should at once communicate 
with the Secretary. The fourth part having been issued, the price is now 
raised to 1 2s. 6d. a part. 



ZTbe Bronse ©rnaments of tbe 
palace (Bates from Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to £,1 los. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) ;^i i^. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President, 
P. LE Page Renouf. 

Vice- Presidents . 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halskuky. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

F. D. MocATTA, F.S.A., &c. # 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball., 
Arthur Gates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 
Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Rev. James Marshall. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Walter L. Nash, F..S.A., &c. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 
J. Pollard. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

&c. 
E. TowRY Whyte, M.A. 



Honorary Treasia-er — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence— K^\. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN S LANE. 



VOL. XVII. [DOUBLE NUMBER.] Parts 6 & ;• 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



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VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 
June, 1895, No Meeting. 

Sixth Meeting, Nov. ^th, 1895. 

4m 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
P. Le Page Renouf {President). — The Book of the Dead, 

Chapter CXXV, Part I {/%z/<f) 216-219 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Sennacherib's Letters to His Father 

Sargon .*.... 220-239 

Miss M. A. Murray.— The Descent of Property in the Early 

Periods of Egyptian History...... 240-245 

Alfred C. Bryant, B.A., and F. W. Read. — Akhuenaten 

and Queen Tii 246-250 

John E. Gilmore and P. Le Page Rknouf {President). — 

Coptic Fragments (Gen. xiii and xiv, and Psalm cv) 251-253 

Prof. Dr. Karl Piehl. — Notes de Philologie Egyptienne 

(continued) 254-267 

^'-^ 

published at 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

189 5. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1895-6. 



Sixth Meeting, ^th November, 1895. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 

IN THE CHAIR, 



The President referred to the loss the Society had 
recently suffered by the death of three of its Members. 
Professor Eber Schrader, of Berlin. 
Rev. William Houghton. M.A., F.L.S. 
H. Villiers Stuart, of Dromana. 



[Nos. cxxxii. & cxxxii.] 213 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

The following Donations to the Library were announced, 
and thanks ordered to be returned to the Donors: — 

From Prof. A. H. Sayce : — The Philology of the English Tongue. 

By John Earle, M.A. Third edition. Oxford. 8vo. 1879. 
From the Author : — Lucien Gautier. Au dela du Joiirdain. 8vo. 

Genbve. 1895. 

(Societe de Geographic de Geneve. Tome XXXIV. Me- 

moires.) 
F^rom the Author and Publisher : — Tellis and Kleobeia (Poem). 

By Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. London. 8vo. D. Nutt. 

1895. 
From the Author: — G. Sergi. Origine e diffusione della Stirpe 

Mediterranea. Roma. 8vo. 1895. 
From the Author : — H. A. Poels. Le Sanctuaire de Kirjath- 

Jearim, etude sur le lieu du culte chez ies Israelites au temps 

de Samuel, etc. Louvain. 8vo. 1894. 
From Jos. Pollard : — Catalogue of a Collection of Egyptian 

Antiquities discovered in 1895 between Ballas and Nagada. 

By W, M. Flinders Petrie. London. 8vo. 1895. 
From Rev. R. Gwynne : — Zur Erklarung der semitischen Ver- 

balformen. Von L. Nix. 1895. 



The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held the 3rd December, 1895 : — 

Mrs. George Bennett, 4, Hampton Grove, Surbiton, Surrey. 

Sam. Bergheim, 41, Norfolk Square, W. 

Alfred Charles Bryant, B.A., 5, Dagmar Terrace, Alexandra Park, 

Wood Green. 
James Johnstone, 8, Merchiston Park, Edinburgh. 
J. R. Mayfield, Eastbourne. 

H. J. Innes Whitehouse, 107, Farleigh Road, Stoke Newington, N. 
A. Goodinch Williams, F.S.A., F.R.H.S., The London Instituiion, 

Finsbury Circus, E.C. 
Charles Hanson Greville Williams, F.R.S., F.C.S., F.I.C., Castle 

maine, Oakhill Road, Putney, S.W. 

214 



,Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

The University Library, Bonn, Germany. 
The Melbourne Library, Australia, 

The Luxor Sporting Club. Rev. C. B. Huleatt, M.A., Librarian, 
Luxor, Egypt. 



A Paper was read by the Rev. C. J. Ball, on the 33rd 
Chapter of Deuteronomy, which will be printed in the next 
part of the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by the Rev. Dr. Lowy, Rev. G. 
Margoliouth, Thos. Tyler, M.A., and the Rev. C. J. Ball. 

Thanks were returned for this Communication. 




215 R 2 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 

By p. le Page Renouf. 



CHAPTER CXXV. 

Part I. 

Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteousness, that iV" may be 
loosed from all the sins which he hath committed and that he may 
look upon the divine countenances. 

He sniih : Hail to thee, mighty god, lord of Righteousness ! 

I am come to thee, oh my Lord : I have brought myself that I 
may look upon thy glory. I know thee, and I know the name of 
the Forty-two gods who make their appearance with thee in the 
Hall of Righteousness ; devouring those who harbour mischief, and 
swallowing their blood, upon the Day of the searching examination 
(i) in presence of Unneferu. 

Verily, 'Thou of the Pair of Eyes, (2) Lord of Righteousness' is 
thy name. 

Here am T ; I am come to thee; I bring to thee Right and have 
put a stop to Wrong. 

I am not a doer of wrong to men. 

I am not one who slayeth his kindred. (3) 

I am not one who telleth lies instead of truth. (4) 

I am not conscious of treason. 

I am not a doer of mischief. 

I do not exact as the firstfruits of each day more work than 
should be done for me. (5) 

My name cometh not to the Bark of the god who is at the Helm. 

I am not a transgressor against the god. 

I am not a tale-bearer. 

I am not a detractor. 

I am not a doer of that whicli the gods abhor. 

I hurt no servant with his master. 

I cause no famine. • 

I cause not weeping. 

216 



PLATE XXXI. 



BOOK OF 




Chapter CXXV. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 36. 



Pa] 




Chai'tf.r CXXV. 
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, III, 93. 




ClIAI'TER CXXV. 

Papyrus du Louvre, III, 9. 





Chapt 
Papyrus, Muse< 




Chapter CXXIV. F 
Louvre, Cab. di 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Nov., 1895. 



HE DEAD. 




AFTER CXXV. 

3 du Louvre, III, 89. 





XXV. 

Louvre, III, 36. 




us, Musee du 
^dailies. 




Chapter CXXV. Papyrus, Ani. 




ClIAI'TEK CXXW 

Papyrus, Paris, Sketch by Mr. Renouf. 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

I am not a murderer. 

I give not orders for murder. 

I cause not suffering to men. 

I reduce not the offerings in the temples. 

I lessen not the cakes of the gods. 

I rob not the dead of their funereal food. 

I am not an adulterer. 

I am undefiled in the Sanctuary of the god of my domain. 

I neither increase nor diminish the measures of grain. 

I am not one who shorteneth the palm's length. (6) 

I am not one who cutteth short the field's measure. (7) 

I put not pressure upon the beam (8) of the balance. 

I tamper not with the tongue of the balance. 

I snatch not the milk from the mouth of infants. 

I drive not the cattle from their pastures. 

I net not the birds of the manors of the gods. (9) 

I catch not the fish of their ponds. (10) 

I stop not the water at its appointed time. 

I divide not an arm of the water in its course. 

I extinguish not the lamp during its appointed time. 

I do not defraud the Divine Circle of their sacrificial joints. 

I drive not away the cattle of the sacred estate. 

I stop not a god when he cometh forth. 

I am pure, I am pure, I am pure, I am pure. 

My purity is that of the Great Bennu in Sutenhunen, for I am 
the Nose of the Lord of Air, who giveth life to all mortals ; on the 
day when the Eye is full in Annu, on the last day of Mechir ; in 
presence of the Lord of this land. 

And I am one who see the fulness of the Eye in Annu, let no 
harm come to me in this land, in the Hall of Righteousness ; because 
I know the names of those gods who make their appearance in it. 

Part IL 

1. Oh thou of long strides, who makest thine appearance in 
Annu ; I am not a doer of wrong. 

2. Oh thou who boldest the fire, and makest thine appearance in 
Cher-aba ; I am not a man of violence. 

3. Oh thou of the Nose, (11) who makest thine appearance at 
Chemunnu ; I am not evil minded. 

217 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

4. Oh Eater of the Shadow, (12) who makest thine appearance 
at Elephantine ; I am not rapacious. 

5. Oh thou of Serpent face, who makest thine appearance at 
Re-Stau ; I am not a slayer of men. 

6. Oh thou of Lion form, (13) who makest thine appearance in 
Heaven ; I am not fraudulent in measures of grain. 

7. Oh thou whose eyes [pierce] like swords, who makest thine 
appearance in Sechem ; I commit no fraud. 

8. Oh thou of fiery face, whose motion is backwards ; I am not 
a robber of sacred property. 

9. Oh Breaker of bones, who makest thine appearance in Suten- 
hunen ; I am not a teller of lies. 

10. Oh thou who orderest the flame, who makest thine appearance 
in Memphis ; I am not a robber of food. 

11. Oh thou of the Two Caverns, who makest thine appearance 
in Amenta ; I am not sluggish. (14) 

12. Oh thou of the Bright Teeth, (15) who makest thine appearance 
in the Unseen Land ; I am not a transgressor. 

13. Oh Eater of Blood, who makest thine appearance at the 
Block ; I have not slaughtered the sacred animals. 

14. Oh Eater of Livers, who makest thine appearance at Mabit; 
I deal not fraudulently. 

15. Oh Lord of Righteousness, who makest thine appearance in 
the place of Righteousness ; I am not a land-grabber. 

16. Oh thou who turnest backwards, who makest thine appearance 
in Bubastis ; I am not an eaves-droj^per, 

17. Oh Aati, (16) who makest thine appearance ut Annu ; I am 
not one of prating tongue. 

18. Oh Tutuf, (17) who makest thine appearance in Ati ; I trouble 
myself (18) only with my own affairs. 

19. Oh Uammetu, who makest thine appearance at the Block; 
I commit not adultery with another's wife. 

20. Oh Maa-antu-f, who makest thine appearance in Pa-Amsu, 
I am not unchaste with any one. 

21. Oh thou who art above Princes, and who makest thine 
appearance in Amu ; (19) I do not cause terrors. 

22. Oh Chemiu, (20) who makest thine appearance in Kauu ; I 
am not a transgressor. 

23. Oh thou who raisest thy voice, (21) and makest thine ap- 
pearance in Urit ; I aa:i not hot of speech. 

218 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

24. Oh divine Babe, who makest thy appearance in Annu ; I 
lend not a deaf ear to the words of Righteousness. 

25. Oh high-voiced one, who makest thy appearance in Unsit ; 
I am not boisterous in behaviour. 

26. Oh Basit, who makest thine appearance at the Shetait ; I am 
not the cause of weeping to any. 

27. Oh thou whose face is behind thee, and who makest thine 
appearance at thy cavern ; I am not given to unnatural lust. 

28. Oh thou, hot of foot, (22) who makest thy appearance at 
even ; I indulge not in anger. 

29. Oh Kenemtu, who makest thine appearance in Kenemit ; I 
am not given to cursing. 

30. Oh thou who carriest thine own offering, and makest thine 
appearance in Syut ; I am not of aggressive hand. 

31. Oh thou who hast different faces, and makest thine appear- 
ance in Net'efit ; I am not one of inconstant mind. (23) 

32. Oh Busy one, who makest thine appearance at Utenit ; I do 
not steal the skins of the sacred animals. (24) 

^^. Oh thou Horned one, who makest thine appearance at Sais ; 
I am not noisy (25) in my speech. 

34. Oh Nefertrau, who makest thine appearance in Memphis ; I 
am neither a liar nor a doer of mischief. 

35. Oh Tem-sepu, who makest thine appearance in Tattu ; I am 
not one who curseth the king. 

36. Oh thou who doest according to thine own will, and makest 
thine appearance in Tebuu ; I put no check upon the water in its 
flow. 

37. Oh Striker, (26) who makest thine appearance in Heaven ; I 
am not one of loud voice. 

3S. Oh thou who makest mortals to flourish, and who makest 
thine appearance at Sals ; I curse not a god. 

39. Oh thou of beautiful shoulder, who makest thine appearance 
at .... (27) ; I am not swollen with pride. 

40. Oh Neheb-kau, who makest thy appearance at thy cavern ; 
I have no unjust preferences. (28) 

41. Oh thou of raised head, (29) who makest thine appearance 
at thy cavern ; I have no strong desire except for my own property. 

42. Oh thou who liftest an arm, (30) and who makest thine 
appearance in the Netherworld, I do not that which offendeth the 
god of my domain. 

219 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OK BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [iJ 



SENNACHERIB'S LETTERS TO HIS FATHER SARGON. 
By C. H. W. Johns, Queens' College, Cambridge. 

The last years of Sargon's reign are in some obscurity. The 
great king's own inscriptions carry us down to B.C. 708 ; but, excep t 
that he was murdered in b.c. 705, nothing further is known. Any- 
thing that can throw light upon these last three years must be 
welcome. I believe that interest will therefore attach to the letters 
which Sennacherib wrote to his father during the time that he was 
in the position of a subordinate, though high official. In the 
Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum four at least are 
preserved, viz., K. 125; K. 181; K. 5464- K. 7434. All four 
are now published in Harper's Assyrian and Babylonian Letters of 
the K. Collection, Vol. II. Of these, K. 7434 contains only the 
seven lines of complimentary good wishes, which seem to have 
occurred at the commencement of each ; the three others I purpose 
here to transliterate, and as far as I can, translate. 

K. 181 has long been before the public in the fourth volume of 
the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia (page 47). It was also 
published in Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, page 220, by Mr. T. 
G. Pinches, with an introduction, transcription, translation, and 
notes. Oppert and Lenormant seem to have considered the writer 
to be the great Sennacherib, the son and successor of Sargon. The 
letter forwards to the king reports from a wide-spread district, and 
indicates the writer's position as one of high authority, but it does 
not give the name of the king to whom it was sent, nor any 
hint as to the writer's relation to him. At the end of the letter a 
"majordomo" of the lady Mimmu-abi-sa is named. The same 
female name occurs also as that of the " prophetess " who utters an 
oracle for the encouragement of Esarhaddon, which is published in 
the same volume of Inscriptions (IV R., p. 61, col. v, line 65), 
where she is called a daughter of Arbela. Whether the Nabu-mudu 
named in this letter be the majordomo in question, or not, we do 
know that this was the name of the prefect of Arbela in B.C. 702, at 
the very commencement of Sennacherib's reign. It fits the circum- 

220 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. 1895.] 

Stances of the case to suppose that Nabu-mudu sent news at the 
end of Sargon's reign from the seat of war by the majordomo of 
Mimmu-abi-sa, and a few years later was prefect of Arbela, where 
that lady Hved. If Mimmu-abi-sa be a personal name, there seems 
no difficulty in extending her life so as to overlap Sennacherib's 
reign two or three years each way ; on the other hand, if, as its 
meaning allows, it is simply an official name of the prophetess of 
Istar of Arbela, there seems no difficulty at all : so on any supposition 
it is possible the great Sennacherib was the writer. Another official 
named in this letter is Assur-risiia, known also as the author of 
several despatches on the same events, and further connected with 
Sargon as his amel res dripsar sa zikrit ekalli (Strassmaier, A.V., No. 
880). Other considerations will suggest themselves in more closely 
examining the contents of this tablet, all pointing to the end of 
Sargon's reign as the date, and to his son as the writer. It seems 
important to settle the date of this letter, as the names occurring in 
it serve to associate a wide group of letters in the same collection. 

The letter K. 5464 was first published by Dr. Winckler 
(Sammlung von Keilschrifttexten, Heft II). It is also written by 
a Sennacherib, and mentions Assur-risua, almost certainly referring 
to the same report from him, and quite certainly to the same events 
as in K. 181. So the Sennacheribs are the same. But the writer 
of this letter is twice called the king's son, and this seems to settle 
his identity. 

The letter K. 125, also first published in the same work by Dr. 
Winckler^ has much less interest, and the name of the writer is 
somewhat defaced. Neither Dr. Winckler nor Dr. Bezold in his 
Catalogue expressly ascribes it to Sennacherib, but Mr. Harper has 
no doubt, and nothing in its contents seems incompatible with that 
assumption. Mr. Harper calls attention also to Rm. 2, 14, as 
another letter by Sennacherib. This I have not seen. 

In what I have attempted here by way of transcription and 
translation I must acknowledge my great debt to Dr. Delitzsch's 
work on Assyrian Letters in the two volumes of his Beitriige, and 
wherein I differ from Mr. Pinches' work on K. 181, I trust that 
he will pardon the expression of honest doubt. The letters 
already published by Mr. S. A. Smith have given me many valued 
hints and parallels. Mr. S. A. Strong, my respected teacher, kindly 
collated Dr. Winckler's texts, from which I worked, with the originals 
in the British Museum. 

221 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

K. i8t. 

Obverse. 

1. A-na sarri be-li-ia 

2. Ardu-ka (m) Sin-ahe-erba 

3. lu sul-mu a-na sarri be-li-ia 

4. sul-mu a-na (mat) Assur (ki) 

5. sul-mu a-na asra-te 

6. sul-mu a-na (al) bi-rat sa sarri gab-bu 

7. lib-bu sa sarri be-li-ia a-dan-nis lu tab 

8. (mat) Uk-ka-a-a ina muh-hi-ia is-sa-par 

9. ma-a sar (mat) Urarta-a-a a-na (mat) Ga-mir 

10. bi-id il-lik-ii-ni ma-a (amel) e-mu-ki-su 

11. ana ma-la di-e-ka ma-a su (amel) bel pihate-su 

12. a-na (amel) e-mu-ki-su-nu se-e-lu-u 

13. (turta)-nu-su II (amel) bel pihate 

14. it-tal ka 

15. is-sa-ba-at 

16. -a-a il-likan-ni 

17. nu-te sd mati-su 

18. is-sak-nu-u-ni 

19. an-ni-ii te-e-mu 

20. sa mat Uk-ka-a-a 

2 I. (m) Assur-ri-su-u-a i-sa-ap-ra 

22. ma-a te-e-mu sa (mat) Urarta-a-a 

23. ma pa-ni-u sa as-pur-an-ni 

24. ma-a sii-ut u-ma su-ii 

25. ma-a di-ik-tii ina lib-bi-su-nu 

Edge. 

26. ma'-da di-e-ka-at 

27. ma-a li-ma a mat-su ni-ha-at 

28. ma-a (amel) rabute-su ia-mu-tii. 

29. ina libbi mati-sii it-ta-lak 

Reverse. 

1. ma-a (m) Kakkada-nu (amel) tur-ta-nu-su 

2. sa-bi-it ma-a sar (mat) Urarta-a-a 

3. ina lib (mat) U-a-sa-un sii-ii 

4. an-ni-ii te-e-mu sd (m) Assur-ri-.su-u-a 

222 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

5. (m) Nabu-mudu (amel) bel pihate sa (al) Halsu 

6. ina muh-hi-ia is-sa-ap-ra 

7. ma-a ina eli (amel) massar (al) bi-ra-a-te 

8. sa ina eli ta-hu-u-mc ina eli te-e-mu 

9. sa sar (mat) Urarta-a-a a-sa-ap-ra 

10. ma-a (mat) Gamir bi-id il-lik-u-ni 

11. ma-a (amel) e-mu-ki-e-su a-na ma-la di-e-ka 

12. ma-a III (amel) rabute-su a-du (amel) e-mu-ki-su-nu 

13. di-e-ku ma-a su-u-til ih-tal-ka 

14. ana mati-su e-tar-ba ma-a ma-dak-tii-su 
35. u-di-i-ni la ta-ka-ri-ba 

16. an-ni-u te-e-mu sa (m) Nabu-mudu 

17. (al) Mu-sa-sir-a-a ahu-su 

18. mar-su a-na sul-me 

19. ina eli sar (mat) Urarta-a-a it-tal-ku 

20. (amel)mar sip-ri sa (mat) Hu-pu-us-ka-n-a 

21. a-na sul-me ina muh-hi-su-ma 

22. it-ta-la-ak 

23. (amel) massar (al) bi-rat gab-bu 

24. sa ina eli ta-hu-me te-e-mu 

25. a-ki an-ni-im-ma i-sa-par-u-ni 

Edge. 

26. e-gir-tii sa (m) Nabu-mudu 

27. (amel) rab biti sa (f) Mimmu-abi-sa 

28. istu (mat) Ta-bal na-su-u-ni 

29. ina eli sarri bel-ia us-si-bi-la 

Translation. 

1. To tJie king my lord 

2. Tliy servant, Sen7iacherib 

3. Verily peace be to the king my lord 

4. Peace to Assyria 

5. Peace to the temples 

6. Peace to the fortresses of the king my lord all of them 

7. The heart of the king my lord be supremely cheered 

8. The land of the Ukkai to me sent 

9. that the king of the land of the Urartai, to the land Gam.r 
10. as he went ; that his forces 

223 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

11. to the full extent were slain, that he, his prefects 

12. against their fo7-ces despatched 

13. his tartan {1^, two prefects 

1 4. he has gone 

15. he is taken 

1 6. -ai has come to vie 

17. of his land 

18. they are fixed 

19. this news 

20. from the land of the Ukkai. 

2 1 . Assur-risila sent 

22. that the news of the land of the Urarfai is 

23. also the for?ner which I sent 

24. that upon that same day 

25. that a slaughter in their midst 

Edge. 

26. extensively took place (lit. was slain) 

27. that now his land is at rest ; 

28. that his nobles are dead 

29. i?ito the midst of his lajid he has gotie 

Reverse. 

1. that Kakkadanii his tartan 

2. is taken ; that the kitig of the land of the Urarfai 

3. is in the midst of the land of Uasa-im that same 

4. this is the news of Assur-ristia 

5. JVabil-mudu, prefect of Halsu 

6. to me sent 

7. that to the wardens of the fortresses 

8. which are on the border, on account of nezvs 

9. of the king of the land of the Urarfai, I sent : 

10. that to the land of Gamir as he went 

1 1. that his forces luere extensively slain ; 

12. that three of his nobles in additioti to their forces 

13. were slaiti ; that he himself had fled ; 

14. to his land had entered ; that his camp 

15. as yet has not been approached ; 

224 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

1 6. this is the neivs of Nabu-mudu. 

17. To the city of the Musasirai, his brother, 

1 8. his son, for peace, 

19. o?i behalf of the king of the Urariai have come : 

20. a messenger of the land of the Hiipuskai 
2 r. for peace for him also 

22. has come. 

23. The wardens of all the fortresses 

24. which are on the border Jtews 

25. like this also sent. 

26. The letter of Nab il-miidu 

27. the majordomo of Mimmu-abi-sa 

28. from the land of Tabal brought ; 

29. to the king my lord I have sefit (lit. caused to bring). 

Notes. K. 181. 

The first seven lines appear to be identical in all the four letters 
of Sennacherib. They are evidently a formula of complimentary 
greeting deemed appropriate by the writer. They have many striking 
parallels in other letters and despatches, and call for little comment. 
In my transliterations I have placed the restorations in brackets : 
but in K. 5464 and K. 125 have not thought it necessary to repeat 
their translation. At the end of line 5 the word e-kiir-mes-tc* was 
read Bit-Matatc : but the frequent spelling e-kur-ra{a)te points to 
an ending -rate. S. A. Smith and Delitzsch render e-kur by asm or 
esru, and Delitzsch seems to prefer the reading of. the whole asrdtc, 
at any rate it is the plural oi e-kur, and means "temples." Delitzsch 
(in his Wo lag das Paradiesf) places a definite city Birate on 
the banks of the Turnat, and quotes this passage among others 
in support of his view. A more conclusive passage occurs in 
K. 509, line 6, where we have Birta-a-a, " the people of Birtu." So 
there seems no doubt that there was a city Birtu, and probably 
more than one. Birtu does, however, occur simply in the sense 
"a fortress," and seems, from Winckler's Sargon, to be interchange- 
able with lialsu. Here Birat seems plural and in similar compli- 
mentary salutations we read lialsani; further the addition of gabbti 
and the custom in such passages seems to demand the reading 
"fortresses." 

* On K. 4447 ASsurbanlpal spells it i-kii-ra-ti. 
225 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

Line 9. In nearly every case known to me, where these troubles 
are referred to, the ideogram which I read Urartu is used, and that 
can equally well be read Accad, but in K. 574, Gabbu-ana-Assur, 
mentioning the same districts as Assur-risua does in his letters, 
names also three prefects to whom he sent for tidings of the move- 
ments of the king of the U-ra-ar-ta-a-a. These three names are 
Assur-risua, NabA-mudu, and Assur-bel-dan. This decided my 
reading. The land Gamir is said by Delitzsch {Parad., p. 245) to 
be the same as Gimir, and it is placed in the neighbourhood of 
Cappadocia on the map (in Schrader's Keil. Bibliothelz) outside the 
limits of Sargon's empire. I cannot find any mention of it in 
Winckler's Sargon, but Assur-risua in his report K. 1080 mentions 
the fortresses of the land Gamirra as sending tribute to the king 
of Urartu, coupling with them the countries of Guriania and Nagiu 
and the fortresses of Urartu. At the same time he mentions the 
defeat of the king of Urartu " when he went to the land of Gamirra." 
This report was addressed to the king direct ; in our case the news 
reaches Sennacherib from the land of the well-known Ukkai. 

Line 11. mala as a preposition might mean "for," though a?ia 
mala dieka, "for to conquer," seems unlikely, as the infinitive is 
dahi, and I take dieka as permansive. afia mala is frequent in the 
sense "as many as," with and without basil. I take it here in the 
sense, "to a full extent," "extensively." It is unusual to find su in 
the sense of "he," "himself;" I am inclined to read su =z kissat, 
and render, "all his prefects." 

Line 12. Sclii is an unusual form e.\.cept as imperative or infini- 
tive. It seems difficult to take ?iu-selu, because of the question it 
raises as to the " we " concerned. It could be from salu, which 
Lyon gives as meaning " to shoot, discharge weapons."* The 
change oi a io e would be parallel to isessu for isasi. 

Line 13. The ending -iiii-su has induced me to restore turta?iu-su. 
The king of Urartu seems to have lost his tartan and two prefects in 
the battle. In line 12 rev. they seem to be referred to as three 
"nobles." 

Line 21. Assur-risua was rd di/psar sa{f) ckalli in the 12th 
year of Sargon, and is known to me as autlior of the letters K. 194, 
K. 910, K. 1080, K. 1 1 70, K. 1907, and Rm. 2, 3. He is frequently 

* Senacherib Prism. Ins. , V, 49, has iiSa'lii kakkd-Siin ; Assurb. Km. Cyl. 
I, 34, Salie kasti. 

226 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

mentioned in other letters referring to these events (^.^., K. 561, 
K. 746, K. 1182, K. 752S, K. 13,111; see Bezold's Catalogue). I 
am not at all sure that I correctly appreciate the order of events 
which he had to announce, and many of the letters are very frag- 
mentary. Sargon, as we know from his annals, had set garrisons in 
the cities of Usi, Usian, Uargin, in the land of Urartu, and several 
of these letters mention "the garrisons." It seems the king of 
Urartu, after his check on attempting to go to Gamir, settled at 
Uesi, doubtless Sargon's Usi. The prefect of Usi drove him out. 
Then he held out at Tiiruspa, the capital of Urartu in Tiglath- 
Pileser's time. The prefects Si-e-tini and Suna, of the land of the 
Ukkai, assembled their forces at Musasir, and in Rm. 2, 3 Assur-risua 
announces these facts. The king was still at Uesi. In K. 1080 
Assur-risiia reported the sending of tribute from Guriania, Nagiu, 
Gamirra and Urartu generally to the king after his defeat ; but 
though he names Turuspa, it is not clear what he meant to say about 
that place. In K. j 94 Assur-risua sends the rab-kisir Naragie with 
twenty conspirators as captives to Sargon. He annoimces that the 
king of Urartu has entered Turuspa and there gathered a following. 
Sargon's (?) tartanu sanu or second general Ursini was captured in 
Turuspa, and his brother Apli-uknu had gone to see him there. 
K. 910 concerns a messenger from the land of the Ukkai who had 
gone up into the land of Urartu and returned into Assyria ; but 
there is not enough left of the letter to make it clear how this fits 
into the story. K. 1170 does not seem to concern our period. In 
K. 1907 he names Turuspa, but too little is left to decide what 
the reference is. In K. 194 Assur-risua mentions having sent a 
messenger to Babylon, but to whom does not seem certain. Was 
Sargon there at this period? K. 125 also seems to suggest this 
(line 15). 

Line 24. u-ina is an unusual way of spelling the word for " day," 
but I can make no better sense otherwise. 

Line 28. ia-nm-ti'i : this I take to be from mdtu, "to die." The 
ending -iu is settled by K. 614, rev. 5, where we read, gabsi ali 
idukin, iaiimiu. Cf. K. 617, rev. 2-5, and 12-13, where we have 
ia-mut-tu : and K. 686, mat Kilhu gabbu ia-imc-tu. I can see no 
other meaning possible that will serve all these passages. A similar 
case of ia- for /- (in verbs not commencing with a guttural) is ia-sap- 
par-kan-iil in S. 76c. j\Ir. Pinches in his comments on this letter, 
seems to have derived it from a root meaning "to command," but 

227 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

I cannot recognize the root. S. A. Smith, Assjirb.^ Heft III, p. 72, 
thinks it the same as aiiuimte, "those," and Mr. Pinches, p. 108, 
seems to agree with him. 

Reverse. 

Line i. The name Kakkadanu is spelt singularly, but on 
K. II 1 1, a name Kak-ka-da-ni occurs, which favours my reading. 
K. 645 gives Kakka-da-nii sa putu mat Uka-a-a. 

Line 3. ^^.s far as I know, this is the only place in the corres- 
pondence where the land of Ua-sa-un is named. The termination 
-iin occurs in other proper names, and I do not think it possible to 
connect it with the su-u that follows in the text. The other letters 
give the place of retreat of the king of Urartu as the city of Uesi : it 
is probable the district is the same. 

Line 4. Nabu-mudu now takes up the story in Sennacherib's 
letter. This was the name of the Eponym in b.c. 702, when he was 
prefect of Arbela. He is now prefect of Halsu. It is usual to read 
his name in the Eponym list as Nabu-li'-, but the character -zii may 
also be read -inudu, as Mr. Pinches clid. K. 1026, a letter to the 
king from Arad-gula, spells the name Nabu-zti-du ; the -du I take to 
be a phonetic complement showing the name was read Nabfi-mudu. 
It is not necessary of course to identify the persons, but I feel that, 
without strong reasons to the contrary, the presumption must be 
that in such a limited set of actors the same name must refer to the 
same person. In our case NabH-mudu is prefect of Halsu ; he 
repeats the tidings sent by Assur-risua concerning the garrisons of 
the fortresses on the marches. The close parallelism of lines 9 
and 10 on obverse and reverse leads me to read the land of Gamir- 
in line 10, rev. The sign pap, kur, has the value napharis : and 
consequently may have had the sense "totality," expressed by 
Gimir ; and though I do not know of an example in which pap 
is actually put = gimru, it seems probable that, as line 9, obv. would 
suggest, we are to read Gimir or Gamir. 

Lines 14, 15. Delitzsch (A.W.) takes tidlni as "eagles;" so the 
sense would be, his camp was so inaccessible that even an eagle 
could not approach it. Now the udini-bird in Assurnasirpal is 
clearly some such bird as an eagle or vulture : and Sargon's 7/dini 
hurasi or kaspi being mentioned as royal furniture, may well be 
golden or silver images of eagles : and the rendering here also 
would be quite admissible, though it is startling to meet a figure of 

228 



-x 



Nov. 5] PROCEED rNGS. [1895. 

speech in the midst of such terse communications. But why is the 
determinative of birds omitted ? : and besides there are quite a 
number of other passages where udini thus occurs without the suffix 
(-/zz/). I think that "eagles cannot approach" them all. In K. 5464, 
line 1 9, we have udini ba-tik-mu la harassa, and udhii /a .... on the 

edge. Then Rm. 77, line 36, gives us zidini thisii la ni-sa-me. Further, 
on K. 102 1 we have ina ell lisani sa sarru bell isptiranni asapra {ainel) 
da-a-a-li udini la il'la-ku-ie-fii, i.e., "as yet he is not come." In each 
a negative sentence follows, and it seems to me that tidtni is an 
adverb, with some such sense as "at present," "as yet" (so and so 
has not happened). Further, I am inclined to compare K. 11 70, 
also from the hand of Assur-risua, where we get udina la uda ...... 

and Rm. 2, 3, again by Assur-rislia, tidina la ittiammas. K. 939, 
rev. 13, udina arah ume la illaka. Petermann gives the modern 
Samaritan pronunciation of the word for "yet," "still," in Gen. 
xviii, 22; xliii, 27, 28, as tidinnu. Adu is "now," udu is "day;" 
adverbs are formed from nouns with termination -e7i or -an, and the 
influence of analogy would account for udi-ini. 

Line 17. It is not at all clear to me whose "son and brother" 
are intended, the pronoun " his " seems to refer to the king of 
Urartu, and I venture to consider ina eli as meaning "on behalf of." 
It was at Musasir that the Assyrian prefects were able to collect their 
forces to attack the rebel ; so I do not think there is any hint of its 
defection here. Peace with the king of Urartu seems to me an 
improbable object, peace with the Assyrian forces seems likely. A 
brother and son are likely ambassadors for peace. It is possible 
that Nabumudu's message ends with line 16, and in some parallel 
cases " the city N. " is used for " a messenger from the city N. ;" 
but on the whole I prefer my rendering. Years before this, Urzana, 
king of Mu.sasir B.C. 714, had relied upon Ursa or Rusa, king of 
Urartu, and omitted to render his homage. Sargon's troops swarmed 
into the country, Urzana fled for his life, and went up into the 
mountains. Sargon trium[)hantly entered Musasir, Urzana's wife, 
sons, daughters, goods, and 20,170 of his people, with their 
possessions, his gods Haldia and Bag-bar-tum, and their sacred 
vessels, with other temple furniture, were reckoned as spoil. Then 
Musasir was made part of the Assyrian empire. It is very curious 
to note that Urzana's seal still exists, and has been made the subject 
of a memoir by Schrader. All this seems decisive against the son 
and brother being relatives of Urzana, ihey probably belong to the 

229 S 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

present king of Urartu. Rusa had put an end to his hfe on the 
capture of his gods at Musasir ; Argisti was his successor. 

Line 20. Hupuskia was the headquarters of Sargon in B.C. 715, 
when he received the tribute of the king of the land of Nairi, and 
from the district ruled by Rusa. In B.C. 714 Sargon again received 
tribute at this city, but Urzana of Musasir was then a defaulter. 
Sargon seems to have claimed to have added Urartu to his dominions, 
but in B.C. 708, while he was in Babylon, Argisti rebelled and stirred 
up Mutallu of Kummuh also to rebel. Perhaps this rising led to 
the events we are considering. 

Line 26. The letter of Nabia-mudu was brought to Sennacherib 
from the land of Tabal, which had given Sargon trouble in B.C. 715 
and again in B.C. 711, when a large part of it was colonised by 
Assyrians, the native population being deported. I am not certain 
from the wording of this letter whether Nabu-mudu himself was 
majordomo to Mimmu-abisa, or whether that official simply brought 
the prefect's letter. 



K. 5464. 

Obverse. 

1. ana] sarri be-li-ia 

2. ardu-ka (m)j Sin-ahe-erba 

3. lu sulmu] ana sarri be-li-ia 

4. sul mu ana mat Assur-] ki 

5. sulmu ana as-ra]-te 

6. sulmu ana (al) birate gab-] bu 

7. libbu sa sarri beli-ia adannis lu]-u tab 

8. bu-su 

9. -lak 

10. it-tal-ka 

11. sar (mat) Urarta-a-a 

12. -te sa sar (mat) Assur-(ki) 

13. ma ?i-pu 

14. sar mat Urarta-a-a bel pihate-su 

15. te-e-mu e-mu-ki-ku-nu 

16. ina kata-ku-nu sa-ab-ta-ma alik alka (amel) bel pihat^ 

17. sa sar (mat) Assur-(ki) istu (al) Ku-ma-a-a baltute 

18. ina kata sa-bi-ta ina muh-hi-ia i-sa-al-ka-a-ni 

230 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

19. ma-a li-di-i-ni l)a-ti-ik-ma la-a ha-ra-as-sa 

20. ma-a ki-ma a-si-me sa-ki-il ina eli mar sarri a-sa-ap-ra 

21. ma-a e-mu-ki ar-his lu-se-bil-u-ni 

22. an-ni-u le-e-mu sd (m) Ar-ia-e 

23. Um XI sa arhu Ululu e-gir-tu sa (m) Assur-ri-su-u-a 

24. ina muh-hi-ia ta-tal-ka ma-a sar mat Urarta-a-a 

25. ma-a bid (mat) Zi-kir-ta-a-a u-bi-lu-su-u-ni 

26. ma-a me-me-e-ni la is-lim-a ma-a ra-ku-te-[e] 

27. i-su-uh-ra ma-a ina lib (al) U-a-a-si 

28. a-du e-mu-ki-e-su it-ta-lak e . . . 

29. ma-a e-mu-ki-e-su ina lib (al) U-a-[a-si] 

30. ma-a su-u-tii e-mu-ki e-sa-te 

31. i-si-e-Su it-ti si-ma-a(-ti) 

32. (mat) Ma-na-a-a it-ta-(lak) 

Edge. 

33. ma-a ina eli sa e-gir .... 

34. li-di-i-ni la-a 

35. ma-a ki-ma asi-me a(-sa-ap-ra). 

Reverse. 

1. ma-a (amel) bel pihati sa ina te-[gir-te 

2. ina lib (al) U-e-si su-u-tii ma(?) .... 

3. ma-a i-da-tu-us-sii it-tu-si 

4. ma-a u-sa-a-sii istu lib (al) U-a-a-[si] 

5. la-a e-mur harra-ni sa ina muh-hi .... 

6. u-ta-a-bu ti-tur-ra-a-te li-be 

7. ma-a ki-ma a-si-me mi-i-nu sa si-te-(si ? ia ?) 

8. sum-mu itti e-mu-ki-e-su il-la-ka 

9. sum-mu za-ku-u su-u-tu is-su-ka ma-a ub . . . . 

10. ina eli mar sarri a-sa-pa-ra 

11. an-ni-ii te-e-mu sa (m) Assur-ri-su-u-a 

12. (mat) Ar-sa bi-ia-a i-sa-ap-ra ma-a (mat) U-ka-a-a 

13. su-pa-ni-ia lu pa ti u ma-a a-ta-a 

14 du-ka-an-ni at-tu-nu ka-la-ku-nu 

15. (amel) mutir-pu-te-ia ina eli mat U(-ka-a-)a a-sa-par 

16. mat Ar-sa-bi-ia sa-bu-ub 

17. (i-)du an-ni bir-tu [ma]-ru-us 

18. ina lib a-a ina muh-hi-ia i-tal-ka 

19. na har-tu ina muh-hi-ia na-sa 

231 S 2 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.EOLOGV. [1S95. 

20. istu mat Ma-na-a-a ik-ti-bi-a 

21. is-su-har sa-til a-sa-kan-su 

22. sa mat Sa-du-da-a-a ana (al) Kal-ha 

23. u-ni a-ta-har ak-ta-na-ak 

24. la har-tii a-sa-ka-an 

25. sa arhu Ululu e-gir-tii 

26. u-bi-la 

Translation. 

Obverse. 

1-7. The compliments appear to be identical in phrase with the 

commencement of K. 181. 
8-9. The ends alone are visible 

10. Ends with '■'■ he went'''' 

11. Concludes with " the kmg of the land of the Urartai" 
I '>. Probably had " the prefects of the king of Assyria " 

13. Leaves nothing certain 

14. Has " the king of the land of the Urartai his prefects'''' 

15. an order i^gave^ your farces 

16. in your hands take and go be off tJie prefects 

1 7. of the king of Assyria from the city of the Ku?nai alive 

1 8. in their hands tvere captured, over against 7ne they advanced 

19. that at present one is cut off, and there is no breaking ozii 

20. that as I heard it is cared for, to the kirig's son I send 

21. that forces quickly let him send 

22. this is the news from Ariae. 

23. The eleventh day of the month Eli/l a letter from Assur-risua 

24. to fne came that the king of the land of the Urartai 

25. that when the land of the Zikirtai brought (?) 

26. that any how he did not succeed that bootless 

27. he turned back, that into the midst of the city U-ai-si 

28. along with his foras he has gone, 

29. that his forces are in the ?nidst of the city U-a-a-si 

30. that he, a few forces 

31. tvith him, with prosperity 

32 the land of the Manai has gone 

33. that concerning what 

34. at present . not 

35. that as I have heard, I send 

232 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Reverse. 

1. that the prefect who is in the defence (?) 

2. in the midst of the city Uasi, himself 

3. that with his armament, he has set out 

4. that he thrust him out from the midst of the city U-a-a-si 

5. he did not find the roads which to 

6. he made good the bridges 

7. that as I have heard, whatever 

8. whether with his forces, he goes 

9. or that same zaku goes 

10. to the king's son^ I send. 

1 1 . this is the news of Assur-risiia 

12. The land of Arsalna sefit that the la fid of the Ukai 

13. my defences verily are destroying 7ww already 

1 4. are killing me, I call on you : 

15. my body-guards to the land of the Ukai I have sent 

16. land of Arsabia is surrounded 

17 the fortress is in evs'J case 

18 to me came 

19. the seal-ring to me was brought 

20. fro7n the land of the Alanai he has said 

21. he returned for ever I have fix^d it 

22 from the land of the Sadndai to the city Kalah 

23. I have received, I have sealed 

24. iJie seal I have set 

25. of the mouth Ululu a letter 

26. I send 

Notes. K. 5464, 

Lines 16-18. If we read alik alka this is a repeated imperative 
for emphasis possibly, or alik is a participle, but we might read ma-a 
tas-al-ka. In line 18 isalkani seems to demand a verb, salaku or 
zalaku. In K. 582, line 24, we also have isalka followed by bila {see 
S. A. Smith, Assurb., Ill, p. 67, and Pinches' Remarks, p. 107). In 
that passage it seems possible to take the -ka as second personal 
pronoun, but that will not do in our case. The city Ku-ma-a occurs 
on K. 1 182, where also Assur-risiia is named, and on K. 539 the 
amel Ku-um-ma-a-a are named. It is noteworthy that K. 561 also 
mentions a city Ku-, and that there seems only room for one more 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S95. 

sign; but the traces (given in Harper, A.B.K.L., Vol. I, 91) do not 
favour -)na. 

Line 19. udini, see on K. 181, obv. 15. The sign before la, 
Mr. Strong tells me, is }na. harassa seems from harasu. K. 1 136 has 

tcnui sa al Sibtu i-har-ra-sa-an-ni isapparkani tensunu i-har- 

ra-sa-an-ni. K. 8383, ha-ra-as-si ; cf. Del., H. JV.B., p. 292. S. A. 
Smith, Assyrian Letters, IV, 8, reads on 80-7-19, 17, adu a-har- 
sa-ni, and gives as meaning, " until I shall come ;" but with some 
reservation, iharas occurs K. 1077, obv. 9, K. 79, rev. 14 and 24; 
the Talmudic -^ hrz originally = to bore through, which would suit 
here. 

Line 21. saki-il I take to mean, "it is taken charge of," as in 
S. 760, line 19, but S. A. Smith there translates, "paid for;" amel 
sakil issuri, seems to mean, "one that has charge of birds ;" sakdlu, 
to have charge of, see Tallqvist, Sprache der Contracte, p. 134; (/[ 
Delitzsch, H. JV.B , p. 319, it does not seem to me from sakdiu. 

Line 22. I'he name of Ariae occurs on K. 561, in connection 
with Assnr-risua and the land of the Ukkai ; and business in the 
land of Urartu. It is spelt A-ri-e instead of Ar-ia-e, so removing 
all doubt as to the first part of the name. Aria = najntl, " to 
destroy," and is a by-name of Nergal ; but in neither case is there a 
determinative of divinity. So that my reading still lacks confirmation. 

Line 23. Assur-risua's message is dated. 

Line 25. I think we must read ma-a, and then /^/V=when. 
Mittatti the king of Zikirtu was slain by Sargon in B.C. 714. From 
K. 1037 we learn that the king of Assyria sent for news of the king 
of Urartu, to an official whose name is read by Strassmaier and 
Delitzsch as Huteru. In his reply he mentions the land of Zikirtu. 
The writer's name however is spelt on K. 1067 as Hu-te-su-pu ; and 
I am inclined to think we should read it Bag-tesup, like Bag-daddi, for 
both Tesupu and Daddu are divine names. What the sense of Bag 
is I cannot tell. It would scarcely be likely that the name is Issur- 
tesupii. Hii is possibly in sense = Aiiielu, but scarcely to be read so. 

Line 26. For the phrase rakiae issu/ira, cf. 2 Sam., i, 22. 

1-ine 27. The spellings U-e-si, Ua-a-si, compared with Sargon's 
Usi are instructive. There seems to have been in Urartu a great 
partiality for the initial syllable Ua- ; compare Ua-ia-us, U-ar-gi-in, 
U-al-lia, U-assurme in Sargon. I am inclined to add Urzana, 
Ursa, and also possibly Ar-sa-bia, Ar-za-unia (which latter may be 
U-a-za-un of K. 181 ; in which case it may be the name of a 

234 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

mountain). I hazard the conjecture that U-ar-^ Ur-, Ar, are all 
closely connected ; cf. the si)ellings Urzahina^ Arzuhina. Tiglath- 
Pileser Ill's I' ti-sa may perhaps = Usi. 

Line 31. i-si-e-su I take to be for issi-su^ i.e., ttfi-si/, as so 
common; but ASsiirn., II, 53, isi-ia ; III, 12, usesia given in 
Schrader's Keil. Bibliothk. are there referred to a root asu., seen in 
usatu, "help," asitu, "pole," &c. If this be accejjted we should 
translate, "he set himself up with rejoicing," or in prosperity, or with 
good luck. 

Line 32. At the beginning was juar sipri possibly, or simply 
istu = " from." 

Lines 33-35. I am inclined to think the lost word at end of 33 
was egiriti, and to suppose the meaning was, " concerning the letter 
he brought, at present I am not informed, but whatever I hear I will 
send." 

Reverse. 

Line 7. Dr. Winckler's text seemed to favour the restoration 
Site'u at the end of the line, i.e., " whatever I have in charge ; " but 
Mr. Harper's text points to an ending -si or -ia. 

Line 9. (amel) zakii, by its root meaning " be clean," — I suppose 
it to mean "an envoy " here, "a picked man." 

Line 12. Arsabia is mentioned in Sargon's Annals, B.C. 714, as 
suffering severely from his attacks. 

Line 13. Supaiiia perhaps = my defence and lu-hat-ti-u could be 
taken = verily they have broken ; su — masnk (?) with tnasak paniia ; 
cf. Sennach. Prism. Insc, Col. V, 49, pan Jtiaski, but lii-pa-ti-u I 
cannot render. Cf. Del., H. JV.B., p. 296 \//iii. 

Line 15. The traces lend themselves very well to gnr-pu-tc, 
i.e., mutir-pn-te, "a body guard.'' 

Line 16. sabCibu means "to surround," encircle;" sabub would 
be permansive. 

Line 19, compared with line 24, leads me to think that //«r goes 
with -tu, hartu = " a ring ; " the king's seal ring as a warrant of 
authority is often named in the letters. 

Line 22. The land of the Sadudai is unknown to me. Cf. how- 
ever the proper name Sadudu sakin 7ndt Suhi, Assuni., III. And 
Sayce in his Vminic Itiscripiiotis, No. XXXII, line 6, seems to have 
a king of Hittite race called Sada'da {as). 

Line 23. ataiujr and aktanak occur together elsewhere. 

235 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S95. 

K. 125. 

Obverse. 

1. Ana sarri beli-ia 

2. Ardu-ka (m) Sin-ahe-erba 

3. lu sul-mu a-na sarri beli-ia 

4. sul-mu a-na (mat) (Assur-(ki) 

5. sul-mu a-na asrate 

6. sul-mu a-na (al) bi-rat sa sarri gab-bu 

7. lib-bu sa sarri beli-ia a-dan-nis lu tab 

8. (amel) mahha-ni (mat) Ku-mu-ha-a-a 

9. it-tal-ku-ni ma-da-tii na-su-ni 

10. VII u-ra-te sa (imer) ku-tin is-si-nis 

11. na-su-u-ni ma-da-tii itti (imer) ku-tin 

12. bid ana mat Ku-mu-ha-a-a pa-ak-du 

13. (amel) mahha-ni ina libbi-sii su-nu 

14. akale sa ra-me-ni-su-nu e-kul 

15. i-ma-ta-hu-ni-e a-na (al) Babilu 

16. u-ba-lu-ni sak-la-a an-na-ka 

17. i-ma-ha-ru-sii-nu a-ki sa sarru beli 

18. ni-ka-bu-u-ni ar-his lis-pa-ru-ni 

19. sik-(mes) unnubu-(mes) is-si-nis na-su-u-ni 
'20. (amel) dam-kar-e ik-ti-bu-u-ni 

21. ma-a vii biltu istu libbi ni-ip-ti-ar 

Edge. 

22. ma-a mat Ku-mu-ha-a-a la im-ma-gur 

23. ma-a ma'-at-tii-nu la-ta-bi-ra 

24. ma-a lu-bi-lu (f) is-para-te 

Reverse. 

25. sa sarri am-ma ina (?) li sim kit 

26. sarru beli lis-pu-ra ana ma-an-ni 

27. i-da-nu-si-na-a-ni 

K. 125. Translation. 

1-7. The salutation seems to have been identical with that in 
the other three letters of Sennacherib. 

8. The magistrates of the land of the Kummuhhai 

9. have come, tribute they brought 

236 



Nov. 5] PRCCEEDINGS. [1895. 

10. 7 mares of the mvle kind singly {apiece) 

1 1 . they brought the tribute with the mules 

12. as to the land of the Kummuhhai was appointed 

13. The magistrates in its midst they 

1 4. their own food eat 

15. they were directing thernselves towards Babylon 

16. they were brought, 7vere cared for here, 

17. they furnished them, as the king my lord 

18. we have told, quickly let him send 

19. clothes, forage, singly they brought 

20. the tnerchants have said 

21. that 7 talents from our midst we will pay 

22. that the land of the Kummuhhai are not pleased 

23. that our produce is 7-educed 

24. that let him bring the king's weavers 

25 

26. the king my lord let him send to whom 

27. they shall give them. 

Notes. K. 125. 

Line 16. sakla might be permansive from sakalu, "to care for."' 

annaka ; cf K. 609, 10, anaku annaka ina ali Dursarrukin ; 
K. 1 201, obv. II, u ka-a-a-manu mar sarri beli libbu isakananni adu 
mar sarri annakanfii ana sulme ana al Niniia la illakiini ; K. 1274, 
rev. 3, annus im nisi annaka sunu ittalkunu ina muhliia ; K. 591, 
edge, anaku amiaka K. 1880 and two passages in Strassmaier ; si 
sarru beli ikbuni tnd istu annaka istu antiakamma upasu ina^ddni 
myA att is i annaka, etc. I think antiaka is related to annu, "this,' 
as anmiaka is to amniu, "that;" see K. 113, 10, istu ammaka. So 
I take annaka = " here," ammaka = " there ;" for the ending cf ckd, 
"where," a-a-ka, "where," uddukam and udda akku, "at day-break." 
Further, see K. 1242, allaka azaza ina pan fiike ula annaka anaku ; 
and note that on K. 554, 16 we have ammaka, rev. 4, annaka. 

Line 23. w^i'^//// = "abundance, produce;" ma'adutu is asso- 
ciated with aplutu, tabru in II, R. 42, hnes 25-27. 

Line 25. I can attempt no translation of this line as it stands. 

Line 27. idanusindni, cf D.A.G. §56. 



2S7 



Nov. s] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCPLEOLOGY. [liigs- 

Addendum. 

When the first part of this article was written I had not seen the 
fragment Rm. 2 11, 14 referred to by Harper {Z.A., VIII, p. 342). 
He published the first two lines, restoring them much as I have 
done ; only that in the other letters of Sennacherib, there is no 
example of his ///-7i at the beginning of line 2. Sennacherib (or his 
amanuensis) always writes /u simply. It is quite open to say that 
the text contains nine lines on the reverse and three on the edge. 
The text is not easy to read, owing to its defacement. But as 
Professor Strong first, and then Mr. Pinches have collated the text 
for me I feel quite safe. There is not enough left to make a 
connected translation possible. But the exact way in which the 
first five lines can be restored from the other Sennacherib letters, 
removes all reasonable doubt of its authorship. The restorations 
are in square brackets. 

As to its contents there is little to say. I think there is no doubt 
that in obverse 6 the name is Bel-etir, of whom I can with certainty 
say nothing as yet. In line 2 of reverse we have the name of 
Nabu-etir-nap§ati, probably the same who, in the twelfth year of 
Sargon, was a//ie/ aba M aniel rab-saki zX Kalah (Strassmaier, A.V., 
No. 5748). On the last line but one of the text, the god Nabu 
seems to be setting out from Kalah. Compare the statements in 
II. R. 69 concerning the gods of Dur-Sarrukin. That Nabii had a 
chief seat of worship at Kalah is well-known. 



Rm. 2, II, 14. 
Obverse. 

[I? ^i tt:^ -II ^tjy --] -^H ! <« >^ !— -«<TT 

238 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1895. 



Reverse. 

IVy^ -^ -B m m -!T^ I— 

^t "^yy -y? i ^y y? -4- v- ^y i v- 
=yf^ ^y Vy ^? y— i£j -7^ ^-m ^?ii 
t^Vi -B t] n <i£i Vi x^- ^y -HF- j^ ^ 
t^- <y- Vy ^y ^- ^yyy^ j^ mm 
m^ 4-m -y< i&i ih i:y i^ 



2. 


2iS^ ^ 




\-V-vv\'^ 


3- 


MM - 




^^'^'CVv'i fc- 


4- 


T^^m ^ 


5- 




6. 


'^0^^^*^ 


7- 




8. 





Edge. 

10. ^^my? ^y y? .^y y? ^i wm^mm. ^ y? 
"• liiis-HF- -B ^yyy -^yy ^yy? ??< 
12- ;^,^^MMM -yyy- ^<y -^yr 




239 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 



THE DESCENT OF PROPERTY IN THE EARLY 
PERIODS OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 

By Miss M. A. Murray. 

In many tombs of the IVth, Vth, and Vlth dynasties, are found 
processions of farm-servants, each servant personifying, and being 
associated with the name of, a farm belonging to the deceased 
During the last few months I have devoted my time to studying 
these lists of farms, and I have epitomised the result of my researches 
in the following pages. 

I find that many of the names occur in different tombs, and 
from this it seems possible to obtain some information as to the 
descent of property in those times. The period covered is, roughly 
speaking, between four and five hundred years; but, as the earlier lists 
give very little information, and farm-lists become rare in the Vlth 
dynasty, we find that it is to the tombs of the Vth dynasty that we 
owe most. 

There are very few authorities who even mention this subject, 
and lists of farm-names are to be found only in Mariette's Mas tubas, 
Lepsius' Denkmdler, Petrie's Afedion, and Diimichen's Resultate. 
Besides these. Professor Flinders Petrie has kindly allowed me to 
make use of some hitherto unpublished notes which he made in 1882 
on two tombs at Gizeh, one of which has since been destroyed. 

In comparing the farm-names I have omitted all the cartouch&s 
and personal names with which they are compounded. It is evident 
that when property changed hands, the owner gave his own name to 
his farms ; Pehenuka, Ptah-hotep, Khennu, and Nefer-art-nef add 
their own names to quite half the number of their farms. This 
change in names is shown very clearly ; e.g., the farm Zesert is called 
Zesert-Nefer-art-nef in the tomb of Nefer-art-nef, and Khennu Zesert 

240 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

in the tomb of Khennu. The royal cartouches are changed in the 
!-ame way, although the name of an important king continues some- 
times for several generations. Assa, the 8th king of the Vth dynasty, 
appears to have given his name to many farms, ousting the cartouches 
of most of his predecessors. For instance, Nefer-hesiut in the tomb 
of Ptah-hotep is Horakau-Neferhesiut ; in the tomb of Senezem-ab 
we have Assa-Nefer-hesiut. Senezem-ab seems to have been a great 
admirer of Assa, as no less than nineteen of his farms are compounded 
with this king's cartouche. Again, Ave find the farm Uakh-hen 
occurring in four different tombs, and in each case compounded with 
the name of a different king, — Khufu, Userkaf, Horakau, and 
Assa. This shows that the cartouches and personal names are not 
an integral part of the farm-name (and are not to be depended upon 
for identifying the farm), being changed for obvious reasons on the 
death of the OAvner or of the king. 

I have compared not only the farm-names, but also, as far as 
possible, the relationships of the OAvners. When Ave find the re- 
currence of personal names as well as of farm-names — as in the case 
of Nenkhetefka and Thy — there is strong evidence that the property 
descended from one to the other. The earliest possible date for the 
owners of the property is indicated by the cartouche of the latest 
king found in the tomb. Thus — to take the case of Nenkhetefka 
and Thy — the latest cartouche in the tomb of Nenkhetefka is that 
of Sahu-ra (u.c. 3699), in the tomb of Thy it is that of Ra-en-user 
(B.C. 3500), an interval of about ninety years. Then again Ave find 
that the name of Nenkhetef ka's vrife was Neferhoteps, Avhich was also 
the name of Thy's Avife, and five farm-names Avhich occur in 
Nenkhetefka's lists occur also in the lists of Thy. We have liere a 
man whose Avife is called Neferhoteps, and Avho oAvns farms called 
Ant, Art, Hebnen, Nebes, and Shet. Two or three generations later 
we find another man whose wife is also named Neferhoteps, and Avho 
also OAvns the farms Ant, Art, Hebnen, Nebes, and Shet. Of these 
five names, two — Ant and Shet— are so common as to be incon- 
clusive in themselves, but carry Aveight Avhen they occur Avith other 
names. The inference therefore is very strong that the later man 
obtained his property from the earlier, possibly through hisAvife, who 
may have been a grand-daughter of the first Neferhoteps. Out of 
sixteen farms, Thy holds nine in common Avith Pehenuka, Avhich 
argues a descent of property from Pehenuka to Thy ; Pehenuka's 
date being that of Sahu-ra (b.c. 3690), Thy's that of Ra-cn-user 

241 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1895- 



(B.C. 3500). Ptah-hotep, again, holds seven of Pekenuka's farms, of 
which five occur in Thy's hst, besides two which Thy has acquired 
from an unknown source, and one which occurs in the Ust of Semnefer 
(G. I 82), as well as in that of Thy. Here we see a strong connection 
between Thy and Ptah-hotep ; but as very few relationships are given 
in either tomb, it is not possible to prove a direct descent. 

Between Pehenuka and Depemankh also there appears a con- 
nection, as both hold the farms Art, Ant-hekt, Hebnen, and Shet. 

There are in all the lists about 450 farm-names altogether, of 
these about 40 recur in different tombs. I give a list of these 
names with reference letters for the sake of convenience. Many of 
the names recur so often that this list really represents about 120 
out of the 450, or rather more than a quarter of the entire number. 
Of the rest most of the names appear only once, and cannot be 
identified in any other tomb. 

I also give a diagram showing the descent of property, and 
where relationships have been ascertained I have inserted them. 
The diagram is intended merely to show the descent of property 
through different hands, and is not meant as a genealogy of the 
persons mentioned. 

I think that I have shown how important it is that these lists of 
farms should be carefully copied wherever they may be found. It 
is from this source alone that we can hope to obtain any information 
as to the descent of landed property in the earliest period of 
Egyptian history. 

List of Farm-Names. 



<o*t 






s 



m 



D 



E 



1 Lj « 



.. F 
. G 
,. H 

I 

. J 



242 



Nov. 5] 



I \ ^ 



J 



L3, 



1^^ 



rara® 



/VAA/W\ 

If- 
If 



.■^ 



PROCEEDINGS. 
... K 



.. L 



M 



N 



O 



Q 



R 







r^^"^ 



it^^ 



^^^ 



^' 



\f 



T 



U 



V 



w 



X 



{] 



o\\io ... 



f] 



ot^-^© 



o 



[IS95. 
.. z 



243 



Nov. 5] 



SOCIETY OF DIIJLICAL ARCILILOLOGY. 



[iS95- 



rSo" 



Ih 



is 



£> c--^ 



I- 



;2< 



t;c) 



1^ 



1^ 



C3 

tr [if 

3- « 



-9 "SS 






Lc 









|o 
lb— 



H '~X' 



-X — I 






> 

'J 
Is" 

o 



244 



Nov. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1895. 



Merab 
Semnefer ... 
Kanefera ... 
Depemankh 
Nenkhetefka 
Nefer-art nef 
Semnefer .. 
Pehenuka . 
Thy 

Khennu . 
Rakapu . 
Ptah-hotep 



L. D., II, 21. 

L. ])., II, 28. 

G. I 82. 

M. M., p. 196. 

M. M., p. 305. 

M. M., p. 324. 

G I 82. 

L. D., II, 46. 

D. R., PI. II. 

M. M.. p. 185. 

M. M., p. 276. 

M. M., 353, and D. R., PL XV. 



245 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 



AKHUENATEN AND QUEEN TIL 
By Alfred C. Bryant, B.A., and F. W. Read. 

In a recent number of the Proceedmgs* Dr. Wiedemann 
published some important notes on questions of interest in con- 
nection with the reign of Ahu-en-aten. On two of the points with 
which he dealt his conclusions appear to us to be hardly warranted 
by the evidence adduced ; and as this particular period is one 
to which we have devoted some attention, t we feel justified in 
detailing the reasons which compel us to dissent from so eminent 
an authority. 

(i.) In the first section of his article, Dr. Wiedemann publishes 

a I A in which one of the blessings enumerated for the 

deceased is ^^^[^ [I '^^'^^^ ^ >k: [1 (J ^ . The partial erasure of the 

name of [I on this monument shows, as Dr. Wiedemann 

points out, that it " belongs to the time before the reformation of 
Chu-en-aten." But he contends at the same time that the peculiar 
spelling of the phrase just quoted shows that the stela must belong to 
the years 4 — 6 of this king's reign. " The determinative © instead 

of Q behind (J in line 4 proves, that at that time the town 

I AAAAAA 

of Aten was already spoken of, and that the thought of this place 
induced the scribe to err."^ 

Even if this inscription were otherwise carefully written, such 
an error would afford a very narrow foundation for any theory as to 
us date ; but the fact that in the space of a few short lines we find 
such other blunders (which are duly noted by Dr. Wiedemann) as 

* XVII, pp. 152 — 157.- " Inscriptions of the time of Amenophis IV." 
t See "■ An Inscription of Khuenaten," in Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XV, 
pp. 206 — 215, 

246 



Nov. 5] rKOCECDIXGS. [1S95. 

(j^for q^, I ;^ for j ^, and -[j-^ for -[]-° the 

well-known appellative of the god Anpu,* is sufficient, to show that 
we are dealing with the work of a thoroughly careless and incom- 
petent scribe. Of course there may be some special reason, apart 
from general ignorance, for the commission of any particular blunder 
in writing, but it is hardly safe to assume it, and still less is it safe to 
found a theory on the assumption. But in the present instance it 
seems that an equally valid reason, other than that assumed by 
Dr. Wiedemann, miglit be suggested for the scribe's error. The 
substitution of ^ for Q, in addition to that of © for Q, might 
well lead us to infer that the engraver of the inscription had been 
furnished with a not-too-well-written manuscript to copy ; and that 
provided his transcription of each individual character were a 
possible one, he was not careful about the general sense. 

Even granting this, however, it might conceivably be urged that 
the fact of his being accustomed to see the determinative of a town 

written after the word [I , influenced the scribe in his transcrip- 
tion. But, in fact, we hardly ever find either (J or 



cQ] (I written with © as a determinative, but almost alwavs 

with O; so that the influence of habit would be entirely the other 

way.t We cannot, therefore, admit that the spelling (J AAw.^ 

1 ® 
proves that the inscription belongs to a time when " the town of 

Aten was already spoken of;" and as the simple mention of the sun's 

* Mr. Renouf has already suggested that a similar mistake might be the origin 
of the reading Hr ^ ^ j] in two copies of Chapter CX of the Book of the 
Dead. See Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XVII, p. 99. The present case confirms his 
suggestion. 

t See for examples of the u'^ual way of spelling both these names, Lepsius, 
Denhndler, III, Bl. 91^, 91/, 92, 93, 94, and 97 <?. That the determinative 
circle employed is intended for ©> ^"'^ not ©, may be seen from 106^, where the 

latter determinative is clearly marked in the expression n* t^. See also Prisse, 

^ ® © 

AIonu»ients, PI. XII, line 4. In Lepsius, DciikniMer, III, 105 /', and r, the sign 

•J- dependent from the circle in both (J n and T" (J ^ is an 

' ^ T ^n' T 

additional corroboration. 

247 T 2 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.ilOLOGY. [1895. 

disk might occur in almost any period of ancient Egyptian history, 
there does not seem to us any reason for ascribing this monument 
to the reign of Ahu-en-aten at all. 

(2.) In the fifth section of his article Dr. Wiedemann attempts to 
show that Tii, the wife of Amenhetpu III, was not actually the 
mother, but the mother-in-law of Ahu-en-aten. This theory was 
put forward ten years ago in an important article by M. Bouriant,* 
but his argument was too briefly stated to be in any way conclusive. 
" La reine Tii," he says, " qui est, en effet, representee dans I'un des 
tombeaux de Tell el-Amarna, comme venant faire visite a Vombre 
dc Rd, dans le temple d'Aten, est qualifiee de ' royale mere de la 
femme royale.' Khunaten n'e'tait done pas son fils, mais simplement 
son gendre."t To this statement we can only reply by the direct 
negative. So far as we can see, Tii is not styled " royal mother of 
the royal wife," but " royal mother, great royal wife." 

Ur. Wiedemann's own position is not quite clear ; but as he 

apparently allows that I I ^^^ ^ means " royal mother, 

^reat royal wife," while he seems to consider the meaning of 

I ^ J.^^:^ci to be "royal mother of the great royal wife," 

we conclude that he takes the /wvw\ of the second phrase as a 

preposition, as if it were found written 1 aaaaaa I "^^ c^. 

This of course is quite a possible construction ; but we, in common 
presumably with the majority of Egyptologists, had taken aaa^w as a 

complementary sign to J, and considered the c^ as at once 
performing the duty of a complementary to I , and at the same 

time joining with / in spelling ' ^ - "mother." According to 

this view the phrase might be written out as follows : I 



o 



* Rectieil de travati.x, Tom VI, pp. 41 — 56. A Thebes. In Le Livre des 
A'ots, by MM. E. Brugsch and Bouriant the same theory also appears. Under 
No. 351 are arranged caitouches of " la reine Tii," and under No. 375 cartouches 
of the "mere de la reine Tii ;" but it is difficult to see what principle has guided 
the editors in their arrangement. 

t Kecneil dc iravanx. Tom VI, p. 52. The scene referred to is published 
in Lepsius, Denkmak}-, III, loi. Curiously enough Tii's titles are given in one 
case in this plate in a form which compels even Dr. Wiedemann to admit that she 
ia sometimes styled Royal Mother. 

248 



Nov.5] PROCEEDINGS. [1^95- 



\ 



"^^^f o. To this construction also we do not think that 

exception can possibly be taken by any Egyptian scholar ; and it 
appears to be supported by such an arrangement of the characters as 

we find in Lepsius, Denkmdkr, III, ico^, 1 o. 1 S'* ^^, where 

it might plausibly be argued that the / is written above in order 

to exhibit both the groups I and clearly before the 

eye. It is true that Dr. Wiedemann appears to consider this method 
of writing the title a mistake ; but he has surely failed to observe 

that it occurs at least as frequently as the I c^ form,* and 

consequently has as good a right to be considered correct. 

But what appears to us to be really decisive of the question is a 
method of writing the title in which the two groups which compose 

it are reversed,! and instead of 1 ^ I .^^^ ^ we have l^^l ^ 
( i^l^^fS ]• This must read "great royal wife, royal mother,'" and 

if 1 has the simple value of "royal mother" in this instance, 

there can be no valid reason why it should be assumed to have the 
additional value of " royal mother of" in the other instances. 

In connection with this question the titles which are given to 
Net'emit-Maut, who was admittedly a blood-relation of the queen of 

Ahu-en aten, are especially valuable.;]: She is designated 1/ I 

O AAA/VNA I 



* See for instance, Lepsius, DenkmciJer, III, loi, I02. In the serond of these 
passages we have the aaaaaa omitted. It is especially worthy of note that this 
occurs in writing the name and dignities of the same scribe as in ioO(/. In one 

case he is ) 1 ^:i I ,'/; 2^=? and in the ether i 1 ^?*. In view 

of the fact that I , I ci , and | are universally admitted to be equivalents 

in other places, we think the burden rests with Dr. Wiedemann to prove that 
they are not so here. 

t Lepsius, Denkmiiler, III, loi. See Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arc/i., XV, p. 213 ; 
Lepsius, A'oiiiqsbiich, II, Taf. XXVIII, 374/'; and E, Brugsch and Bouriant, 
Livte des Rois, Nos. 351, 375. 

X Lepsius, Denhnaler, III, 109. See also Lepsius, A'onii^sbuck, Tdii. XXIX, 
397 ; and E. Brugsch and Bouriant, Livre des Rois, No. 374. 

249 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.tOLOGV. [1S95. 



O 

c^ 



£z. \\ ci J] , in which it is evident that, as the phrase I "'^^j does 

not refer to her, the name of the queen to whom it does refer has 
been inserted in order to remove ambiguity. On the analogy of this 
title, therefore, we should expect to find Tii, if she really were the mother 

or .he queen. s.,,edj£ J g . CSMEH] 

simply.* Another point might also be mentioned. Net'emit-Maut, 
being sister to Nefertiit, must likewise, on Dr. Wiedemann's theory, 
be a daughter of Tii and presumably of Amenhetpu III. But in 

that case should we not expect to find her styled I c^ ^^ ^^ the 

monuments ? This title, however, does not appear to have been 
given to her, and we may therefore infer that she was not of Egyptian 
royal descent, and that her sister Nefertiit consequently was not the 
daughter of Tii.f These considerations are not of course in them- 
selves conclusive ; but they add considerable weight to the previous 
arguments, which were drawn from a review of the different forms of 
Tii's titles found on the monuments. 

* It might possibly be luged that the similarity of the phrases 
1^1^ ^ and 1 ^^ 1 ^ ^ is ^n argument in favour of Dr. 

C /VAAAAA I ili <^ "^ I AAAAAA | C^ < > 

^\ iedemann's view that the two ladies were the sister and mother of the queen. 
But it is not safe to take a phrase away from its context ; it might equally well be 
argaed that the very fact of ihis similarity of phrase compelled the insertion of the 
queen^s name m the description of her sister in order to differentiate the two 
forms of title. 

+ A list of the children of Amenhetpu III appears to be given in Lepsius, 
Denkindki'^ III, BL 86a and /'; but it is too defaced to be of any usc on this 
quesiion. 



250 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



COPTIC FRAGMENTS. 

May 13, 1895. 

Dear Sir, 

During a recent visit to Egypt I procured the following 
Coptic fragments : — 

{a) Vellum, one leaf, about 12 in. x 9^ in., pages JULO — It 
(49 — 50), written in red and black in a large rather careless hand. 
Contains the Sahidic version of Gen. xiii, 1 1 to xiv, 7. Gen. xiv, 2-7 
is wanting in Ciasca's edition of the Sahidic Old Testament, and is, 
so far as I know, unpublished. 

This leaf is said to have come from near Akhmim. 
(b) Vellum, portions of two leaves, about 4^ in. x 35 in., con 
taining the Sahidic version of part of Psalm civ (cv), 6-20, pages 
129-132. 

This fragment was purchased in Cairo with some others con- 
taining portions of the New Testament. 

I remain, 

Yours' faithfully, 

John E. Gilmore. 



5//z August, 1895. 

Dear Mr. Rylands, 

The Coptic fragments which you have sent me, are, so 
far as I have identified them, parts of the Sahidic version of the 
Bible. But it is possible that the manuscript from which they 
were taken was liturgical in character, and only biblical as far as 
containing extracts more or less copious, from the Holy Scriptures. 

251 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1895. 

In the following copy of the larger extracts, I have made no 
attempt to restore the accentuation of the whole, but have only 
retained the signs of accentuation in the words where they are 
visible. 

There are about 12 letters in each line of the MS., and the 
small fragments are in such mutilated condition that no context 
can be presented. The larger fragments are well worth publishing. 
I wish we had more of them. 

P. LE Page Renouf. 



Genesis, Chapter xiii. 

11. . . . Tnepixopoc ij[uiop2^^.itHc- ^.Xojt" Tajonfit 
e^oX^ juLJULd. rtcy^. ^.Tnuupx e^oX nonr^. nonr^.* 
juineqcon. 

12. A. .L^p^.juL o-jfciD^ ^jjL nK^.^ nx^rt^^-^-rt JULrt 
XooT" ^(joooq ^.qo'jfa)^ ^n TnoXic nJUtuepi'xopoc 
^.qcijuDne ^p^i 2>" co2.ojul<l. 

13. npcjojuLe 2^e eT^/t co^^ojul^. ite ^^^^^^o^^poc 
ne ^.TO) rtpeqprtojS.e eJLJL<LT"e JuinejuLxo e^oX 
XJLUXoeic. 

14. nexe nno-rTe rt^-£^p^-JUL juLrincA.T-pe Xcjox nuopx 
e^LoX juLJULoq. xe qiA-XK e^^p^i TertoT ^ii 
^JUL^. e^-iuuuL^.'r eneJUL^iT" juut tiikKt" Xiut 
nejuLriT" julH o^,X^,cc^.. 

15. xe nK^.£, THpq exeKnA-T epoq -f It^-^"^-^-q rt^.K 
JUL It TieKcnepjuL^. oj^, erte^. 

16. ^.-sfcjo i" n^-p neKcuepJULi. itee juLueojoj rtiXnKA.^. 
eojxe oTrt 6^jul ^o'*'^. eeu ncyuj juluk^.^^ 
exeqcLjm julh; Teqcreojc. 

17. xe i~rt<LT~^.^-q ^^.K julTi TeKcnepJUL^L ctj^. erte^. 

18. ^.nfco A. ^.£.p^.^^.JUL ncjune e^oX ^.qei ^.qonfcx?^ 
^^.T^H nnajHit juLiUL^.E.pH n^.i eneqcyoon ^ 
Xe^port A.qKa5x no')fOHci<LcxHpioit juLUXoeic. 

252 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Chapter xiv. 

1. ^.cctjojTTe 2.e 2^H TJUUtTepo rt^.JUL^.p4>^,p nppo 
irve ceit^^^-p" ^-pIUDX nppo Hire ceXX^.^.p* 
Xo2lonfXX^.voJULop iTppo n^-i ajlK e^-pK^-2^ nppo 
rm^eeitoc. 

2. A.'ifeipe itoTiToXTJULoc julfi ^^.Xa-K nppo rtco- 
2^ojuLA. JUL It ^^,pc^. nppo !rtvoJULopp^,• juut 
cenn^-*Lp nppo nA.2^^,JUL^, ^,*rtJo Axit cHJULo^op- 
nppo riceJS.oeiJUL' JJsi nppo rt^^.X^.K• exe x^.i 

T"e CHVCOp. 

3. Ha.1 THpoT <LTqi juLn iteTepHT- exJx. niz,JUL 
julX^^ T"<li tg o^.X^,cc^.rt nne^JULOT- 

4. ^.Tp 2>-W-&^^ l{y^o2^oX>\ovoj(jLop- nxfinTcaoofce 
rtpojuLne- ^ TiULrixcyojuLT'e npojuine ^.1fc^.- 
g^ujoT e^oX. 

5. ^ TJULe^X5utT"A.qxe 2^.e npoJULne ^,qei ncTi 

XO^oXXoVOJULOp- AJLIt HepO? OT eXItJULJUL^Lq. 

^.'ff^X(5^x HrtVI^^.c• exojoon ^ Acx^-pcjoe 
K2ipn^,iJUL' juLn ^en2>^eitoc enrxoop ^JUUUL^,'»' 
A.TCD itrtojL5L<Lioc it^-iGxcyoon ^^ c^.TH TnoXic. 

6. juLrt nexoppeoc n^-ieTojoon ^jul nToonr litceeip- 
a5<L ^p^-i eTTepejuLirtooc 5J4)^.pp^,^• t^,! 
eT^Ti TepHJULoc. A-tkotot .Lvei e^p^.i exrt 
TnHVH nxeKpicic- ex^-i Te k^.2^hc ^-TaJ ^.nr- 
(J^oxcTz. 

Psalm cv. {Sept.) 
6 iteqccjoTrn . . . 

7. [n]xoq ne nxoeic neno-cTe neq .... 

10 T^^VJUL^L" ^.Tco ninX enf2^i^.eHKK cg^. ene^. 

11. eqxcDJULoc xe 'frt^,i"It^-K jljlwki^^ rtx<^tt^-^.It 
ncK . . . noT^ It^"exItKXHponoAJLI^.. 

The fragment continues up to r. 20. 

253 



Nov. 5] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [i«95- 



NOTES UE PHILOLOGIE EGYPTIENNE. 
Par Karl Piehl, 

97. L'edition des textes des pyramides de Saqqarah venant de 
paraitre au complet,t nous sommes maintenant en mesure de jeter 
un coup d'cjeil d'ensemble sur cette litterature, la plus ancienne du 
monde. Nous pouvons aussi a loisir en etudier la langue, tache 
d'autant plus curieuse que cette lan,s;ue offre des differences tres 
notables, quant a la grammaire, par rapport a d'autres epoques, plus 
connues, de I'egyptien. 

M'interessant tout particuli^rement au dictionnaire egyptien, je 
me permettrai cette fois de continuer ce que j'ai commence dans una 
noce anterieure J — j'entends examiner la maniere dont I'editeur 
a traduit et explique une serie de mots qui se voient aux textes des 
pyramides. A ce sujet, je crois devoir faire remarquer que la 
plupart de ces mots se rencontrent dans des textes d'autres 
periodes de I'histoire egyptienne, quoique ce fait quelque fois 
paraisse etre dissimule par I'ecriture que tel ou tel mot revet, quant 
a I'ancien empire. 

(^) ¥!^ • ^^ radical, tres frequent, signifie ongmairement, 

" accomplir, finir, achever, fermer," etc. De la signification originaire 
derive fort logiquement celle de negation, comme je I'ai releve 
ailleurs. Aux textes de Pepi II, se rencontre (1. 767) I'expression 

suivan.: ^ t "^ X = T ^ A ^ k Z: ^ 

* Voir Proceedings, XVI, page 254. 

t Vers le milieu du mois de Juillet passe. L'article meme porte la date du 
22 deceml)re, 1892, ce qui n'empeche pas, que les epreuves en aient pu etre 
corrigees 4 ou 5 mois plus tard. Voir Recucil de Vieweg, XIV, Livraisoas 3 et 4. 

X rrocredt/igs, XV, page 249 et suiv. 

254 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

|\ "^(1(1 qu'a traduite* M. Maspero de la sorte : "Salutatoi," 

CEil d'Horus, qu'il a muni de ses deux mains creatrices:' Ici je 
crois devoir traduire : " Salut a toi, oeil d'Horus, qu'il a re7npli de 
ses deux mains ramies:' II est vrai que le copte possede un verbe 
T^-JULIO, eA.JULIO,t ayant le sens de " creer, faire," mais ce sens 
n'a pas ete reconnu jusqu'ici pour le mot ^^\ de la langue 

ancienne; et du reste, le mot copte qui equivaut a ^^ ^\ est 
plutot TOJJUL, eCJOJUL. 

Tres-instructif pour le sens du passage cit^ est celui-ci : t (I 



" II a parcouru les deux ciels entiers, il a passe les deux parties de 
I'Egypte." 

Nous n'avons pas besoin de nous homer a I'ancien empire pour 
trouver des exemples du sens " entier, complet," quant au mot 

^ ^\ . En voici un, § datant des basses epoques : — »— u u 



n y -Vi^ ^=> tin T ^ d I . Ici ^ joue le 

^ I {^ „ I I I >=n: h ^^^ 11 ii o I INI >i3: 

role, qu'a tres souvent le mot ^-^ dans les inscriptions de la meme 
periode. — Pour un autre exemple, on pent consulter Naville, 
Litanie, page 18. 

Le sens "entier, complet, tout" que nous attribuons a \_^ ^^^^ 

derive naturellement des significations, "accomplir, achever," que 
tout le monde a adoptees pour ce vocable. 

{li) ^^ 'I \ signifie, "jambes, cuisses," comma les dgj'ptologues 

s'accordent a admettre depuis longtemps. Dans cet emploi, le mot 

est synonyme de (J 8 "^ 1 ^ > comme nous le prouve une comparaison 

* Recueil, XII, page 160. 

t Ce verbe pouriait bien etre I'^quivalent de I'ancien AO^ b^ 1 > 1"' aurait 
subit des changements phoneliqiies, par suite d'un jeu de I'analogie. 

X Pyramide d^Oituas, 1. 514. M. Masi'EKO a ici tres bien rendu \ ^ ^\ 
p?r " entier." 

§ Mariette, Daidciah, IV, 306. 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOG\''. [1S95. 
entre les deux exemples suivants : [1 — v\ ^/wwv ^ ^ * et 



A^-fl 



(^ 



jU^UlJj 



O 



o 1^ 



ur^ 



Par centre ^^ 1 1 "^ signifie pas "pieds," et le passage que 

voici : "^^O <cb> '^^3^ ll J ne peut se traduire, "fille de Ra, 

qui est sur les pieds de Ra," comme le veut M. Maspero,§ mais 
" fille de Ra, qui est sur les jambes — c'est-a-dire sur le setn — du dieu." 
Cette difference d'acception paraiira peut-etre insignifiante, mais elle 
ne Test pas, si Ton regarde le role mythologique qu'elle implique 
dans I'un et I'autre cas. Celle qui est sur les pieds du dieu-solaire 
le foule sous les pieds ; elle est par consequent son ennemi. Celle 
qui est sur le sein du dieu est intime avec lui, et c'est la un role 
qui- convient a la fille du dieu. 

Evitons done d'eniployer le sens "pieds" pour le mot .^^AA/v^^^. 

(c) - \- nous est deja connu par le Dictionnaire de Brugsch, 

qui y attache fort bien la signification "pilote." Le mot en question 
se retrouve au:: textes des pyramides dans la phrase suivante : 

ce.qu'a rendu M. MasperoU de la sorte 

"biens de qui est dans Pceil de la barque divine;" et aussi dans 

I'expression suivante /A [1- - ©,** traduitepar M. Maspero,!! 

de la sorte : " gateaux a qui est dans Peril de Ra." 

Traduisons "biens du pilote de la barque divine," "gateaux 
du pilote de Ra," les deux passages susmentionnes. 

{d) I w I \ (^. Ce mot se rencontre dans les inscriptions de la 
pyramide de Merenra, ou a la ligne 769, on lit ceci: f O _^^^^AAA^^ | 

□^ ¥^ "^ 1 "^^ S—A ° ^~~^ J "^ "^ K '^ -^ ^ ^^ "^^^ ^ ^^^ traduit : X \ 
"car c'est Mirinri qui empoigne la couronne blanche liee a la 

* Pyramide de Pepi I, 1. 401. t Brugsch, T/icsainus, page 46 1. 

:J: Pyi-aniide de Pepi II, 1. 956. § Keciteil. XII, page 184. 

II Pyramide de Pepi II, 1. 625 = 7\'/a, 1. 91, = Merenra, 1. 241. 
II Recueil, V, page 15. ** Pyramide d^Ounas, 1. 184. 

•H" Recueil, III, page 197. XX Kecueii, XI, page 27. 

256 



w 



Nov. 5] TROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

couronne verte," truduction qui reellement repond au fonds de 
notre passage. Toute fois, c'est par pur hazard que cette con- 
cordance entre forme et fonds b'est etablie. Car dans la traduction 

citee, ua n'a pas ete rendu; et cze=; (^ no signifie pas "lier." 

II est vrai, que Brugsch * depuis longtemps nous a fait connaitre 

la racine 1 w 1 " her," mais cette racine n'a guere a faire avec notre 

groupe I . / (3 . 

Ce dernier est a regarder comme une variante ou una forme 

dialectale du vocable ^j^ *V\ (2 qui notoirement denote le croc 

qui orne la couronne rouge \J . 

Notre passage se traduit done de la maniere que voici : " c'est 
Merenra qui saisit la couronne blanche qui s'appuie sur le croc de 
la couronne verte." 

(^) 4-_L i^ ^ "racine." Ce pretendu groupe ne m'est connu que 

Q n 

d'un seul passage de texte — Pepi II, 1. 662 — oil se lit: /wwva 

A/V\AAA 

\l lJO\^nj(J) ce qu'a traduit M. Maspero de la sorte: "ce 

jour de repousser les Rayonnants qui te disent la racine de Pepi 
Noferkeri. — Dire: Ja. Hal" 

II est evident que II (I ^^ de ce passage doit se couper en 

deux: II "ceci" et (I ^ '-'pere," ce dernier titre applique au roi 

defunt, qui souvent s'appelle " pere," dans les textes des pyramides. 
La fin de notre citation signifie done " dire ceci, 6 pbre Pepi, a 
savoir Ta. Haa." Quant au debut, il me senible douteux qu'il 

existe un verbe [1^7^ "repousser." Je lirais plutot J J\, c& 
qui fournit un mot frecjuent et dont I'emploi est connu. D'ailleurs 
le mot "racine " s'ecrit J-i-^ xTt ^^^ textes des pyramides. 
Evitons done d'adoDter le mot inexact J A. I c> "racine." 



m-"' 



Wdrterbti(h VII, page 1174. 
257 



Ifl 



Nov. 5] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL A:^CH.E0L0GV. [1S95. 

(/) X [1^1 I . Ce mot, il y a longtemps, a ete explique par 

M. Le Page Renouf,* comme signifiant " vapeur," acception que, 
entre autres, Brugsch f a cru devoir admettre. M. Maspero le 
traduit partout par " flamme," comme dans cette expression-ci : 

::z=> qu'il a traduite : " lis elevent Pepi Noferkeri au ciel, au 
O 

ciel, sur la flamme de I'encens." I Nous prefererions traduire de la 

sorte : "lis eyiVcvettt Pepi vers le ciel, dans les vapeurs de I'encens." 

Ces dernieres paroles nous paraissent plausibles, car elles repondent 

a ce que Tame exaltee peut sentir au milieu des bouffees d'encens 

qui s'elevent vers le haut — et il ne faut pas oublier que le langage 

des textes des pyramides est un langage concret, emprunte en grande 

partie a la vie de tous les jours. 

De meme, le passage suivant: (<:zr> [1 ^\\ D ^) "^ 

Q 11 iX ''^'^(J ° "^^^^^^ '^^ signifie pas "sa bouche se manifeste par 
la flamme de la grande rosce"% car la rosee n'a pas de flamme. II 
faut plutot traduire, " il sort sur la vapeur de la grande rosee," et par 
la on se sert d'une expression parfaitement logique, car la rosee se 
transforme en vapeur ou resulte de vapeur. 

Gardens alors pour le mot 8 |lci|jl le sens "vapeur," etabli et 

admis par tout le monde, et effa^ons celui de " flamme," introduit 
par M. Maspero. 

is) ^^ I I f/r mot jusqu'ici inconnu, qui selon M. Maspero 

fournirait un nouveau nom d'astre. Voici le passage || d'ou le 
pretendu vocable a ete tire : 

* Zeitschrift, 1877, page 107. t Woitcrhuih, VI, page 859. 

X Recucil de Vieweg, XII, page 184. La traduction " elever," proposee par 
M. V. LoRET et adoptee par M. Maspero pour "^^^ ^ a ete montree etre 

inexacte par nous {Proceedings, XII, page 374). Le passage d'Ounas '*^^ jl 
J, \^ ^\ /^> (1- 493) niontte I'inanite de la traduction "elever " pour le 

verbe en question, a inoins qu'on n'etablisse I'equation : elever = baisser, ce qu 
serait porter atteinte a la langue fran9aise. 

§ Pepi II, ligne 747. II Pyraviide de Alcrenra, ligne 765. 

258 



Nov. 51 rROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

[ jQ^ *=^^^^> I I "T* il ^^~- > ^^ ^^^ notre excellent confrere 



avait rendu par: "c'est Mi'r/nn, I'astre Ouapshou, et le ciel admet 
ce Pepi (en lui) comme dieu defenseur."* L'explication que nous 
voudrions soutenir dans ce cas, a a peu pres la lorme suivante : 
" Merenrd est une e'toile qui parseme le ciel (de rayons) ; ce Pepi 
monte, comme dieu defenseur." 

Contre I'acception de M. Maspero parlent plusieurs particularites. 

Ainsi, le groupe ^ ^W n'a pas le sens transitif ; t pour en avoir, 

il aurait fallu inserer le prefixe I, caracteristique des causatifs 
egyptiens. Puis, une expression " I'astre Ouapshou " s'ecrirait 
plutot I 1 pk \J I ■■ I r^ ii , c'est-a-dire determinee par une etoile. 

Cfr. [1 J ^ c:^> ^ ^ " ^'"^^^^'^ ^^ matin."! 

Le groupe \J 1 1 I'^r nous est connu depuis longtemps, et 

Brugsch I'a deja insere dans son grand dictionnaire.§ Toutefois le 
sens "illuminer, eclairer," que I'eminent savant allemand attache au 
mot en question, n'est que secondaire. La signification originaire 
est peut-etre : " parsemer, jeter 9a et la," comme pour I'expression 

suivante, empruntee a un texte de basse epoque: {C^ H J4 

/ O^^'-^H- «jg parseme ton siege d'oeil d'Horus."|| 

12^000 

Eliminons done le pretendu vocable \J 1 - 1 //u "I'astre 

D "^ 

Ouapshou." 

(k) ^^^zz:^!] ^^\ , "Kaid," nom d'etoile selon I'editeur des 

textes des pyramides. Le passage ou a ete releve ce nom nouveau 

est ceM-ci:^ (] Q^ fl ® MiMM ^Jj^T-^ 

* Recueil de Vieweg, XI, page 26. t Voir plus loin de notre article. 
X Pyramide de Pepi 11, ligne 948. 
§ Hierogl. dent,, Worterbuch, I, page 58. 
II DiJMiCHF.N, Baugeschichtc des Denderatempeh, pi. 47. 
^ Pyramide de Tela, ligne 239 = Pyramide dOiinas, ligne 419. 

259 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 



^ii'Pj.':.^^^!! 



^^3^ ^ "O terreur 



des champs de J^a/d et (T Apaoii-an-siho2i, lorsqu'ils ont vu le pilier 
de Konsii,"* comme I'a traduit M. Maspero. Je ne crois pas etre 



trop hardi en ecartant ^__^ '^ R ® ^^ |^ \^ ^^zz^ comme 

un mol compose, ce qui nous autorise a lire le groupe que le suit 

, ixat. Par la, nous obtenons un mot comprehensible au 

point de vue etymologique, tandisque Kaid reste inexplicable. 

J'imagine que ceux qui connaissent I'astronomie egyptienne 
pourront etabler un lien intime — non seulement sous le rapport de 



I'etymologie ! — entre M Vv ^, et 

Pour le moment, il me suffit d'avoir ecarte ie pretendu mot 
nom d'etoile." 



>k 



(/) ® y\ Sous cette forme, les textes des pyramides 

donnent un mot que I'editeur en a era devoir couper en deux, et qu'il 
traduit, " embrasser les deux horisons." Les variantes de ce groupe 

compose sont fort peu de nombre — on rencontre ® vf), 

et ® \\ — et nulla part je n'ai trouve les deux precedes 



/■^vww 



O 
de '^v^ , la lecture habituelle de "I'horison," quant a cet order de 

textes. Cette derniere circonstance fournit une preuve indirecte a 
I'appui de notre these. Examinons d'ailleurs quelques exemples de 

I'emploi du groupe ® | | ! 



* Reciieil de Vieweg, IV, page 47. La transcription Apaou-an-sibou ne me 
plait pas non plus, pour le groupe '^ V\ \\y 1 ^rfV - Celui-ci est 

compose de '^ v\ " ce qui 5ont devant " et [|l | 1 " le pilier des 

etoiles. " Mais la tete humaine ^ ne se lit pas — a ma connaissance — «/ avant 
I'entree des basses epoques. A mon avis, il faut la lire ici tep, et la groupe entier: 
Tcpdou-dn-sibott. 

260 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

" Pepi* va sur ces deux horisons du ceil " [M. Maspero :t " Ce Pepi 
va pour embrasser ces deux horisons du cie'i'."] 

=-(ll]^0'^°'=' 1 V T-""^o: "iv„W(= passer 

les deux horisons du ciel par la barque de Ra [M. Maspero :§ " Fais 
que la barque de Ra soit enfermee entre les deux horisons du ciel."] 

Evidemmment, je rapproche ® ( | du groupe frequent 

/www ( ) 

1 |, II qu'on rencontre souvent pendant le nouvel Empire. 
(k) g >x jyy TiVio/i/, noni de deesse que M. Maspero a 



releve deux fois dans les textes de Tda,^ et qui n'a pas ete corrige 
par lui pour les passages correspondants des autres pyraniides. 
Nous avons evidemment a remplacer le nom nouveau par le nom 

ancien Q Jm>. qui se voit dans d'autres textes de la meme epoque.** 

(/) ^ ^^ a ete rendu par "entrer," et son causatif par 

" introduire," tandisque le vrai senstt de ce vocable est "monter," 
caus. " faire monter, elever." Dans les textes des pyramides, je n'ai 
nulle part rencontre un «=:r:r> final pour se mot, ni dans les variantes 
a determinatifs, ni dans celles qui manquent de cette particularite 

graphique. Neanmoins il est certain que ^ ^pi equivaut a 
Sij^, plus moderne quoique le <zr> du premier ait ete passe 

grace a son caractfere de liqiiida sojians. Comme temoignage de 
cette equation, je citerai : 

{Teta, 2S1] =I!IL^^ 



AiVSiVNA AVSAAA (| ff <^ <p- A'SAAAA 



[von Beromann, Reciieil, VI, 165.] 

\ ' — ° ^ ""^ 1 I (P'^""^' ^^^^- ^^'''''•' I^XXXII, 6) = ^ 

n^ v^.^^ n \_Merenra, 460J. 



(w) ^AAAA^ ^^ "Se poser." Ce sens, propose par M. Maspero 
pour le mot en question, n'est guere exacte. Pour I'accepter, il 

* Pyraniide de Pepi /, ligne 392. f Rcciicil de Vieivcg, VII, page 109. 

X Pyramide de Pepi I, ligne 177. § Rcctteil de Viciveg, V, page iSS. 

II Eruc.sch, Wdrierbiich,\Y, page 1295. H Pyramide de Teta, ligiies 89, 90. 
** Inscription hiograpliiqne d'Ouna, ligne 40. 
tt Brugsch, Worterbttch, I, pages 204, 205. 

261 U 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

faudrait connaitre une variante, donnant pour determinatif un ideo- 
gramme, designant "s'asseoir." Mais je n'en connais pas pour ma 
part. Mieux vaut alors admettre le sens, donne il y a longtemps par 
Brugsch,* a savoir, " planer, se soutenir les ailes immobiles." Les 



textes des pyramides nous font voir le mot aaaaaa ^^ en qualite de 
synonyme du verbe ak' ^^. '' voler." Un passage comma celui-ci : t 



<::zr> "^ ne signifie done pas "Ounas vole comme un oiseau, il se 

pose comme un scarabee," % mais plutot, " Ounas vole comme un 

oiseau, il plane comme un scarabee." Ici, /wvw. ^o^ peint le mouve- 

ment irregulier et gauche le voltigejiient du scarabee, qui veut volar, 
sans pouvoir le faire comma un veritable oiseau. 



Le determinatif v^ represente une scene, souvent vue par ceux 

qui ont visite la campagne de I'Egypte. C'est un oiseau aquatique — 
le grebe je crois — qui plane dans I'air, en attendant le moment 
favorable pour plonger dans le canal du Nil, d'ou il va rapporter un 
poisson. 

* * * * * 

Voila une douzaine de mots — la plupart depuis longtemps con- 
nue — pour lesquals I'editeur des textes des pyramides a propose 
des acceptions, plus ou moins inadmissibles. Mais par la, on ne 
pent pas dire qua la liste des inexactitudes, relatives au dictionnaire 
Egyptien, soit videe, comme quelques autres examples, pris au 
hazard, prouvent surabondammant. Que dit-on de la traduction 

"pbras," proposee pour le group (1 de I'expresston suivante:§ 

"tu as frappe les p^ras, tu as moissonne las orgas"]! La paral- 
lalisma des membres aurait du amener le traducteur a voir an 

* Worterbuch, III, page 1089. 
+ Pyrafiiide d Ottnas, ligne 477. 
t Reciieil de Vietveg, IV, page 56, 
§ Recueil, V, page 41. 
262 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

(1^ et 1 III deux choses analogues. II est vrai que le 

mot U n'est pas au dictionnaire de Brugsch a rendroit on ion 
pouvait s^attendre a le rencontrer — j'entends sous la lettre (J — mais 

si Ton consulte la page 1527 du Vol. IV, on le retrouve tout de 
meme avec I'explication necessaire. Est-ce peut-etre la mesinter- 
pretation au point de vue mythologique du dit passage qui a conduit 

fAAAAAA Q q ^ 

de la maniere suivante*(" Je suis Horus, qui venge son pere) j'ai 
frappe pour toi, te frapp ant, ^^ par quoi le jeune Horus, vengeur de 
son pere, devient egalement le chdtieur de son pere ! 

Pourquoi traduiret ^^ par "la crainte," quand Brugsch 

nous en a fort bien appris le sens "eine besondere Entenart?" 

Ou .^^ par "I'Occident," quand le meme lexicographe nous 



enseigne qu'il signifie le contraire, a savoir " I'Orient ? " Ou 

<cr> aK^ tantot par "colombe," tantot par "epervier?" Cette 

derniere hesitation entre deux acceptions, assez divergentes, est peut- 
etre due a Brugsch, qui dans son Dictionnaire (VII, page 1334) 
embrasse les deux sens. Evidemment celui d'cperr/er ou ne 
oiseau congenere est le seul admissible, comme nous le prouvent 
les representations, peintes sur certains cofftes funeraires et relatives 

a I'oiseau <c:r> A^- 

Par ces observations nous croyons avoir montre que nombre 
de mots, employes aux textes des pyramides, ont ete mal interpretes 
par I'editeur de ces textes, surtout parce qu'il a omis de consulter 
les dictionnaires, deja existants, quant a ces mots. 

98. La preposition Copte riGJUL est du nombre des mots du 
I'egyptien chretien dont on ignore I'origine. II est vrai que nous 
rencontrons quelquefois des essais de la rapprocher de (1 q7\ ■=^^ 

de la langue ancienne, mais ces essais sont si timides que nous 
n'avons guere de quoi nous en occuper d'une maniere serieuse. 

Provisoirement, je proposerai dc voir en j ^\ ; I'eciuivalcnt 

* Recueil, XI, page I. t Kccucil, IV, page 5S. 

263 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S95. 

hieroglyphique du Cope nCJUL, et en faveur de cette equation je 
citerai les exemples suivants : 



III o W 



=;(1(1»T^ 5 1 - s 

-—* I I I ° I *■■ ^ ftAAAAA I ^yV\A/V\ 111 

"peindre avec de IV;/// ainsi que { = Joifif a) de la couleur Rot sur 
une pi^ce de linge."* 

^ (I /vwNAA 5 "peindre avec de IV?;//"/ et du parfum frais, ainsi que 

AAAAAA I H 

de la couleur Hoi" sur un morceau d'etoffe rouQ;e."t) 



de Vanti seche, ainsi que de Ptcot du midi, ainsi que de I'eau du 
puits de rOccident, sur une piece d'etoffe verte."J 

t t\ j m "On lui donna une 

chevre, ayant la valeur de 2 unites de poids, ainsi que 5 pieces de 

Uot egalement on lui donna 5 morceaux de bois."§ 

Je crois ne pas etre trop hardi en enon(;ant que I'emploi de 

T v\ , T v\ / de ces exemples presente une analogie tres 

frappante a I'emploi qu'on fait de la preposition nCJUL dans la 
langue neoegyptienne. On a peut-etre de quoi deriver la seconde 

* Tcdtb., chap. loi, ligne 5. t Ibid., 164, ligne 10. 

X Ibid., 163, ligne 15. Cfr. a ce sujet Pleyte, Chapitrcs suppleiiictitaircs 
die Livre des Alois, page 185, ou Ton trouve les laisons de la modification de la 

lecture °^ fi D du Todfb., en cellc de ^^ fi 0. 

§ Inscriptions in the hier. and dem. character, pi. XXIV. M. W. SriEGEL- 
BERG {Reaieil de Vieweg, XV, p. 141) vient de donner une petite etude relative a 
ce texte difficile. En general, ntius tombons d'accord avec les vucs dc ce jeune 
savant, quant a notre ostracon. Le seul point oil nous declinons d'accepter ses 
transcriptions, c'est concernant quelques uns des chiffres. 11 faut en effet se 
souvenir, que le sigle liieratique, rcpresenlant 4, (juand il designc Ic cjuantieme 
du mois, equivaut a 5 pour d'autrcs annolalitnis nuuieriques. 

264 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

de la premiere. J'^ijoute d'ailleurs que j'ai fonde ma lecture ;/^w, 
quant au groupe I ^^ > sur les arguments qu'ont donnes les 
Brugsch et L?: Page Renouf en faveur de la dite lecture. 

II m'est connu qu'il y a des egyptologues qui attribuent a T v^ 
la valuer de ?//ie///, mais je n'ai pas vu de preuves satisfaisantes 
etablissant cette equation, et le fait, que le copte O'^CJO^^eAX 

quelquefois a un sens identique a celui de j ^J\ > ^^ ^'^''^ parait pas 

definitivement resoudre le probleme. Car OtU^^£XX peut fort 
bien deriver de Ote^, de meme que p. ex. eiCJDpeJUL derive de Ipl. 
99. Le papyrus Abbot contient (page VII, ligne 10) une expres- 
sion que tout le monde parait avoir meconnue. Voici ce qu'on 
y a lu : 

1 S 2il <=> Jr o I ^ e ^^ .vwws _M^ I il ^ 



III 

c'est la a peu pres la lecture commune de Chabas, de M. Maspero 
et de M. von Lemm {Lesestikke). La traduction de Chabas:* "Et 
comme il fit sa jactance pour les lieux," et celle de M. Maspero :t 
" Or apres qu'il eiJt profere des paroles par rapport aux lieux," 
s'accordent tres bien, comme explication de notre passage. Toute- 
fois, je ne connais aucun exemple en faveur d'une acception sem- 



blable de I'expression '^ ' ^^=^ ^j ; — . 

Cette expression n'est du reste pas la reproduction exacle de 
I'original hieratique qui plutot renferme ceci: v\ L==/] »< 

En introduisant cette petite correction, nous avons pour le 
passage entier le sens suivant : " II a ouvert sa bouche centre les 
lieux grands." 

La maniere dont le scribe a ici rendu le groupe j , ne peut 

faire sujet d'etonnement, si nous regardons le mot [1 ^ ^^!v ^ 

de la meme page (VII), ligne 11, car | de ce dernier groupe a 
exactement la meme forme que le ^^~^ qui nous occupe. 

* Melanges Egyptologiqitcs, III, page 139. 
+ Uiic ciiqiutc jitiiiiaire, page 54. 
265 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [1895. 

(3 X <rz> 

La locution r- ^ nous est bien connue d'autres textes, 

p. ex. n \\ r „ I <z=> "T" QA " n ouvre pas ta 

bouche pour proferer des jurons."* 

100. En publiant son " Agyptische Grammatik,"i ouvrage qui a 
paru ces jours-ci, M. Erman de Berlin a rendu a notre science un 
service signal^. Quelle que soient les remarques qu'on puisse 
adresser a cette grammaire — et nous en avons un certain nombre — 
on ne peut nier qu'elle ne possede des qualites, tres serieuses, qui 
lui conferent une place a part parmi les publications egyptologiques 
qu'ont vu apparaitre les anndes dernieres. 

Ce n'est pas maintenant le moment de critiquer I'ouvrage entier 
de M, Erman, il faut du temps pour arriver a accomplir en con- 
science une tache aussi ardue que celle-la. En attendant que j'aie 
fini les recherches, indispensables a pareille entreprise, il sera peut- 
etre permis d'examiner certains points de detail que notre savant 
confrere a notre avis a traites trop a la legere. 

Un tel point de detail nous est fourni par le paragraphe 372, ou 
se lit : " Eine, in klassischer Sprache wohl veraltete, Verstarkung der 

Negation ist T — (W," apres quoi I'auteur donne les deux seuls 



exemples que voici : H I ._n^^^\\A .^ a "wennes 






nicht in eurem Besitz ist ; " T x " '^^^ ward Gleiches 

gethan." 

Nous croyons que cette nouvelle regie est erronee, et cela nous 
senible resulter d'un examen attentif des deux exemples, sur lesquels 
la dite regie a ete echafaudee. 

La premiere citation se voit dans I'enchainement de phrases 

suivant : [j V\ ^^^^ <=> ^ ^ ¥\ ^ V^ g=i I ^ I <=> 

traduire de la sorte : " Vous allez m'enrichir beauconp de ce que vous 

■"" Inscriptions in the hicr. and don. cJiaracter XVIII. — Le sens litteral de 

v\ r- est sans doute "faire la petite bouche." 

t Adolf Erman, Agyptische Graini/iatih, Berlin, 1894(1). Reuther und 
Reichard, 

266 



Nov. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

avez eu prbs de vous ; si vous n'en avez pas, vous allez dire par votre 
bouche."* Ici, 1 T est done une expression adverbiale — 

plus souvent ecrite <rr> I — appartenant a la phrase anterieure, 

tandis que .^ju. introduit la phrase suivante. La nouvelle rfegle est 
done ici de trop. 

Quant au second exemple de M. Erman, il se voir au milieu 
d'une expression dont le debut et la fin ont ete detruits, et qui par 
consequent peut autoriser plusieurs acceptions. Voici la dite expres- 

iiS I' ^=^ A "^ E ^ ^ ^^ t iSf^ra !^ 

'^0^0. J Un passage de la meme inscription portant ceci : 



sion 



i T '^^^^ ^^ '0>i, il ii"ie semble peu probable que T .<2>-, etc., 

renferme une negation orditiaire. Toutefois, il est possible que la 
phrase en question renferme une proposition negative : " Voici que 
rien de pareil n'a ete fait par aucun grand'pretre a aucune epoque " 
mais cela serait alors la consequence d'une modification, 

apportee dans la signification originaire de T "accomplir, terminer, 

FiNiR." Une traduction plus litterale sonnerait peut-etre de la sorte : 
"C'est fini que Taction de pareilles choses par tout grand'pretre," etc. 

T jouerait alors ici un role analogue a celui de la soi-disante negation 

^ jpr-iT ^^\ , qui n'est en realite qu'un verbe, si Ton en tient compte 

de I'emploi syntactique. 

Tout bien considere, on peut en toute assurance effacer la 
nouvelle regie, qui demanderait des preuves, bien autrement solides, 
pour pouvoir esperer quelque avenir dans notre science. 

* Grebaut, Le niusee egyptien, pi. iS. — La maniere dont certaines publica- 
tions se poursuivent en cgyptologie, merite d'etre signalee. Ainsi, rediteur du 
" Musee egyptien " deja en 1891 s'est fait remettre tout le prix de la livraison 
1'=''^ de ce Recueil, et maintenant (29 Decembre, 1893) on n'a vu paraitre que le 
premier fascicule de la dite livraison et pas meme celui-la au complet. A quand 
la suite? 

t Mariette, Mastabas, 390. 



267 



Nov. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. • [1895. 



Tlie next Meeting of the Society will be holden on 
Tuesday, 3rd December, 1895, at 8 p.m., by kind permission 
of the Council of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
in their Lecture Room, at 

9, CONDUIT STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

Mr. Grey Hill will read a paper on "A Journey East 
of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, 1895." 

A large number of Piiotographic Lantern Slides, taken 
on the spot, will be shown in illustration of the journey. 



268 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price 5s. each. With full Illustrations of the Vignettes. 
Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is now Raised to £3 for the 8 Parts, 



^be lEg^ptian ^oo\{ of the S)eab, 

BEING A 

Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes, 

By p. LE page RENOUF, Esq. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ Series of ^Blates of tf)e Figncttts of tte tiiffEtcnt (iTi^apters. 



The request having been made by a number of friends that this 
translation, &c., should be issued in a different form, so as to be a 
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Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
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Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President. 
P. LE Page Renouf. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halskury. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

F. D. MocATTA, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev, Charles James Ball. 
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Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 
Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
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Prof. G. Maspero. 



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Prof. E. Naville. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A. 
J. Pollard. 
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&c. 
E. Towry Whyte, M.A. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

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Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRUSON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIn'S LANE. 



VOL. XVII. Part 8. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

^.^' 

VOL. XVII. TWENTY-FIFTH SESSION. 

Seventh Meeting, December yd, 1895. 

«^ 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
P. Le Page Renouf (President). — The Book of the Dead, 

Chapter CXXV, Part III {Plate) 273-277 

Theo. G. Pinches. — Water Rate in Ancient Babylonia 278,279 

Prof. Dr. Aug. Eisenlohr. — Egyptian Chronology 2S0-283 

Robert Brown, Jun., F.S.A. — Euphralean Stellar Researches. 

Part V, The Archaic Lunar Zodiac {to be continued) 284-303 

^c;tf^ 

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-SIXTH SESSION, 1895-96. 



Seventh Meeting, yd December, 1895. 
P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Esq., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



-*;e- 



I very much regret that, owing to my havhig been mis- 
informed, though the authority appeared to be sufficiently 
rehable, the decease of Professor Eberhard Schradcr was 
announced in the November Procccdi)igs. I am happy to 
be able to state that Professor Schrader is now rapidly 
recovering from his recent illness. 

[No. cxxxiii.] 269 X 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1S95. 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Rev. James Marshall. — CEuvres choisies de A. J. 
Letroniie, Membre de I'Institut, assemblies, mises en ordre 
et augmentees d'un index par E. Fagnan. Deuxieme serie, 
geographic et Cosmographie. 2 vols. Paris. 8vo. 1883. 

From the Author : — Michael Petrovo-Solovovo. A short sketch 
of the History of the relations between Assyro-Babylonia and 
the Hebrews. (In Russian.) St. Petersburg. 8vo. 1895. 

From the Author : — Rev. Alan Spencer Hawkesworth. On the 
identity of Hebrew and Aryan Roots. Fol. 1895. 

From the Author : — Rev. James Johnstone. The Bible de- 
molishes the Criticism of the Higher Critics. Edinburgh. 
8vo. 1895. Appendix B. 1895. „ 



The following Candidates were submitted for election, 
having been nominated at the last Meeting, held on the 5th 
November, 1895, and were elected Members of the Society : — 

Mrs. George Bennett, 4, Hampton Grove, Surbiton, Surrey. 

Sam. Bergheim, 41, Norfolk Square, VV. 

Alfred Charles Bryant, 5, Dagmar Terrace, Alexandra Park, Wood 

Green. 
James Johnstone, 8, Merchiston Park, Edinburgh. 
J. R. Mayfield, Eastbourne. 

H. J. Innes Whitehouse, 107, Farleigh Road, Stoke Newington, N. 
A. Goodinch Williams, F.S.A., The London Institution, Finsbury 

Circus, E.G. 
Charles Hanson Greville Williams, F.R.S., F.C.S., F.I.C., Castle- 

maine, Oakhill Road, Putney, S.W. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 
The University Library, Bonn, Germany. 
The Melbourne Library, Australia. 

The Luxor Sporting Club. Rev. C. B. Huleatt, M.A., Librarian, 
Luxor, Egypt. 

270 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held the 14th January 1896 : — 

W. H. Brown, B.A., London, 21, Cambridge Street, Eccleston 

Square. 
John Stanton, Chorley, Lancashire. 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns, M.A., Queens' College, Cambridge. 
James Wheeler, Chardmore Road, Upper Clapton. 

To be added to the List of Subscribers : — 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Public Libraries (Basil Anderton, B.A,, 
Chief Librarian). 



The following Paper was read by Mr. Gray Hill, Author 
of " With the Bedouins." 



A JOURNEY EAST OF THE JORDAN AND THE 
DEAD SEA, 1895. 

This Paper was illustrated by a large number of lantern slides, 
photographed on the spot. Many of the places of which views 
were exhibited have never been photographed before. 

TheTollowing is a list of some of the places visited during the 
journey : — 

A fourth Attempt to reach Petra. Jerusalem to Yadiueh. The 
Beni Sakhr Beduins. Stormy weather. Ruins of Yadiudeh. 
Sheik Arar of Petra. A Thief, Ruins of Umm Moghr. Sheik 
Hazah and his relatives. A seeming reconciliation. We start 
for the Ruined Castle of Khauranee ; an Alarm and a Hurried 
Retreat. Return] to__, Umm Mogr. We try again. A strange 
Night in the Castle. Arrest of the Herald. No Water. The 
Aenezeh are coming ; we retreat again. Hazah's Camp. Ruins 
of Umm Shettah. We steer for Kerak. The Waters of Dimon, 
The Christian Boy. New Way of Fishing. The Gorge of the 
Arnon. The Keraki. " This is your Last Night." A Shower 

271 X 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

of Bullets, Intervention of an Uncle. We appeal for Justice 
and Permission to visit Petra. Descent to the Dead Sea. The 
Ghor es Safiyeh. The Robber's Gully. Mr. Forder's ex- 
perience. A Long Day. The Pass of Ain Jidy. Home 
again. 

Remarks were added by Messrs. Walter Morrison, Vice- 
Pr€side?it, W. G. Thorpe, P. R. Reed, Rev. R. Gwynne, 
Rev. Dr. Lowy, Mr. Charles Hamilton, and Mr. Gray Hill. 

Thanks were returned to Mr. Hill for this communication. 

A vote of thanks to the President and Council of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, for kindly allowing 
the Society the use of their lecture room, was proposed by 
Mr. Thomas Christy, seconded by Mr. F. Pollard, and carried 
unanimously. 

A vote of thanks to the Palestine Exploration Fund for 
allowing the use of a copy of their large raised map of 
Palestine, was proposed by the Rev. Dr. Lowy, seconded by 
Mr. Gray Hill, and carried unanimously. 




272 



PLATE XXXII. 



BOOK C 




Chapter CXXV. Papyrus Brit. Mus 



rHE DEAD. 



Proc, Soc Bibl. Arch., Dec, 1895. 





ro. 9,90J, and Papyrus Leyden, No. II. 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 



BOOK OF THE DEAD. 
P. LE Page Renouf. 



CHAPTER CXXV. 
Part III. 

[Said upon approaching to the gods who are in the Tuat. (31)] 

Hail ye gods, I know you and I know your names ; let me not 
be stricken down by your blows : report not the evil which is in me 
to the god whom ye follow. Let not reverse (32) of mine come to 
pass through you. 

Let not evil things be said against me in presence of the Inviolate 
One ; because I have done the right in Tamerit. 

I revile not the god : let not reverse of mine come to pass 
through the King who resideth within His own Day. (33) 

Hail ye gods who are in the Hall of Righteousness, who have 
nothing wrong about you ; who subsist upon Righteousness in 
Annu, and who sate themselves with cares, (34) in presence of the 
god who resideth within his own Orb : deliver me from Babai who 
feedeth upon the livers of princes on the Day of the Great Reckon- 
ing. 

Behold me : I am come to you, void of wrong, without fraud, a 
harmless one : let me not be declared guilty ; let not the issue be 
against me. 

273 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

I subsist upon Righteousness : I sate myself with uprightness of 
heart : I have done that which man prescribeth and that which 
pleaseth the gods. 

I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I have 
given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, 
a boat to the shipwrecked. I have made oblations to the gods and 
funeral offerings to the departed ; deliver me therefore : protect 
me therefore : and report not against me in presence of the great 
god. 

I am one whose mouth is pure, and whose hands are pure, to 
whom there is said "Come, come in peace," by those who look 
upon him. 

For I have listened to the words which were spoken by the Ass 
and the Cat in the house of Hept-ro. (35) 

And I have undergone the inspection of the god Whose face is 
behind him, who awardeth my verdict (36), so that I may behold 
what the Persea tree covereth (37) in Restau. 

I am one who glorifieth the gods and who knoweth the things 
which concern them. 

I am come and am awaiting that inquisition be made of Right- 
fulness and that the Balance be set upon its stand within the bower 
of amaranth. (38) 

thou who art exalted upon thy pedestal and who callest thy 
name. Lord of Air : deliver me from those messengers of thine 
who inflict disasters (39) and bring about mishaps. No covering 
have they upon their faces. 

For I have done the Righteousness of a Lord of Righteousness. 

1 have made myself pure : my front parts are washed, my back 
parts are pure, and my inwards steeped in the Tank of Righteous- 
ness. There is not a limb in me which is void of Righteousness. 

I purify me in the Southern Tank, and I rest me at the northern 
lake, in \he Garden of Grasshoppers. (40) 

The Boatmen of Ra purify them there at this hour of the night 
or day (41) and the hearts of the gods are appeased (42) when I pass 
through it by night or by day. 

Let him come (43) : that is what they say to me. 

Who, pray, art thou ? that is what they say to me. 

What, pray, is thy name ? that is what they say to me. 

" He who groweth under the Grass (44) and who dwelleth in 
the Olive tree " is my name. 

274 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [ifgS. 

Pass on, then : that is what they say to me. 

I pass on to a place north of the Olive. 

What, prithee, didst thou see there ? 

A thigh (45) and a leg. 

And what, prithee, said they to thee ? 

That I shall see (46) the greetings in the lands there of the 
Fenchu : 

What, prithee, did they give to thee? 

A flame of fire and a pillar of crystal. 

And what, prithee, didst thou to them ? 

I buried them on the bank of the Lake of Maait as Provision of 
the Evening. 

What, prithee, didst thou find there on the bank of the Lake of 
Maait ? 

A sceptre of flint : ' Giver of Breath ' is its name. 

And what didst thou to the flame of fire and to the pillar of 
crystal after thou hadst buried them ? 

I cried out after them and drew them forth : and I extinguished 
the fire, and I broke the pillar, and I made a Tank. 

Thou mayest now enter through the door of the hall of 
Righteousness, for thou knowest us. 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the Leaf (47) of the Door, 
unless thou tell my name : 

" The Pointer of Truth " (48) is thy name. 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the right side post (49) of 
the Door, unless thou tell my name. 

"The Scale-pan (50) of one who lifteth up Right"' is thy 
name. 

I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the left side post of the 
Door, unless thou tell my name : 

" The Scale-pan of Wine " is thy name. 

I allow thee not to pass over me, saith the Threshold of the 
Door, unless thou tell my name : 

" Ox of Seb " is thy name. 

I open not to thee, saith the Lock of the Door, unless thou tell 
my name : 

Bone of An-maut-ef is thy name. 

I open not to thee, saiih the Latch, unless thou tell my name : 

"The Eye of Sebak, Lord of Bachan," is thy name. 

275 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-EOLOGY. [1895. 

I open not to thee, and I allow thee not to pass by me, saith 
the Keeper of the Door, unless thou tell my name : 

"The Knee of Shu, which he hath lent for the support of 
Osiris," is thy name. 

We allow thee not to pass by us, say the Lintels of the Door, 
unless thou tell our names : 

"The dragon brood (51) of Renenut " is your name. 

Thou knowest us : pass therefore by us. 

I allow thee not to pass over me, saith the Floor of the Hall, for 
the reason that I am noiseless and clean, and because we know not 
the names of thy two feet, wherwith thou wouldst walk upon us. 
Tell me, then, their names. 

" He who goeth before Amsu " is the name of my right foot : 
and "The Truncheon of Hathor" (52) is the name of my left foot. 

Thou mayest walk over us : for thou knowest us. 

I do not announce thee, saith the Doorkeeper, unless thou tell 
my name : 

" He who knoweth the heart and exploreth the person " (53) is 
thy name. 

Then I will announce thee. 

But who is that god who abideth in his own hour ? Name him. 

He who provideth for (54) the Two Worlds). 

Who, pray, is it ? It is Thoth. 

Come hither, saith Thoth, wherefore hast thou come ? 

I am come, and wait to be announced. 

And what manner of man, prithee, art thou ? 

I have cleansed myself from all the sins and faults of those who 
abide in their own day ; for I am no longer among them. 

Then I shall announce thee. 

But who is he whose roof is of fire, and whose walls are living 
Ursei, and the floor of whose house is of running water ? Who is it ? 

It is Osiris. 

Proceed then : for behold, thou art announced. 

Thy bread is from the Eye, thy beer is from the Eye, and the 
funeral meals offered upon earth will come forth to thee from the 
Eye (55). So is it decreed for me. 

This chapter is said by the person, when ptirified and dad in 
raiment; shod with white sandals; anointed from vases of dnta ; 

276 



Dec. 3] TROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

afid presenting oblations of beeves, birds, iJicense, bread, beer and 
vegetables. 

And thou shalt make a picture, draivn upon a dean brick of clay, 
extracted from a field itt zvhich no sivine hath trod. 

And if this chapter be written upon it — the tnafi will prosper and 
his children will prosper : he will rise in the ajfection of the king 
and his court : there will be give?i to him the shesit cake, the 7neasure 
of drink, the persen cake and the meat offeri?ig upoti the altar table of 
the great god; and he shall not be cut off at any gate of Amenta, 
but he shall be conveyed along with the Kifigs of North and South, 
and make his appearance as a follower of Osiris : undeviatingly and 
for ti?nes infinite. 




77 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1S95. 



WATER RATE IN ANCIENT BABYLONIA. 
By Theo. G. Pinches. 

The above is probably a title which few would expect to find as 
the heading of an article referring to ancient Babylonia, summoning 
up, as it does, pictures of water companies, collectors, first, second, 
and final notices, etc., followed by threats to " discontinue the 
supply," to say nothing of the unspeakable plumber. The water 
company, however, was none other than the great temple of the Sun 
at Sippara, and as it is to be conjectured that the supply was laid on 
by means of the usual water channels, similar, in all likelihood, to 
those used for irrigation purposes, cutting off the water was probably 
not altogether a simple matter.* Demand notes, also, were hardly 
needed, for the temples had naturally ways of their own to ensure 
prompt payments. 

Text. 

82-9-18, 3812. 

Transcription. 

Esrit sikli kaspi ba-ab-tu™ parap ma-na hamsit sikli kaspi 
simi me-e sa al D.P. Samas 
3. Sa-du-nu a-na E-par-raf 

* This remark, would not, of course, apply, if the water was supplied by 
means of carriers, 
t Or E-babar-ra. 

278 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

it-ta-din. Arah Sabatu umu estin 
satti res sarruti* 
6. Nabu-na'id sar Babili [D.S.] 

Translation. 

10 shekels of silver, balance {of) ^ of a mana {and) 5 shekels t 
of stiver 

price of the water of the City of the Sun 
3. Sadujiu to E-para% 

has paid. Month Sebat, day 1st {?), 

accession-year of 
6. NabotiiduSy ki?ig of Babylo?i. 

The translation of " balance " (of a sum of money) for babtzi^ is 
that indicated by other texts referring to money, etc., and is un- 
doubtedly correct {see Delitzsch, Handzvorterbuch, p. 166). The 
word for "price" is indicated by the common ideograph, ^ *:; t; >jf-^ 
simu. The word for " water" is the usual one, me, here phonetically 
spelled y>- ^1f jne-e, seemingly the plural of mil. 

Apparently the water was paid for by the municipality, for the 
sum paid by Sadunu was not for the water supplied to an individual, 
but for that supplied to the " City of the Sun " {^]] ^>f- ^f, the 
name either of the whole or of a part of Sippara). Sadunu was 
therefore in all probability one of those employed by the municipality. 

The above is one of the numerous tablets found by Mr. Rassam 
at iVbu-habbah. 

* Or, if read in Akkadian : Mu-saga-navilugalla. 

t Or, as we should say, " balance of 55 shekels of silver." 

± Or E-babara. 




279 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 



EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY. 

WARNINGS. 

By Prof. Dr. Aug. Eisenlohr, Heidelberg. 

The last but one number of the Zeitschrift fiir Aegypt. Sprache 
utid Alterthums Kufide (Ed. XXXII, Zweites Heft, S. 99 ff.) contains 
an article from Dr. Eduard Mahler of Vienna, " Materialien zur 
Chronologic der alten Aegypter (Chronologische Bestimmung der 
Regierungszeit der Ramessiden)," wherein the author claims to 
have fixed chronologically (festgelegt, I.e., S. 105) by calculatory 
deduction the dates from Amosis to Ramses VI (1575-1198 B.C.). 
Although in a paper read at the Oriental Congress at Geneva, 
entitled : " Die Festlegung historischer Daten durch die Hiilfe der 
Astronomic," I have, while gratefully acknowledging the help of 
astronomers as Biot, Ideler, Oppolzer, Wisclicenus, and also of Dr. 
Mahler to fix chronological dates, expressively cautioned against the 
use of uncertain bases to build chronological reckonings upon, and 
especially refuted the consequences drawn by Dr. Mahler from some 
dates for the reign of Tutmes III, and Ramses II, in the Aegyptische 
Zeitschrift, XXVII, 2, p. 97 ff, and XXVIII, i, p. 32 ff., still some 
time will elapse before the proceedings of the Geneva Congress 
are printed. To prevent people from being misled by statements 
they are unable to verify, as, for example, I already see Dr. Mahler's 
deductions have been accepted by Prof. Ebers {Beilage zur Allg. 
Zeitujig, 1 89 1, No. 89), I may be allowed to give a short extract 
of what I explained more in detail in my Geneva paper. The 
time of Tutmes III is based by Dr. Mahler {Aeg. Zeitschrift, 
1889, S. 103) on tlie commemoration of two new moons in two 
consecutive years, the 23rd and 24th of this king, the first men- 
tioned in the Karnak inscription {De?ikm., Ill, PI. 32, 13) on 
the 21 Pachons of the 23rd year, the second (Mariette, Karnak, 
PI. 12, 7) on the 30 Mechir of the 24th year of Tutmes III. The 
first of these two dates is in the text brought into connexion with the 
day of the king's accession to the throne, which is reported as the 
4th of the month of Pachons. The king's death is known from the 
inscription in the tomb of Amenemheb (found and published by 

280 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Ebers, Deutsch Morgl. GesellscJiaft, Bd. XXX, p. 391 ff.), as having 
happened on the last of the Phamenoth in the 54th year of his 
reign. Dr. Mahler, understanding all these dates in the fixed year 
(beginning with the heliac rising of the Dog Star on the 20th July) 
finds on the 5th April (=21 Pachons), 148 1 B.C., and on the 15th 
January (= 30 Mechir), 1479, B.C., the mentioned new moons in 
two consecutive years of Tutmes III, who therefore would ascend 
the throne 20th May, 1503 B.C., and die the 14th February, 1449 ^.c. 

As I am (contrary to Dr. Mahler's supposition) convinced that 
dates of historical events, and such we have undoubtedly in the 
annals of Tutmes III, as in the biography of Amenemheb, cannot 
be understood otherwise than in the vague year, I could not accept 
these two days of new moons, on which he bases his chronology. 
When I communicated this to the author, he answered me by letter, 
that understanding the given dates of 21 Pachons and 30 Mechir of 
the vague year, we should find in the list of new moons for the 
i6th May, 1482 B.C., and the 24th February, 1480 B.C., likewise 
two corresponding new moons, which afford for the beginning of 
Tutmes Ill's reign, 1504 B.C., instead of 1503, so that Tutmes III 
began his reign after the vague year 4 Pachons = 4th May jul. 
1504, and died the 30th Phamenoth = i8th ]\Iay, 1450 B.C. 

While in this manner, with the necessary correction for the days 
of the fixed year with those of the vague year, I came to a similar 
result for the time of Tutmes III, fully acknowledging the value of 
Dr. Mahler's new method of making use of the tablets of new 
moons for chronology, I cannot accept in the same way the other 
results of his paper. We are prohibited from drawing any chrono- 
logical conclusions from the Smith Calendar so long as the royal 
cartouche therein cannot be explained. That it cannot be that of 
Amenophis I, because the last sign is surely not ka (see Proceedings, 
Vol. XIII, p. 598 ; Prof. Erman in Wesfcar, p. 56, has proved 
nothing to the contrary; the sign [Sineha 203] is quite differently 
written from the last sign in the royal cartouche), I ought not to 
have to repeat. So every conclusion drawn from that cartouche 
is more than arbitrary. 

We come now to the weakest part of Dr. Mahler's explanation, 
his fixing the time of Ramses II. First he asserts that the 
representation on the ceiling of the Ramesseum (Leps., Denkm., Ill, 
170, i7i;Brugsch, Monutnents, PI. V, VI) reports the beginning 
of a Sothic period, which was celebrated in the 30th year of 

281 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S95. 

Ramses II. Now we know for certain from the hall at Silsile, 
that a festival was celebrated in the 30th year of the reign of 
Ramses II, the so-called Triakonteride (hierogl. P ch^^j ^^317 se( heb, 
Brugsch, Thes., p. 209) of the Rosetta Stone (Greek text, 1. 2), a 
jubilee, repeated afterwards every 3 or 4 years {cf. Brugsch, Thes., 
p. 1 1 19 ff. ; Erman, Aeg. Zeitsch., XXIX, 1891, p. 128, where the 
eighth jubilee of Rameses II is commemorated). Dr. Mahler con- 
fuses this festival with the beginning of a Sothic period and finds in 
the words '^^^ v.*=^ anep an indication of the 20th day of the 
month {cf. Brugsch, Thes., p. 47, 115). As the heliacal rising of the 
Sirius star happened at the 20th July jul. and this is the dnep^ 
the 20th day of the moon, the ist July of the year 13 18 B.C. (after 
Oppolzer the beginning of a new Sothiac period) must have been a 
new moon, which really was the case. Now firstly it is not correct that 
the set heb festival of the 30th year of Ramses II was a commemo- 
ration of the Sothic period; secondly, the signs ""n dnep^ on the 
Ramesseum ceiling, are not to be found in the month of Thoth and 
near the goddess Isis Sopt, where they ought to be if they had 
relation to the Sirius star, but in the month of Tybi. So every con- 
clusion fixing the reign of Ramses II from the Triakonteride and 
the dnep day on the Ramessum ceiling must be given up. 

Dr. Mahler, on the contrary, finds a confirmation of his dates 
for Ramses II in the Leyden hieratic Papyrus I, 350, verso (dated 
of the 52nd year of that king), col. iii., line 6, where he reads: 
" Monat Mechir Tag 16 in der Stadt Rameses II, Tag der 
Neumondfeier." First, the day cannot be the i6th of the month 
Mechir, but must be the 26th, because in that journal, on the fore- 
going column ii, 19, the events of the 23rd Mechir are treated, as 
Prof. Lauth has already shown (Moses der Ebraer, p. 9), and after our 
date (iii, 24) the events of the 28th of the same month are related. 
Besides that. III, 6, the hieratic signs at the end of the line contain 
nothing of a new moon but only ® KSty ra en heb., festive day, so 
that all conclusions of Dr. Mahler for his erroneously read date are 
futile. 

The same false conclusions are made by Dr. Mahler for the day 
of Ramses Ill's accession to the throne. He asserts that this 
day, the 26th of the month Pachons, belonged to the fixed Sirius 
year, and that for the first time in the 22nd year of King Ramses 
III the 26 Pachons was contemporary with the 26th day of the 

282 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

month. But reference to this is made in the great Pap. Harris, PI. 
17a, but only that from the 22nd to the 32nd year a festival of 
20 days was added to the festivals of Amon at Thebes, which 
began the 26th of the month Pachons. There is no mention 
of a coincidence of a new moon with the i Pachons, but the date 
is taken of the vague year, which had a month of 30 days, which were 
independent of the real new moons. So it seems that the chronolo- 
gical dates, which Dr. Mahler draws from the inscriptions by help of 
the new moons, are in no way credible. We must demand first the 
unquestionable reading of texts, before we can permit the erection 
of a building on them : when the foundation is of sand instead of 
stone, the building will soon collapse, as we see is the case here. 




283 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895 



EUPHRATEAN STELLAR RESEARCHES. 
By Robert Brown, Junr., F.S.A. 



Part V. — The Archaic Lunar Zodiac. 



In a former Paper {Remarks on the Tablet of the Thirty Stars, 
Jan. — Feb., 1890) I showed that a lunar zodiac, i.e.^ the mappnig 
out of a number of asterisms or single stars in or near the ecliptic, 
as a means of observing the monthly course of the moon, existed 
in the Euphrates Valley at a very early period. Such a scheme 
would doubtless be recorded in numbers of tablets, although, so far 
as I am aware, we only possess the one (JV.A.I., V, xlvi. No. i) 
which I have endeavoured to explain ; nor is it improbable that the 
scheme may have somewhat varied in detail in different localities. 
The next step in this research, is to endeavour to show the con- 
nexion between the original Euphratean Lunar Zodiac and the various 
ancient lunar zodiacs which have come down to us. Of these we 
possess at least seven complete specimens — the Persian, Sogdian, 
Khorasmian, Chinese, Indian, Arab, and Coptic schemes. It has 
often been observed that any one nation might as easily have 
mapped out a lunar zodiac as any other, since all see the same 
moon and stars ; scientific research, however, is not concerned with 
that which, in the abstract, is possible, but with what has actually 
taken place. We now know that the Euphratean Solar Zodiac has 
been borrowed by nation after nation. They have so acted because 
it is easier and simpler to borrow than to work ; and the more we 
investigate the records of the past, the smaller the sphere of 
originality and invention is found to be. Therefore, so far as 
general probability is concerned, it is more likely than not that 
Babylonia, which has supplied the world with so much, has, amongst 
other things, furnished it with the original scheme of a lunar zodiac. 

284 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

This view of the matter has already suggested itself to several very 
eminent students of ancient lunar zodiacs ; although, in the absence 
of evidence, they could not advance the theory to any point beyond 
that of the most probable hypothesis. Thus, Prof. Weber, when 
speaking of the schemes of India and China, and writing prior to 
1878, says: "To me the most probable view is that these lunar 
mansions are of Chaldaean origin, and that from the Chaldaeans 
they passed to the Hindus as well as to the Chinese " {Hist, of Indian 
Literature, Eng. edit., 1878, p. 248). Prof. Whitney agrees, remark- 
ing that, so far as the Hindus are concerned, his ' suspicion ' as 
to the Babylonian origin of the lunar zodiac " rises to the dignity of 
a persuasion" {Oriental and Linguistic Studies, 2nd series, 1893, 
p. 418). Prof. Max Miiller writes, "The twenty-seven Nakshatras, or 
the twenty-seven constellations, which were chosen in India as a 
kind of lunar Zodiac, were supposed to have come from Babylon. 
Now the Babylonian Zodiac was solar, and, in spite of repeated 
researches, no trace of a lunar Zodiac has been found, where so 
ma.iy things have been found, in the cuneiform inscriptions " {India, 
What can it teach us? 1883, pp. 126-7). But, since 1883 a lunar 
zodiac has been found in the cuneiform inscriptions ; and therefore 
the argume7itum e taciturnitate, unsatisfactory at all times, vanishes. 
Prof. Mi.iller elsewhere makes the important staterat^nt, " Lunar 
chronology seems everywhere to have preceded solar chronology " 
{Rig-Veda-Sanihita, Vol. IV, 1892, Preface, p. 67). He also further 
observes, "In spite of all, however, I am quite prepared to take 
into serious consideration the Babylonian origin of Indian, nay, 
even of Chinese astronomy, whenever the decipherers of the cunei- 
form inscriptions shall have supplied us with evidence that deserves 
to be considered. No hypothesis, however repugnant to received 
.notions, should on that ground be treated with contempt" {I/>id., 
' p. 69). With respect to the Persian and Coptic lunar mansions, he 
says, "The pai^.sage in the Bundehesh in which the 28 divisions 
occur, is no more pertinent to the establishment of the Babylonian 
theory than the list of Coptic names, neither of them going back 
beyond the time of Mohammed." That both these sets of names 
do go back centuries prior to the era of Mohammed, will fully 
appear in the course of this Paper; and Prof. Max Miiller quite 
admits that, long ere the days of the Prophet, tlie Arabs were 
familiar with a scries of lunar mansions (vide Quran, x, 5 ; xxxvi 
39). 

285 Y 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

The famous dispute, in which Biot, Weber, and various other 
savants took part, as to whether China obtained the lunar asterisms 
from India, or India from China, is now merely matter of history ; 
since it is almost universally admitted that each country received 
the mansions from a source external to either. The Arab, Chinese, 
and Indian stations have long been familiar to us ; and one result 
of an examination of them is thus expressed by Prof. Whitney, " Na 
one, I am confident, can examine this [i.e., his] exposition of the 
correspondences and differences of the three systems, without being 
convinced that they are actually . . . three derivative forms of the 
same original" {Oriental and Linguistic Studies, 2nd series, p. 356). 
The archaic connexion between China and Babylonia has of late 
been illustrated with very great acumen and learning by my lamented 
friend Terrien de Lacouperie, who, knowing that I was engaged 
upon the study of the lunar zodiac, shortly before his death sent me 
a corrected list of the Chinese Sitih (Lunar Mansions). His views 
and researches, which have received the support of several scholars 
of great eminence, are summed up in his Western Origin of the 
Early Chinese Civilization, 1894, and are further supported by the 
very interesting and important studies of the Rev. C. J. Ball {The 
New Accadian), in the Proceeditigs of this Society, in illustration of 
the family connexion between the Sumero-Akkadian and Chinese 
languages ; whilst, on the other hand, the extravagant claims to 
an existence of many thousand years, put forward on behalf of 
Chinese astronomy (vide Schlegel, Uranographie Chinoise), prove as 
unsupported by facts as they are contrary to probability. In a 
Paper entitled Early Asterisms {Nature, Dec. 28, 1893) Prof. 
Norman Lockyer has given lists of the Indian, Chinese, and 
Arab mansions, with explanations of their names by Profs. Max 
Miiller, Robertson Smith, and Douglas ; and observes in conclusion, 
" Although their dates are uncertain, they are undoubtedly built 
upon a common model, they have identical functions, and they have 
to do with the ecliptic, that is to say, we are in each case in presence 
of a belt of stars to which the motions of any other heavenly body 
traveUing round the sun, like the planets, or round the earth, like the 
moon, can be readily referred." Mr. T. W. Kingsmill has treated of 
this subject in an important article, full of learning and suggestive- 
{Journal of tlie China Brajich of the Royal Asiatic Soc, Dec, 1892), 
ness, entitled A Comparative Table of the Lunar Asterisms 
and, although I differ with him both in detail and in general 

286 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

conclusion, I acknowledge with pleasure the value of his researches. 
He deals only with the Arab, Indian, and Chinese asterisms, and his 
conclusion respecting their origin is that "We may reject as frivolous 
the strife between authors as to their birthplace, and accept them as 
in the widest sense of the term Asiatic, and date back their origin 
to the prehistoric tribes of Central Asia before the great dispersal of 
the Aryans" (p. 45). Mr. James Burgess, in his Notes on Hindu 
Astronomy and the Hist, of our Knowledge of it {Jou)-?iai of the 
Royal Asiatic Soc, Oct., 1893) has given a most useful and learned 
compendium of the subject so far as India is concerned ; and, on 
the general question of the Lunar Zodiac, the student will find 
much of interest in the writings of Mr. J. F, Hewitt {Notes on the 
Early Hist, of Northern India, Parts i-vi, in the Jcurnal of the 
Royal Asiatic Soc. ; The Rulifig Races of Prehistoric Times, 1 894). 

The list of Persian mansions is contained in the famous Pahlevi 
work the j5/^;^?i^a///^ ("Original Creation "), respecting which Mr. E. 
W. West writes, " As the work now stands it is evidently of a 
fragmentary character, bearing unmistakable marks both of omissions 
and dislocations . . . Many passages have the appearance of being 
translations from an Avesta original, and it is very probable that we 
have in the Bundahii either a translation, or an epitome, of the 
Damda^ Nask, one of the twenty-one books into which the whole 
of the Zoroastrian scriptures are said to have been divided before 
the time of Darius. This may be guessed from a comparison of 
the contents of the Bundahi.f with those of the Damda^Nask, which 
are detailed in the Dini-va_§arkar^ " {Sacred Books of the East, 
Vol. V, p. xxiv). The names, therefore, of these "fragments of the 
calculators," as they are styled, go back to a remote antiquity. They 
are written in Pazand ('Re-explanation'), i.e., "a further interpre- 
tation of the Pahlavi Zand in the Persian vernacular"; and what 
have to be discovered, if possible, are their original Avestic forms. 
Thus, No. 14 Cpur =. ihQ Avestic Cparegha ; No. 25 Kahtsar =. 
the Avestic Catavaqa. Their Pazand forms thus represent, in a 
corrupt and abbreviated fashion, archaic originals; and the transfoi- 
mation of the original names is the necessary result of a linguistic 
process occupying many centuries. The names are given in Cap. ii. 
of the Bundahis, which treats of " the formation of the luminaries," 
and they occur immediately after the names of the twelve signs of 
the Solar Zodiac, which were admittedly obtained by Persia from 
babylonia. 

287 Y 2 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1895. 

The Sogdian and Khorasmian schemes of lunar mansions have 
been preserved by Albiruni, who wrote cir. a.d. iooo, in his 
Vestiges of the Fast (Eng. edit, by Dr. C. E. Sachau, 1879, pp. 
227-8). So far as I am aware, they have never yet been given in 
KngHsh. In the Vendidad (Fargard i) Sughdha (Old Per. Suguda, 
Gk. 'S.o^jhiavlj, Mod. Samarkand) is described as " the second of the 
good lands and countries which Ahuza Mazda created." Khorasmia, 
the land of the Khwarizmians, adjoins it ; and these two lists of 
lunar mansions, which thus represent a Central Asian scheme, 
though presenting various differences, still, upon the whole, as might 
be expected, closely agree. Albiruni says of the Khwarizmians, 
'' They were in the habit of using the stations of the moon and 
deriving from them the rules of astrology. The names of the 
stations in their language ihey have preserved," but the old race of 
lunar astrologers had then died out. " In the Khwarismi dialect 
an astronomer is called Akhtar-wemk, i.e. looking to the iunar 
stations . . . They used to distribute these stations over the twelve 
signs of the Zodiac, for which they also had special names in their 
language. They knew them [the signs of the Zodiac] even better 
than the Arabs, as you may learn by the fact that their nomenclature 
of them agrees with the names given to them by the original designer 
cf these figures " — unfortunately Albiriani does not mention his 
theory respecting this important person — " whilst the names of the 
Arabs do not agree." As an instance of Arab blundering he says, 
that the Arabs " count Aljauza among the number of the Zodiacal 
signs instead of Gemini, whilst Aljauza is the figure Orion. The 
people of Khwarizm call this sign [Gemini] Adhiipac kaAk, i.e. havi?ig 
tivo figures, which means the same as Gemini" {Vestiges, p. 226). 
The colonization of Khorasmia is said to have taken place " 980 
years before Alexander" (Vide Lacouperie, JVestem Origin, p. 350) ; 
and there are many indications of the wide extent and comparatively 
high degree of civilization in Central Asia in early times. 

The names of the Coptic lunar mansions are given by Weber, 
7?ie vedisclien NacJiricJitcn ran den naxatra, Erster Theil, Berlin, i860, 
p. 330, from Rossi, Etynwlogiae Acgypiiacae, Rome, 1808, They 
are nearly all from the ancient Egyptian or the Greek, but two or 
three are probably Arabic. Our President, who has encouraged me 
in the investigation of this very difficult subject, has also kindly 
furnished me with an explanation of the meanings of Nos. 7, 10 and 
2 0j but for the rest I am responsible. He has, moreover, sent me 

288 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

a list of Notes taken by him from Edward's Manuscript Did. in the 
Bodleian, and which have been of much service to me. I am not 
aware that these Coptic names have yet appeared in English. 

It must be remembered that the solar zodiac was, if I may so 
express it, placed upon the lunar zodiac, and covered the same space 
in uranography. Hence the reappearance in the derived lunar 
schemes, of names drawn from the original solar scheme. Mr. 
Kingsmill suggestively observes, "Notwithstanding the wide extension 
of the lunar mansions, which at one time must have been popularly 
received from China on the one hand to Greece on the other, the 
system cannot have prevailed for many centuries " {A Comparative 
Table, p. 78). "If however the completion of the series of lunar 
stations, and the astronomy to which they gave rise, cannot be dated 
before 2350 b.c, we find that the system cannot have had more 
than two centuries of unchallenged existence. Evidence . . . goes 
to prove that when the astronomers of Chaldea adopted the solar 
signs, and marked the beginning of the year by the solar culmination 
of the constellations, the Pleiades still occupied the place of honour, 
marking a date not later than 2150 B.C." (//'/c/., p. 79). Whatever 
may have been the case in other countries, in the Euphrates Valley 
the lunar scheme had probabl}', either solely or jointly with the solar 
scheme, a reign of many centuries. 

As regards our oldest known lunar zodiac, the Tablet of the 
TJiirty Stars, further study of this singularly difficult text, especially 
in connexion with the various other lunar schemes, has occasioned 
me to adopt some alterations in details, but has strengthened the 
general conclusions arrived at in my former Paper, which should be 
referred to in connexion with the present Article. Thus, I am 
unable to agree with Prof. Hommel {Die Astronnmie der alten 
Chaldiier, iii, 4) that the list begins with the Pleiades, and that 
lines 12-26 form an Excursus relating to the Pole-star, Pegasus, 
Deneb (a Cygni), Cassiopeia, etc. The testimony of Diodoros, com- 
bined with ly.AT., IV, XV (\-\de JVoeeedings, Jan., 1890, pp. i37-8)> 
makes such a view impossible ; nor can I find any real support for 
it in the Tablet itself, whilst my friend the late Geo. Bertin was 
equally clear that all the stars referred to were in or near the 
ecliptic. Again, as regards the point of commencement, it is true 
that the Pleiades are in the Sign which technically was called 'Te 
("The Foundation," vide Proceedings, INIarch, 1891, p. 250) or Te-te 
{^Pleiades + Hyadcs). But of what were the Pleiads and Hyads 

289 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.FOLOGY. [1S95. 

the ' foundation.? ' Of the solar year, not of the lunar month or 
year. So, when the Indian lunar mansions are adjusted to a solar 
scheme beginning with Taiirns, Krittika {■= the Pleiades) becomes 
the first mansion. And when the Persian lunar mansions are 
adjusted to a solar scheme beginning with Aries, Padcvar (= /3, 7 
Arietis) becomes the first mansion. Both could not originally have 
been the first mansion, and, in fact, neither was. Prof. Hommel's 
error, in my opinion, consists in treating the lunar, as if it were a 
solar scheme. Thus, as I have observed, " the Great Tivi?ts of the 
solar zodiac are Castor and Pollux " {Proceedings, Jan., 1890, p. 185); 
and, at first sight, Prof. Hommel's explanation of the six leading 
asterisms of the " Thirty Stars " seems absolutely conclusive, i.e.^ 
"The Foundation" {= Pleiades), "the Jackal" {= Aldebaran), 
Gam {=/3 and ^ Tauri), "the Great Twins" (= Castor ?c!\^ Pollux), 
"the Little Twins" {=^Asellus bor. et aust. in Cancer), and "the 
King" {= Pegi/lus). But, unfortunately for this view, we are 
informed in line 49, that the Pam is " the uppermost part of Gam " 
(vide Proceedings, Feb., 1890, p. 184); and thus Gam cannot be 
/3 and ^ Tmiri, nor can it come after the Pleiades and Aldebaran, 
and so the chain is at once and fatally broken. It appears, also, 
from tablets of the Greek period (vide R. B., Jr., in the Academy, 
Nov., 10, 1894), that /3 Tauri was "the northern light of the 
Chariot, ^^ and C Tauri " the southern light of the Chariot, i.e., 
Auriga, not the Wain, in Ak. Gar, As. Narkabtu, or Rukubu, 
Heb. Rekhev. This constellation (tf ]^) is distinguished in 
W.A.I., III, Ivii, No. 9, 1. 70 from Gam, which is named next to it 
(1. 71). This important piece of information respecting Gam and 
the Ram, moreover, implies that the scribe was well acquainted with 
two sets of figures, solar and lunar ; the Ram was a solar. Gam a 
lunar asterism. 

Such, then, in brief, is the present position of the question, and 
the most important recent literature connected with the enquiry 
respecting the origin of the archaic lunar zodiac. In an investigation 
so extremely difficult my conclusions must, almost of necessity, be 
incorrect in some points of detail ; but, as a whole, I submit them 
with confidence to the judgment of the learned student, in the hope 
that, at the least, they may aid in the solution of one of the most 
famous and fixscinating questions connected with the history of early 
astronomy. 



290 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDIxNGS. [1S95. 

II. 

In the following list, Ak. = Sumero-Akkadian, Bab. = Baby- 
lonian, As. = Assyrian, Eg. ■= Ancient Egyptian, Per. = Persian, 
Sog. = Sogdian, Kho. = Khorasmian, Chi. = Chinese, Ind. 
= Indian, Ar. = Arab, Cop. = Coptic, Av. = Avestic (often 
improperly called 'Zend,' which latter term meaning 'commentary' 
or ' explanation,' applies only to interpretations of the Avesta, = 
Old Per. Abasta, " the Law "), Sk. = Sanskrit. The names of the 
Ak. asterisms are taken from the Tablet of the Thirty Stars, and are 
printed in large Roman letters. The numbers are those of the 
various lunar mansions in the respective schemes. It is not intended 
to assert that the stars named are in all cases the only ones in their 
respective asterisms. 

The Archaic Euphratean Lunar Zodiac and its Derivatives. 

I. 

APIN (" The Fou ndation "), = , /i, a-, c Aquarii and the stars 
adjoining. A Aquarii is the Ar. Sadahnelix (" the Auspicious 
Star of the King "), this ' King ' being the heaven-god Sar (= An-sar 
= Assur), the patron-divinity of "the Asterism of the Foundation;" 
and, similarly, the Vedic Varuna (= Sar, by analogy) is the patron- 
divinity of the corresponding lunar mansion. £ Aquarii is the 
Ak. Nam-max ("The Star of Mighty-destiny"). A Aquarii {Skat, 
^' the Leg ") is the star equated with the tenth antediluvian king 
Xasisadra, the hero of the Flood. Aquarius (Ak. Gusisa, " the 
Leading-urn "), the lucky constellation in which Xisouthros escaped 
destruction and renewed the world, in mediaeval and modern 
astrology "is deemed a fortunate Sign." 

= Per. 24. Bu7ida (= (3, ^ Aquarii), "the Foundation" (Cf. Av. 
iuna, ' ground,' ' basis,' Sk. bud/ina, Gk. jievOo^ = jBciOos). 

Ind. 24. Cravishtha, "the Most-glorious," a name applied to 
a, yS, 7, Delphini. 

Chi. 24. Hii, anc. Ko (=ft, ^Aquarii), "the Empty" (i.e., the 
beginning of things), or perhaps " the Precious" (= Ak. ku, gu). 

Ar. 24. Sa'ad as Suud (= Same stars), Sadalsund, "the Luck- 
of-lucks." 

Cop. 24. Upuineute (= Same stars), "the One-at-the-foundation," 
(Gk. e7ri-uearo'?y ' undemiost '), or " the Luck-of-the-whole-year " 
(Gk. ev-TravcTij^). 

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Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895, 

= Per. 25. Kahtsar (= \, c etc. Aqjiarii), = Av. Ca/avaqa, 
Bundahis Cataves. 

Sog. 25. Shaivshat (= Same stars), = Per. Sar-kaht (i.e., Kahtsar 
reversed. Cf. Ak. Adra-Xasis = Xasis-adra, Aryan Doro-theos 
= Theo-doros, Krato-xejios = Xeno-krates). 

Kho. 25. Mashtaivand (= Same stars), '* Possessing-greatness '^ 
(Cf. Av. madi, 'greatness,' Per. wand, 'possessing'). 

Ind. 25. CatabhishaJ {^= Same stars), = Av. Catavaqa. This 
corrupt form shows that the Ind., hke the Per. name, was derived 
from tlie Av. 

Chi. 25. Wei, anc. Gui {;= a Aquarii, Fegasi), "the Founda- 
tion." (Cf. Ak. gi, ' foundation.') 

Ar. 25. Sa'd al-Akhbiyah (= a, 7, t, 7 Aquarii), " Luck-with- 

the-tents." 

Cop. 25. Upeiitheriaji (= Same stars), "the Place-of-Good- 
fortune " (Gk. "* cv-aQcpia^ akin to ci'/t-gt/)?, cvTrdOeta, Lat. copia). 

The Ak. asterisms, hke the soLir zodiacal constellations, are very 
unequal in size ; an equal division of the Zodiac, whether solar or 
lunar, being a much later work, and the result of scientific deduction, 
whilst the archaic Akkadian scheme represents merely occular obser- 
vation. The ForUina Maior of Dante, Chaucer, and other mediaeval 
writers, is «, 7, ly, Tj "^ Aquarii, and Fegasi ; and it is very in- 
teresting to observe how the later greatness of these comparatively 
inconspicuous stars depends on archaic, Euphratean ideas (vide 
Prof. Skeat, in the Academy, Nov. 3, 1894 ; R. B. Jr., in Ibid., Jan. 
12, 1895). The lunar mansion Av. Catavaeca ("The Hundred- 
dwellings ") in India is also called Cata-tara (" Having-a-hundred- 
stars "), which is incorrect in actual fact ; but the names may be 
understood as of dignity, i.e., "Possessing-mighty-stars," or 'dwell- 
ings,' = Foj-tuna Maior. At the same time, I think it is quite 
possible that the name C-ata-vae^a was originally a corruption of 
Adra-xasi-s, with an Aryan derivation attached to it. The Chi. 25, 
Wei is said to mean "a Dangerous-place," but, in this case, as in 
some others in the Chi. scheme, it is sufficiently clear that the 
later Chi. meaning of a word was not its original signification as 
a lunar mansion. The Chi. mansions, like the others, are asterisms, 
not single stars. 



* The asterisk before tviradepia shows it is formed by analogy but is not a. 
known word. 

292 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS, [1S95. 

II. 

LIK- or UR-BARRA ("The Hyena"), = t, «, 7 PegasL This 
animal and his brother URBAT (No. XXVIII) appear with many 
other signs of the lunar zodiac on the uranographic Stones figured 
in W.A.I.y III, xlv. There being no bright stars in Fisces except 
OMa (a Pisciui7i), which apparently forms part of No. HI, GAM, 
there is no other Akkadian asterism in the constellation. Mean- 
while, the more scientific derived lunar zodiacs fill up the space 
with asterisms, whose names are mainly illustrative of the watery 
character of this portion of the heavens (vide No. XXX) ; for, 
here, in Euphratean idea, is the Upper Deep, the realm of Aquarius, 
wherein swim the Sea-goat, the Dolphin, the 3 Fish, and the Sea- 
monster. The Urbarra, if only by play on words (to which the 
scribes evidently much inclined), is the animal appropriate to the 
Horizon- and Foundation-god Ur, and hence is suitably placed next 
to "the Foundation." Some render lik by 'jackal,' and a jackal 
appears in the circular zodiac of Denderah in a position which 
would correspond with the stars of Pegasus. The Euphratean 
Horse appears elsewhere (vide No. XVIII). Mars, " the luminary 
reigning over the constellation of the Hyena" ( W.A.I., III, Ivii, 62, 
ap. Sayce), is specially connected with Urbarra. 

Per. 26. Vaht {= a, (3 Fegasi), "the Watery," = Av. Vaidhya 
(' Watering,' ' sprinkling '). 

Sog. and Kho. 26. Farshat Bath ( = Same stars), " the \Vatery- 
division" {cf. Vex. pdshldan, "to sprinkle," Sk.prushita, 'sprinkled,' 
Sk. rooiprush, "to sprinkle," 'wet'). 

Ind. 26. Fitrva Frostha-pada (= Same stars), "the Former 
Watery-division" (Sk. pada, a 'step,' 'portion,' 'division,' {xoxwpad, 
'foot'). The Ind. Froshtha — the Sog. Farsha-t ; the Ind. Fada 
= the Sog. Bath. 

Chi. 26. Shih, anc. Sal, later Shat (= Same stars). "The 
House," i.e.. Division. 

Ar. 26. Al-Fargh al-Delivi-l-mukaddem ( = Same stars), "the 
Front-emptying-placc of the Bucket." 

Cop. 26. Artulos ( = Same stars), "the Watery." As if Gk. 
*cf)(Ta\6^. ''E/xra (Alkman) = Attic qioffof, Lat. ros. Cf. the Gk. 
Herse and the Prokris dew-myth. 

The Ind. 26 is sometimes styled Bhadrapada, which is con- 
ventionally rendered " Having ox-feet." Bhadrapada, however, is 

293 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCFLEOLOGY. [1895. 

not the ancient name (vide Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 323). The 
Sog., Kho. and Ind. names are, of course, identical. It must be 
remembered that, in many of these names, we have not only to deal 
with ordinary linguistic changes, but with the corruptions necessarily 
attaching to words handed down in many languages for several 
thousand years. Such appellations as "the Watery" do not, in this 
connexion, refer to the weather or climate of the different countries, 
but are reminiscences of archaic Euphratean names and ideas. The 
Ar. 26 is a distinct invention which, however, preserves, in a 
manner, the watery character of the region. 

Per. 27. Miyan ( = 7 Fegasi, a Andromedae)., "the Middle" — 
of the 3 watery divisions, = x\v. Afaidhya, Maidhyana ('Middle'), 
Lat. inedius. 

Sog. 27. Bar Far shut {=.^diVii& stars), "the Watery-division." 
Cf. Sog. and Kho. 26. 

Kho. 27. IVabir (= Same stars), "the Second (Watery) division. 
As if lVa-Bar-{Farshat) ; Per. Wa = ba, ' with,' " back again." 

Ind. 27. Uttara Froshtha Fada (= Same stars), "the Latter 
Watery-division." 

Chi. 27. Fill, anc. Lek (= Same stars), " the Wall," i.e., Division. 

Ar. 27. Al-Fargh al-Miikhir (=Same stars), "the Hinder- 
emptying-place " — of the Bucket. 

Cop. 27. Artidosia (= Same stars), "the Place-of-wateriness." 
As if Gk. *''E/j(ToXo'o-m. 

It is thus obvious that in each instance of the 27th lunar 
mansion, the Derivatives, having no original to fall back upon, 
have filled up the gap by practically repeating the name of the 
previous lunar mansion. The Per. 27, Miyan forms no real ex- 
ception to this. The Arabs show here, as elsewhere, a certain 
amount of originality, but strictly adhere to the doubling. It is 
further obvious that all the schemes are one m origin. 

Per. 28. Kaht {= e, ^ Fiscium), "the Thread" (Per. Kaitdn), 
i.e., the cord which fastens the pair of Fishes. Thus « Fiscitan is 
called Okda (" the Knot "), and Rischa (" the Cord "), = As. riksu^ 
Ak. diir (vide Froceedings, March, 1891, p. 269). 

Sog. 28. Riwand (= Same stars), "the Rich" (vide Ibid., 
p. 270). 

Kho. 28. Zidadh (= Same stars), "the Rich." Cf. Per.-Ar. 
Jidat, 'Rich.' Kho. i. Riwand. 

Ind. 28. Retail (=■ Same stars), " the Rich," = Riwand. 

294 



Dec. 3] rROCEEDINGS- [iSgS- 

Chi. 28. Kwai, anc. Kwet {= ft, c, e, g", y Andromedae, x, V' 
Piscium), "the Stride?" Mr. Kingsmill observes, "The 'step' or 
*■ stride ' from the conspicuous Quadrilateral of Pegasus to the well 
marked stars Alpha and Beta in the head of Aries forming the next 
stopping-place." But, perhaps, it is a variant of the Per. Kaht. 

Ar. 28. Batn-al-Hfit {= ft Andromedae, v, 0, x Piscium), "the 
Belly of the [Northern] Fish^ This Northei-ii Fish Xa\ca7oi KaXouaiv 
^IxOvv x^^ic'oviav (Schol. in Arat. P/iai., 1. 242). 

Cop. 28. Kutdfi (= Same stars). Either "the Thread" (Per. 
28) or "the Fish" (Ar. 28). 

Through an obvious mistake the Kho. list has inserted Rhvand 
twice {Zidadh = Piwand). 

III. 

GAM ("The Scimetar") = a Piscium, a, ft, 7, /., 39, 41 Arietis. 
Called "the Weapon of Merodax- The Ram, a solar figure, is 
"the uppermost-part" of it (vide sup., p. 290). The ideas con- 
nected with the Scimetar are those of protection and what is round 
and curved, Gam signifying ' round,' ' curved ' (vide Proceedings, 
Feb. 1890, pp. 183-4); and it is interesting to find that they re- 
appear in the Derivatives. This Scimetar, the weapon of Merodax- 
Perseus, protects against the 7 Evil Spirits, originally storm and 
tempest powers, but apparently ultimately reduplicated in some 
southern constellations. Thus Ea says to his son Merodax {Ak. 
Poem on the Seven Evil Spirits, ap. Sayce, in Records of the Past, 
ix, 143) et seq. : — 

" May those Seven never draw near. 
Like a broad Scimetar . . . bid (thine) hand rest ; and 
In circling fire by day (and) night on the (sick) man's head 
may it abide ; " 

and allusion is made to "the mighty girdle of the deep," perhaps 
the ecliptic. In another Story of the Seven Wicked Spirits (ap. 
Smith and Sayce, Chal. Account of Genesis, p. 99) we read : — 

2. " The rebellious spirits, who in the lower part of heaven 
[= the nocturnal southern sky.] 

3. Had been created, 

4. Wrought their evil work, 

5. Devising with wicked heads (at) sunset [i.e., when the con- 
stellations are about to become visible] ; 

295 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1895. 

6. (Like) a Sea-monster [=Tia.mat- Cefus] to the River [probably 
= the Milky Way, called in ancient Egyptian " the Great Stream," 
and possibly also Eridanus'\ (they marched). 

7. The first was a Scorpion [= SLorpio\ of rain. 

8. The second was a Thunderbolt \Ara, the fiery Altar 1 
"A mighty Sign of storm at sea." Arat. Phai., 1. 409-10] ;* 

9. The third was a Leopard [= Thcrioii-Lupus\ ; 

10. The fourth was a Serpent [= Hydra'] ; 

1 1. The fifth was a Watch-dog [= Canis Maj.'\ ; 

12. The sixth was a raging Tempest [= Crater. Vide R. B., 
Jr., Eridanus, p. 19] ; 

13. The seventh was the Messenger of the Evil Wind " [= Corvtis, 
Wde Proceedings, Feb., 1890, p. 194]. 

GAM = Per. i. Padevar{= /3, 7 Arietis), " the Protecting-pair," 
= Av. Pati-dvaya (Av. paiti, 'chief,' 'protector,' from root pa, 
"to protect," Sk. patis, Gk. Trial's. Av. vaya, ' couple,' = <f6'«;'(7, 
from Av. dva, ' two '). 

Sog. I. Basilisk (= Same stars), " the Protector" (Sk. patis). 

Ind. I. Acviiii (= Same stars), anc. Aivayugau ("the Two 
Horse-harnessers ") i.e., the Acvinau, the Acvi/is, " the Great Twin 
Brethren," Dawn-gods, who begin the day as these two stars begin 
the year, and are aiders and protectors of mankind. 

Chi. I. Lcit, anc. Lok (a, ft, 7 Arietis), " Things-in-stories," "the 
Mound" {Cf. Ak. Xizlux, ''high place"), i.e., the Upper-part of GAINL 

Ar. I. Ash-S/iaratihi (= ft, 7 Arietis), " the Two Tokens." 

Cop. I. Pikutorion (= Same stars), "the Protection" (Eg./, 
pui. Cop. pi, ' the ' + '"^ A.-fTay^foj', 'protection,' from kvto^, "that- 
which-covers," Lat. scntinn). 

= Per. 2. Pesh-PafTiz (= /t, 39, 41 Arietis), "the Forerunners- 
of-the-Numerous-Family " (Per. pesk, " in front," + parviz. Vide 
Per. 3). 

* In Tablet K. 12,340 we meet with the A'akkab ^^ itj^ ^TT , NI-DU-UB 
= NI-DUB. A synonym of the Ak. ni is the As. Idsallu, 'altar,' itself derived 
from the Ak. Kisal. Dub — the Turko-Tat. fob, 'heap' ; 'round'; 'hill.' Hence, 
JVidieb = '' the Altar-mound" or "Lofty-altar," and is probably the original 
Akkadian name of the zodiacal Altar, which, as I have shown, appears on the 
monuments (vide Proceedings, March, 1891, p. 260, et seq.), and was subsequently 
replaced by the Claivs, and ultimately by the Balance. This Tablet also mentions 
other neighbouring zodiacal constellations, such as Girtab ("the A"(7;^?'o«"), Niru 
("the Yoke" = the Goat-fish), and Zibanituv, which, as noticed {Proceedings, Jan., 
1895, p. 23), was specially connected with the zodiacal Ara. 

296 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

Sog. 2. Barv (=Same stars), — "of- the - Numerous- Family." 
Barv = Parv-iz ; the first part of the name has dropped off. 

Kho. 2. Farankhafid {= Same stars), = Fara-Khan, " Before- 
the- Family " (Fer./ara, Av./ra, Lat. /w, + /c^afi, 'house,' 'family'). 

Ind. 2. Bhnrani (= Same stars), " the Bearing." Figured by 
X\\Q. pudend. mid. 

Chi. 2. Wei, aric. Vij (= Same stars), "the Stomach," as that 
which is round, curved. 

Ar. 2. Al-Butain (= Same stars), " the Little Belly." 

Cop. 2. Koleon (=Same stars), "the Belly" (Gk. koiXIu), or, 
possibly "the Scabbard" (Gk. Ko\^6v)—cf. GAM. 

The names are frequently corrupted by the addition of final 
letters, e.g., Sog. khan-d for khafi, and in the Cop. names " the on- 
hanging N " {ytj c.(jie\KvariK6i') frequently appears. That all the 
Derivatives are connected schemes will already be perfectly obvious. 
In the case of Mansion No. i, all, except the Chi., are clearly 
closely connected with each other; and the Chi. is curiously linked 
in idea with the Ak. original. In Mansion No. 2, the great import- 
ance of the Pleiades has caused a reference to them in the Per., 
Sog., and Kho. schemes ; whilst the Ind., Chi., Ar., and Cop. 
houses agree absolutely, and preserve the idea of the Ak. original. 
China and Egypt cannot have borrowed from one another ; the Cop. 
form may possibly have come from the Ar.. which, in turn, would 
be borrowed in idea from the Euphrates Valley ; and the cases of 
China and India make it almost certain that the Per., Sog., and 
Kho. forms, as we now have them, are not originals. 

IV. 

MASTABBAGALGALLA (" The Great Twins '"), = the Pleiades 
■ssadi Hyades. Cf. //. xviii, 4S6 : ri\;y<ocas- 0' 'Yaca?. The Pleiades 
are often spoken of as a single star, e.g., Eurip. Ion, 1152, or as 
a combined unit, e.g., by Ptolemy in his star-list ; and the " Great 
Twins " may be strictly the Pleiad and Aldebaran. The pair 
are again represented by TE-TE, the technical name of Taurus 
in Babylonian astronomy (vide Proceedings, March, 1S91, p. 250; 
JR..B., Jr., in the Academy, Nov. 4, 1893, p. 396). The immense 
importance of the Pleiades ("the Clusterers," — not 'Sailing-stars,' 
which, like ' Doves,' is an afterthought) in connexion with astro- 
nomico-religious observances and the calendar, need not be further 

297 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1895. 

referred to here. As the * Clusterers ' are called in Heb. Kimak 
(Job, ix, 9 ; xxxviii, 31 ; Amos, v, 8), it is clear that their Bab. -As. 
name was Kimmatu ("the Family," from Kami'}, "to tie"), i.e.y 
" Those-bound-together." 

= Per. 3. Fatviz (= the Pleiades), "the Numerous-family" 
(Old Per., Av., '^Y. paru, 'full,' 'much,' Gk. 7roXi'-9, -|- Av., Sk. vi^y 
' house,' ' family,' Lat. vicus, Gk. o7koi). 

Sog. and Kho. 3. Parvi (=Same stars), = Per. Parviz. 
According to Haug {Essays on the Par sis, p. 182), called the Paurvas 
in the Homa Yasht. 

Ind. 3. Krittika (= Same stars), "the Dividers" — as com- 
mencing the year with Sol in Tauro. 

Chi. 3. Mao, anc. Mol (= Same stars), "the Constellation" 
(Cf. the Ar. Au-Najfn, " the Constellation," a name of the Pleiades), 
— Ak. Mill, Sem. Kakkab. Chi. Mao-lei, " the Star-heap " {cf. Chi. i). 

Ar. 3. Ath-Thiiraiya (= Same stars), "the Cluster." 

Cop. 3. (i) Orias (= Same stars), "the Good-season" (Gk. 
'Qpa?o9), i.e., Spring, the Pleiades being the special stars of Spring — ■ 
Vergiliae. {2) Ezastran (= Same stars), "the Six-stars" (Gk. "E^ 
'ciffTpa). Cf. Ovid, Fasti, iv, 169 ; " Quae septem dici, sex tamen 
esse Solent."' 

(For some excellent remarks respecting the Pleiades, and the 
meaning of the name, vide Hahn, Tsiini- \\ Goam, the Sufretne Being 
of the Khoi-Khoi, 1881). 

= Per. 4. Paha (the Hyades, and specially Aldebarafi), " the 
Follower " {cf. Av. pacca, Lat. post. Per. fasrau, ' follower ') — of 
the Pleiades. 

Sog. and Kho. 4. Baharu (= Same stars), " the Follower,"= 
Paha. 

Ind. 4. Rohini (= Same stars), "the Red " {cf Ind. 18), called 
by Ptolemy 'viroKippo-i, " reddish-yellow " {cf. No. XXIV). 

Chi. 4. Pih, anc. Pal {= the Hyades), " the Net," so called from 
the shape of the asterism. Chi. Pit, " the Yoke," = Aldebaran, 
called in Bab. Pid-7iu (" the Yoke "). 

Ar. 4. Al-Dabaran {■= the Hyades, specially a Tauri), " the 
Follower." 

Cop. 4. Piorioon (= the Hyades), "the (Stars) of the Good- 
season" {'Q/>(t7ov). 



298 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

V. 

M ASTABB ATURTUR ("The Little Twins "), = A, 0', 02 Oriofiis. 

This asterism affords a striking illustration of the light thrown 
upon the Tablet of the Thirty Stars by the Derivatives, with which, in 
the first instance, I did not study it, and thence supposed that " the 
Little Twins " would be ft and f Tauri. But it is, of course, well 
known what stars constitute the asterisms in the Ind., Chi., and Ar. 
schemes, in each of which the 5th mansion consists of the 3 stars 
above mentioned ; whilst the names of the Sog. and Kho. lists show 
that their arrangement is similar. The 3 stars in question are 
situate so close together that 0^ is overlapped by X. They thus form 
a pair of "Little Twins," immediately in line with the "Great 
Twins"; and their proximity is further illustiated by the fact that 
in Ptolemy's list they are grouped together as one star (\), which is 
called "the Cloudlike {i'e(pc\oetci]^)-one in the head of Orion." This 
' cloudlike ' appearance is reproduced in at least five names applied 
to the asterism. 

= Per. 5. Avecr (= \, 0,^ 0^ Orionis), = (i) "the Coronet" 
(Av. avi, 'on,' + ^ara, 'head'). Cf Zdd-sparat/i, vii. 10 (ap. West, 
in Sacred Books of the East, v, 175) : " These six regions are like a 
coronet (az'isar)." But the Ak. and Sog. names enable us to see 
that the original Per. name = (2) "Two Heads" (Av. ubha, uva, 
' two,' Sk. ubha, Gk. ufi<pw, Lat. ambo, Lithuanian abu, Goth, bai, -\- 
Av, ^ara, ' head '), Av. Uva-^ara. The connexion between this idea 
and a coronet, which is on both sides (giving the idea of duality) 
the head, is like that between the Gk. «/<0/ and «//0fi'. The idea of 
a ' cloudlike,' or somewhat shining, coronet, is also naturally 
connected with the actual appearance of the asterism, and its 
situation in the head of the figure, which, from Egypt and Greece in 
the West to China in the East, was considered to represent a great 
warrior or chieftain. 

Sog. 5. il/(7?-<?S(?;/(Z (= Same stars), "the Two Companions." The 
Av. viarez ■= varez = verez ; marezana ■= varezana, = " verezana, 
mot obscur, trad, voisin. — Travailleur, qui travaille sous un autre, 
compagnon " (De Harlez, Manuel de la Langue de FAvesta, p. 204). 
Marezdna is a dual form. The Per. " Two Heads" = Sog. " Two 
Companions, = Ak. " Little Twins," = \ and 0^ + 0'' Orionis. 

Kho. 5. Ikhma (= Same stars), = (i) "the Brethren" (Ar.-Per. 
Ikhwa-?i), and (2) "the Plume" {cf VQv.Jika, "royal plume"). 

299 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S95. 

Ind. 5. Invakd (= Same stars), "the Sarrounders," = " the 
Coronet," called later Afrigaciras, " the Antelope's Head." Mriga 
is applied to " the spots on the moon represented as a hare or 
antelope " (Monier Williams, Sk.-Eng. Diet, in loc), so that 
Mrigaciras = "The Spots (stars) in the Head (of Orion)." 

Chi. 5 Tsui, anc. Tsok {= Same stars), "the Spike-of-feathers- 
on-the-head." 

Ar. 5. AI-Hak'' ah {= Samestars), "the Circle-of-hairs," = "the 
Coronet," = "the Plume," = "the Spots," = "the Spike-of-feathers." 

Cop. 5. KIusos (= Same stars), "the Watery," ^ Rainy' (Gk. 
K\vX.o'i, 'flood,' "rise-of-water;" vide Hesych. in ArXj'^e/, ^nrX^^ij.wpi'i^ 
" rise-of-the-sea "). The reference is to Orion as " pluviosus et 
tristis," ' nimbosus,' 'aquosus,' etc. 

VI. 

UNGAL or SAR ("The King") = a Orionis, or possibly the 
seven stars of Orion. The patron-divinity of the asterism is Merodax, 
known as Sarrji, "the King," and aliso hymned as "King of the 
land, king of (all) lands, king of heaven and earth," and "king of 
Babylon " (vide Sayce, Rel. And. Bnbs., 99). Lacouperie observes 
that Orion appears as a " military chief alike in Babylonia and 
China" {Western Origin, p. 340); and Sahu, the Eg. Orion, is "a 
wild hunter," and, with Sopdit (Sirius), the ruler of the starry and 
nocturnal world, hunts "the very gods" (Maspero, T//e Dawn of 
Civilization, Eng. edit., pp. 96-7). 

= Per. 6. Besn (= a Orionis), "the Arm" — of the Giant (Av. 
Mz2/, baliit, Gk. Il/^xi'-^), Bcte/geuze (= Ar. Ibt-al-Jauza), "the 
Giant's armpit." 

Sog. 6. Rashnaivand (=■ (, e, ^ Orionis, the j5^//-stars), " Pos- 
sessing-righteousness." "The star-bespangled Girdle" (Yasna, ix, 
26), explained by Haug (Essays, p. 182) as "the belt of Orion," is 
the asterism apparently specially belonging to the Av. Genius 
Rashnu ('Righteousness' personified, i.e., rectitude, with which these 
three stars, as being in a straight line, are connected), " the Genius of 
Truth" (Darmesteter). This connexion between Rashnu and the 
Be/t-stars further appears from the Av. words raana, ' rank,' racinan, 
'cord,' straight-line,' 'rank-of-soldiers,' from the root raj, rasJi. 

Kho. 6. Khawiya (= Same stars), = Per. Shahrivar, = Av. Khs- 
hathra-vairya ("Perfect-sovereignty," Darmesteter), "the god of 
order " (Haug), a concept akin or equivalent to Rashnu. 

300 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1S95. 

Ind. 6. Baku (= a Orionis), "the Arm" (= Per. 6), later ArdrCi 
("the Wet," cf. Cop. 5). Names such as Ardrd, which refer to local 
climate, are, as of course, later ; and the instance of Baku alone 
would show that the Ind. scheme was not the original product o^ 
that country. 

Chi. 6. Tsan, anc. Sal {= P, c, i^ Orionis), "the Three" (cf. 
R. B., Jr., The Etruscan Numerals, p. 19, List of ' 3 ' words). Said 
to mean ' Together.' 

Cop. 6. Klaria ( = « Orionis), "the Armlet" (Gk. K\ai>a— ylrdXtu, 
Hesych., Lat. Armii/a). Cf. Pec. and Ind. 6. 

VIL 

KHIGALLA ("The Canal") or KHIGAL-AI ("The Canal-of- 
waters ") = //, //, /', 7, f Geminoruni, situate in the "Milky Way." 
Prof. Hommel says, ''Chcgalai (Frucht-barkeitstern) wahrscheinlich 
Denebola (/3 leonis). Oder « im Becher ? oder /3 virginis ? " {Die 
Astrdnomie der alien C/iaidiier, iii, 16). But there is little real 
uncertainty when once the proper order has been obtained. "The 
Canal" primarily refers to the Galaxy. 

= Per. 7. Rakhvad (= //, /^, v, 7, ^ Geminoruin), "the Watery- 
way " (Av. raithya, Per. rah, ' road,' + Av. vaidhya, ' watering '). 
Per. rahi dl>, 'canal,' Rdhi /idjiyan ("the Road of the Pilgrims "), = 
the Via Lactea. 

Sog. 7. Qhathaf (=. Same stars), = Pazand Goshiiri/n, = Av. 
Geush-unid ("the Soul of the Bull"). The following quotation 
from Haug will make this very curious connexion plain, " The Gosh 
Yasht is devoted to a female spirit who is here called Drvaspa, i.e., 
one who keeps horses in health. The name Gosh, ' cow,' which was 
given her in aftertimes, refers to geush urvd, the universal soul by 
which all living beings of the good creation are animated. . . . She 
[Drvaspa] was believed to preserve the life of the good animals. In 
heaven she represents the Milky-way, and in this respect is described 
as having many spies (eyes), having light of her own, having a far 
way, and a long constellation" {Essays, pp. 201 ■2). So Darmesteler: 
"•The Soul of the Bull,' Gojuian or Drvaspa" {Sacred Books of the 
East, xxiii, 245), 

Kho. 7. 6^rra'/^}/(= Same stars), = Sog. G hatha/. 

Chi. 7. Tsing ;inc. Tiam (= A, <:, r, v, ,1, 7 Geminorum), "a AVell" 
— in che middle of divided land. The idea of partition by water has 
been preserved. 

301 ^ 



Dec. 3] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1895. 

Ar. 6. Al-Han'ah {= rj, /u, v, 7, ^ Geminonim), "the Brandmark." 
According to Kazwini, the mansion consists of 7 and ^ Geminorum 
only, described as "two whitish glimmering stars in the Milky Way." 
"This," says Smyth, "is called Alhena, a ring or brand on a horse's 
neck" (^Celestial Cycle, ii, 154). Robertson Smith explains it as 
"apparently the wishing Asterism." But neither of these in'^erpre- 
tations is very satisfactory, and perhaps we should read Al-Qana-t 
("the Canal"). 

VIII. 

PALLIKA or PALURA ("The Crossing of the Water-dog"). 
The Kakkab ^^i^ IH Iy = Prokyon (a Can. Min.). The Ak. pal 
■= As. ebiru, ebur, "to cross," "the crossing." Jjy (Ak. lik, ur) = 
tyyy ^J^*-, As. kal-bu, Heb. keleb, and elsewhere (IV.A./., II, vi, 17) 
we read of Ka-lab-me (J-- f:y][), "the Water-dog"; f]^, Ak. 'a ■= As. 
me, ' water.' To understand the meaning of this name we nmst 
remember the mythic legends respecting the crossing of the Circidus 
Lacteiis, regarded as a river,* by stars. Thus, Mr. Kingsmill says, 
" To the constellation Lyra the Chinese gave the name of the 
Chih-nii (or Weaving Woman), a name still familiar and associated 
with the legend that once a year on the seventh day of the seventh 
moon Altair crosses the celestial river (the Milky Way) to visit Vega " 
{A Comparative Table, p. 61). Similarly, "the Little-dog" (Ar. 
Al-gamtis)\ in idea crossed " the Great Stream " (Milky Way) which 
now lies between him and his brother Cams MaJ., and, hence, 
appears as Ylpa-Kvmv, 'before' the latter. "The Arabs recognized 
its quality of fore-runner to the Dog-star in al-kelb-al-mutekaddem, 
the antecedent dog ; they also called it ghoma'isd, watery-eyed " 
(Smyth, Celestial Cycle, ii, 183). And this connexion between 
Procyon, eighth of first magnitude stars, and water, is the reason why 
names signifying 'watery-eyed,' 'weak-eyed,' ' blear-eyed,' were sub- 
sequently applied to the beautiful star, which, similarly, reappears 
in Greek myth as Mfl?/)a("the Sparkler") — not weak-eyed, " canis 
ululans Mera" (Hyginus, Fabulae, cxxx), the Little-dog which wept 
(= the "Watery-eyed") for the death of its master Ikarios. The 
Derivatives have, rightly enough, not adopted this star in tlieir 

* Vide R. B. , Jr. , The Milky Way in Euphratean Stellar Mythology [Academy, 
Jan., 9, 1892, p. 43). 

t Cf. Ar., i^anias, "dip into water," 'immerse,' 'wet.' 

302 



Dec. 3] PROCEEDINGS. [1895. 

schemes; but, its presence here rnay be illustrated by a passage in 
the Schol. on Genaanicus, which, after speaking of Frocyon, says of 
tlie other stars in Can. Min.y " Reliquae sunt stellae in signorum 
circulo, quern sol peranibulat in XII mensibus " (ap. C. Robert, 
Eratosthenis Cata:terisii:oriitn Reliqtdae., Berlin, 1878, p. 192). A 
Dog seja7it, not saiiefit a.'~> Can. Maj. (vide Proceeding's, March, 1891, 
p. 271, fig. xviii), appears amongst other lunar zodiacal emblems 
on the Boundary Stones. 

IX. 

SUPA ("The Lustrous." Explained as As. Namm, W.A./., V, 
xlvi. No. I, 1. 52, 'the tirilliant") = a and y3 Gewinoruni, Castor 
and Pollux. The name affords an interesting instance of the close 
coanexion between the Ak. and Turco-Tataric languages. 

The Bab. translation prevents any possibility of doubt respecting 
its meaning, and Supa is at once seen to be akin to the Turco- 
Tataric root sub, SUV, su, 'water,' 'lustre,' 'honour,' Uigur sub, 
'lustre,' etc. 

= Per. 8. Taraha {= a, ^ Geminorum), "the (Two) Stars" 
(Av. Cie/ir, ctar, Gk. uaTi]p, Lat. Stella, Per. tara, ' star ; ' cf. 
Gk. re'iiioi, rtpav, found only in plu. lelpea, " the constellations," -|- 
Per. /la, plu. form. Cf. also Per. tozca, tava, ' twin '). 

Sog. 8. Ghamb {= Same stars), "the Twins" (Av. Yinia, Sk. 
Yama,yamau, " twins,' V&x.jani). Cf. the Vedic myth of Yama and 
his twin sister Yami. 

Kho. 8. Jiray (= Same stars), "the Pair" {cf. Vqx. Jiir, 'pair'). 

Ind 7. Punar-oasu (= Same stars), "the Twice-bright," = " the 
Two Bright-ones." 

Ar. 7. Al-Dzira' (= Same stars), "the Arm " (Ar. zird,, 'arm ') — 
of Leo. Speaking about the Ar. constellations, AlbirGni, who says 
that the Arabs " were very far from an accurate knowledge of the 
[solar] zodiacal signs and the star-figures," observes, " according to 
their opinion the f'gure of I^eo extends over the signs Cancer, Leo, 
Virgo, and part of Libra;" and "they consider the two heads of 
Gemini as his outstretched forefoot . . . whilst in reality the matter 
is not what they assume " ( Vestiges, p. 226). 

Cop. 7. Pimafi {= Same starsj, "the Fore-arm" (Cop.//, 'the,' 
-f- Cop. fnaji, Eg. vich, ' forearm '), = Ar. 7. 

{To be continued.) 



Dec. 3] 



bOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCH/IiOLOGY. 



[1S95. 



The Annivefsary Meeting of the Society will be holdcn at 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C, on Tuesda)', 
14th January, 1896, at 8 p.m., when the usual business of the 
Meeting will be transacted. 

A Paper by Dn Gaster will be read. 




304 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 

In 8 Parts. Price Ss. each. With full Illustrations of the Vignettes. 
Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is now Raised to £5 for the 8 Parts. 



tTbe Eo^ptian Book of the IDeab, 

BEING A 

Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes, 

By p. LE page RENOUF, Esq. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ ^tms of ^Blates of tj^e Figncttes of tjbe trifferent <2Df)apters. 



The request having been made by a number of friends that this 
translation, &c,, should be issued in a different form, so as to be a 
separate book, and Mr. Renouf having kindly consented, it is proposed 
to issue a limited number of copies upon large paper, in numbers, at ^s. 
each. Members desirous of obtaining copies should af once communicate 
with the Secretary. The fourth part having been issued, the price is now- 
raised to 1 2s. 6d. a Part. 



tTbe Bronse ©rnaments of tbe 
IP^alace 6ate6 from Balavvat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 



Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to ;£i 10s. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £\ \s. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1895. 



President, 
P. LE Page Rendu f. 

Vke-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of JBute, K.T., &c., &c, 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., D.C.L., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball. 
Arthur Gates. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Charles Harrison, F.S.A. 
Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 
Rev. James Marshall. 
Prof. G. Maspero. 



Claude G. Montefiore. 
Walter L. Nash, F.S.A., &c. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
Alexander Peckover, F.S.A, 
J. Pollard. 
Edward B. Tylor, LL.D.,F.R.S,, 

&c. 
E. TowRY Whyte, M.A. 



Honorary Treasurer — BERNARD T. BOSANQUET. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence— ^'sx . R. GwYNNE, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN S LANE. 



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